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The processes of nutrition

ingestion digestion egestion absorption assimilation

Ingestion
a process by which food is taken in through the mouth a reflex action which is involuntary it occurs when the food is put at the posterior position of the tongue

Teeth Structures
external structure internal structure enamel dentine blood capillaries pulp cavity (pulp tissues) nerve fibres cement gum jaw bone

crown neck root

Teeth Structures
external structure internal structure

crown neck root

enamel - outermost & hardest layer covering the crown (97% Ca, 3% organic matter)

Teeth Structures
external structure internal structure

crown neck root

dentine - hard like bone but softer than enamel

Teeth Structures
external structure internal structure
- supply food & oxygen for growth & maintaining alive

crown neck root

blood capillaries pulp cavity nerve fibres - produce sensation of pain when stimulated

(living tissues)

Teeth Structures
external structure internal structure

crown neck root


cement

- anchor the tooth in its position

Teeth Structures
external structure internal structure gum Periodontal membrane

crown neck root

- fibres attaching tooth to jawbone


jaw bone

Two sets of teeth


milk teeth
in young child before approximately six years old without molar 20 teeth

permanent teeth no replacement for lost 32 teeth (including wisdom teeth)

Types of teeth
Types of Teeth Incisor Canine Premolar & Molar Shape Chisel-like & sharp Functions Biting & cutting food

Pointed, Killing prey & curved & long tearing flesh 2 blunted points of cusps Crushing & grinding food

Dentition
dental formula e.g. Human (permanent set) = 2123 2123 other dentitions :

bacteria together with food remains,


forming plaque bacteria produce acid which dissolves the enamel of tooth acid penetrates into dentine bacteria infect pulp cavity causing toothache

Causes:

Tooth decay

Effect of Acid on a

scraping tooth covered with wax dilute hydrochloric acid

probing

What do you find on the covered and uncovered parts of the tooth ? Ans: The acid dissolves the exposed enamel and leaves a small hole on the uncovered part, but holes do not appear on the covered part.

scraping tooth covered with wax dilute hydrochloric acid

probing

Does the acid take place in causing tooth decay ? Ans: Actually the acid produced by bacteria in the mouth is not very strong. Tooth decay is due to bad habits over a long period of time.

Prevention of Tooth Decay


have a balanced diet (include Ca, P & vitamin D) adding fluoride in water to strengthen the enamel of our teeth (NOT chlorine which kills bacteria in water) avoid sugary food & drinks between meals

Prevention of Tooth Decay


use dental floss (to remove food remain between teeth)

Prevention of Tooth Decay


form a good tooth-cleaning habit by using dental disclosing agent

Prevention of Tooth Decay


brush our teeth at least twice a day replace your toothbrush when it wears out do not bite hard materials have a dental check-up at least once a year

Movement of Food
Mouth: Food chewed by teeth epiglottis mixed with saliva to form bonus swallowed down the oesophagus through pharynx
trachea oesophagus

[Note: Epiglottis (a piece of cartilage) covers the entrance to the trachea while swallowing to prevent food going down into lungs.]

Movement of Food
Oesophagus:
Outer longitudinal & inner circular muscles contract & relax alternately (peristalsis) Push food bolus to stomach
muscle contraction muscle relaxation

A process by which large food molecules are broken down into smaller pieces

Why is digestion needed?

Because:
food pieces and their molecules (e.g. starch, protein & fat) are usually too large to pass through the wall of our body for absorption
(Note: Simple sugars, water, vitamins & minerals are small enough to be absorbed immediately.)

So, food pieces should be broken down into smaller pieces and then into substances with molecular size which is small enough to be absorbed

buccal cavity tongue tooth trachea liver gall bladder pancreas duodenum small intestine ileum appendix

salivary glands epiglottis oesophagus diaphragm cardiac sphincter stomach spleen pyloric sphincter colon caecum rectum anus large intestine

Human Digestive System

Mechanical Digestion
Chewing : break down food into smaller pieces by teeth to increase the surface area for enzyme action (physical digestion)

Chemical Digestion
Enzymatic Reactions which digest food into simpler chemical forms

To show the Differential Permeability of Dialysis Tubing to Starch & Glucose

thread Starchglucose mixture

Test for glucose

Test for starch

Why is it necessary to rinse the dialysis tubing with tap water ? Ans: In order to remove any starch and glucose that may remain on the outside of the dialysis tubing.

thread Starchglucose mixture

Test for glucose

Test for starch

Which food substance is present in water surrounding the dialysis tubing 30 minutes after the beginning of the experiment ? Explain your answer. Ans: Glucose. As dialysis tubing is selectively permeable, starch molecules are too large to pass through the holes in the tubing...

thread Starchglucose mixture

Test for glucose

Test for starch

Which food substance is present in water surrounding the dialysis tubing 30 minutes after the beginning of the experiment ? Explain your answer. Ans: Only glucose molecules are small enough to pass through the dialysis tubing in this experiment.

thread Starchglucose mixture

Test for glucose

Test for starch

Which part of the body is presented by the dialysis tubing and the water in the boiling tube respectively ? Ans: Ileum and blood are represented by the dialysis tubing and water respectively.

Where is food digested?

Sites where digestion occurs:


Alimentary canal (gut)

1. Buccal cavity 2. Stomach 3. Small intestine

How is food digested in these sites?

Digestion in Buccal Cavity


There are 3 pairs of salivary glands Saliva contains water, mucus & enzyme (amylase) Water: moistens dry food Mucus: lubricates food Amylase: digests about 5% of starch in mouth

Action of Amylase on Starch

thermometer after 30 minutes

each test tube test with Benedicts solution test sample with iodine solution

water bath at 37

What are the results of the iodine test and Benedicts test for tube A ? Ans: The result of iodine test is negative while the result of the Benedicts test is positive.

thermometer after 30 minutes

each test tube test with Benedicts solution test sample with iodine solution

water bath at 37

What are the results of the iodine test and Benedicts test for tube B ? Ans: The result of iodine test is positive while the result of the Benedicts test is negative.

thermometer after 30 minutes

each test tube test with Benedicts solution test sample with iodine solution

water bath at 37

What are the results of the iodine test and Benedicts test for tube C ? Ans: The result of iodine test is positive while the result of the Benedicts test is negative.

thermometer after 30 minutes

each test tube test with Benedicts solution test sample with iodine solution

water bath at 37

Why is the temperature of the water bath set at 37 ? Ans: Because enzymes work best at 37 .

thermometer after 30 minutes

each test tube test with Benedicts solution test sample with iodine solution

water bath at 37

What is the action of amylase on starch ? Ans: Amylase is an enzyme in saliva which helps to digest starch into maltose.

thermometer after 30 minutes

each test tube test with Benedicts solution test sample with iodine solution

water bath at 37

What is the effect of boiling on amylase ? Ans: Amylase denatured after boiling.

Chemical Digestion
break down of starch molecules into maltose molecules by salivary amylase (from salivary glands)
salivary glands Starch maltoses

Stomach (Physical Digestion)


Stomach Entrance: Cardiac Sphincter Stomach Exit: Pyloric Sphincter Relaxation of cardiac sphincter & contraction of pyloric sphincter enable storage of food in stomach for a longer period of time

Stomach (Physical Digestion)


Squeezing & churning actions of stomach break down the partly digested food into smaller pieces which forms a semi-fluid called Chyme

Stomach Digestion)

(Chemical

digestive juice : gastric juice (pH 2) (by gastric glands) enzymes : protease break down of protein molecules into polypeptides or dipeptides

hydrochloric acid : to provide acidic medium for maximum activity of enzyme to kill bacteria to stop the activity of salivary amylase
(Stomach wall secretes a mucous layer to cover its inner surface: prevents autodigestion by protease)

Stomach Digestion)

(Chemical

Small Intestine (mainly chemical digestion)


Digestion of various food substances by several kinds of digestive juices Digestive juices found in small intestine: 1. Bile 2. Pancreatic juice 3. Intestinal juice

Bile
with bile salts (not an enzyme) produced in liver stored in gall bladder
liver gall bladder duodenum

transport to duodenum through bile duct take action in duodenum bile pigment (excretory waste from breaking down of haemoglobin)
liver gall bladder

Bile

Bile
- contain bile salts which emulsify lipids into smaller droplets without chemical change ( NOT digest fats) - provide alkaline medium for enzymes to work oil
oil droplets

Effect of Bile Salt on Fat

What happens to the mixtures in tubes A & B ? Ans: In tube A, bile salt emulsifies the vegetable oil to droplets. In tube B, the oil floats on top of water since oil and water do not mix well.
A

10 drops of bile salt solution

shaking 1cm3 of vegetative oil B shaking

observe

observe

What is the action of bile salt on oil ? Ans: The bile salt reduces the surface tension of oil and emulsifies oil to droplets.
A

10 drops of bile salt solution

shaking 1cm3 of vegetative oil B shaking

observe

observe

Pancreatic Juice
produced in pancreas action in duodenum
Pancreas Duodenum

Pancreatic Juice
- contain enzymes of 3 categories: 1. Carbohydrase (Amylase) 2. Proteases 3. Lipases - provide alkaline medium for enzymes to work

starch

pancreatic amylase

maltose

starch

maltose

protein

pancreatic proteases

Dipeptides/ polypeptides

protease dipeptide protein

lipid

pancreatic lipases

glycerol + 3 fatty acids


lipid

lipase fatty acids glycerol

Digestion in ileum
Intestinal Juice
produced and take action in small intestine (duodenum & ileum) to complete the digestion of food duodenum small intestine ileum

Intestinal Juice
- Contain enzymes of 2 categories: 1. Carbohydrase (eg. maltase) 2. Protease

intestinal disaccharides carbohydrase monosaccharides

(eg. maltose)

(eg. glucose)

disaccharide carbohydrase

monosaccharide

dipeptides

intestinal proteases

amino acids

protease

amino acid

Absorption
stomach : absorbs alcohol & drugs ileum : absorbs digested food (with a large amount of water) ( it absorbs the largest amount of water) colon : absorbs water & mineral salts

It is long, with many finger-like villi to provide large surface area for absorption of digested food It has thin wall to decrease the diffusion distance for easy diffusion of food It has well developed transport system (blood capillaries & lacteal) to maintain high concentration gradient for the diffusion of food

Absorption of food in ileum

Structure of a Villus
blood capaillaries villi lacteal Epithelial cell venule arteriole lymph vessel

nucleus fatty acid epithelial cell glycerol glucose amino acid fat capillary

Microvillus lacteal

Transverse Section of a villus showing food absorption

blood capillaries : absorb glucose & amino acids (which are smaller molecules) lacteal : absorb fatty acids & glycerol (which are larger molecules) transport fats (glycerol & fatty acids recombine together after being absorbed) involve both diffusion & active transport

Transportation of absorbed food in villi

caecum & appendix colon no function in human ( small in size) colon absorbs water & mineral salts failure to reabsorb water: Diarrhoea caecum rectum stores faeces temporarily appendix rectum for egestion (defaecation)

Large intestine

Caecum & Appendix in Rabbit


It is very large in size to store plant for long time for bacteria to secrete cellulase to digest cellulose to glucose
The rabbit should re-ingest faeces for absorption of glucose ( absorption of food only proceeds in ileum)

Egestion (Defaecation)
removal of undigested or unabsorbed food substances faeces: semi-solid brown mass (includes undigested food, dead & live bacteria) faeces is temporarily stored in rectum & eventually be expelled through anus

Assimilation
a process which absorbs food incorporated as a part of body cells digested food is transported to liver by hepatic portal vein lacteal transports fat into lymph vessels & then into the bloodstream malfunction of pancreas to secrete insulin: Diabetes

diabetes

Functions of Liver
changes excess blood glucose to glycogen & stores in liver to regulate blood glucose level deaminates excess amino acids to urea which is excreted by kidney to glycogen for energy storage

Functions of Liver
stores vitamins A, D, E, K (which are fat soluble) iron & glycogen changes Carotene to Vitamin A secretes bile for fat emulsification Detoxification: turns mild toxins into harmless substances

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