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-Antonin Novotny had been President of the Czechoslovakian Communist Party since 1957 -Known for his plodding,

taking orders nature, Novotnys policies always tried to walk the middle line between the reformers and conservatives in the state -This proved to be futile because to reformers he was an opposing figure and the conservatives thought he made too many concessions

-Social unrest began in Czechoslovakia because of the Party not addressing the issue of Stalins despotism as well as not rectifying past injustices (Clementis, Slansky trial) -Literature made major developments in the state, with much literary cannonade being directed against Novotny and his collaborators -In the mid 60s Novotny was able to reach an agreement with the intellectuals, with the censors becoming more tolerant, and more freedom of expression being allowed -The opening of the Czechoslovakia to tourists and allowing the Czechs and Slovaks to go abroad allowed for greater exposure to Western ideas and consumer goods, allowing for the seeds of discontent to be sown -Prague also began to develop in the 60s as the hippy/beatnik capital of Eastern Europe, with increased social consciousness and need for national autonomy being expressed
-------- http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/155500.stm

-Novotnys control began to slip with the poor handling of a student protest by the Communist Party: in March 1968, Ludvik Svoboda replaced him as president -Slovakian Alexander Dubeck came into power as First Secretary after the party called the need for change and restoration of the nations confidence in them -With Dubeck as First Secretary, he implemented an Action Programme with included liberalizations including the freedom of the press, emphasizing consumer goods as well as having a more democratic multi-party government -Dubeck wanted these liberalizations to proceed under the governments direction, but there was a lot of popular pressure to implement reforms, with Social Democrat beginning to form a separate party -Conservatives in the party called for more repressing measures, while Dubeck advised a moderate approach and emphasis on Party leadership

-Sovietization of Czech economy disastrous -Before becoming a part of the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakians were known for their consumer goods; after the war and the USSR, became the processing appendage of the Soviet economy -Before Soviets took over, Czechoslovakia had been among the wealthiest of Eastern European states -In 60s, commodities in decline, standard of living lower, caused discontent -Industry grossly maladjusted in terms of its home and foreign markets & insufficient, mismanagement problems -Citizens upset over the lower living standards, the collapsing industries, scarcity (implementations of meatless Thursdays etc.) -After Dubeck came to power, Action Programme promised economic reforms

-Citizens had renewed hope in the 1968 Olympics (Ice Hockey), sports allowed the people to gather and cheer for their national team (national pride); wanted to defeat Soviet team because of Soviet invasion; the Czechoslovakian team won the Soviets in the first round, celebration there was finally a way for the people to openly express their sentiments; celebrations led to riots against Soviet military, suppressed by Soviet forces; during the period of normalization, Czechoslovakians saw hockey games as a way to protest Soviet invasion -During the Warsaw Invasion, around 80 were killed and hundreds were wounded -Political martyrs were commonly seen in April 1968 -Following the crisis, a wave of emigation occurred, most of those involved were highly educated or highly qualified

-Dubcek wanted to establish a more liberal version of socialism -Was the Warsaw Pact invasion (supported by the Brezhnev Doctrine), Soviets wanted to suppress the revival of a liberal socialism (Czechoslovakic Social Democrat Party) in fear that the ideology would spread to the Ukraine and the USSR -Bratislava Declaration the Soviet Union made her stance clear by declaring that military intervention would be immediate if any satellite country decides to install a multiparty system -Brezhnev Doctrine no country was allowed to leave the Warsaw Pact as each country is responsible to the Soviet Bloc, used as a justification for the invasion of Czechoslovakia [1] -Alexander Dubcek was arrested following the 650, 000 [2] troop invasion of the Warsaw Pact and communist leaders restored into power -------- [1] Ouimet, Matthew: The Rise and Fall of the Brezhnev Doctrine in Soviet Foreign Policy. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill and London. 2003. [2] http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/timeline/68prague.html

Immediate -After the invasion, people soon became apathetic and indifferent (even more so than before). People who resisted before now stopped caring: They started to fear one another and stopped expressing themselves freely. It was a very demoralizing time[1] -About 150 000 Czechs and Slovaks fled, yet many stayed to continue their protests -Eastern Bloc troops remained in Czechoslovakia to ensure counter-revolutionary forces were quelled and stability was achieved[2]

Long Term -During the normalization much construction focused on building pre-fabricating housing districts on outskirts of cities. The cement housing reflects unhappy time of the nation (impoverished state of citizens left many unsatisfied for what government have promised to do) ------- [1] CNN Interview with Vaclav Havel (Czech President who was a prominent participant in Prague Spring) http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/ cold.war/episodes/14/interviews /havel/ [2] Library Think Quest- Prague Spring 1968 http://library.thinkquest.org/C00 1155/index1.htm

Immediate -Leader such as Dubcek were apprehended and taken to Moscow at the end of the August invasion. Dubcek would be banned for 20 years[1] -Many people resisted, but the Soviets issued a protocol to ban all organizations which they saw to violate socialist principles[2] -Reformists tried to preserve some of their reform achievements, such as autonomy for Slovakia: In October, the Czech National Assembly approved the law to create a Czechoslovak Federation (Czechoslovakia to be divided into two separate Czech and Slovak Republics) However, in March 1969, the Federal Assembly undermined the previous amendment, making state administration once again centralized. [3] -Many political purges of occurred in 1969-1970, removing thousands from their jobs[4]

[1] RPs History Online- Prague Spring http://archiv.history.cz/history/history14.html [2] BBC News Europe Remember Prague Spring http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/155500.stm [3] RPs History Online [4] RP History Online

Long Term -New Communist Government during the period of normalization (1970s and 80s) was one of the most repressive of all satellite states[1] -Opposition to Soviet Rule is pushed underground -Charter 77 (1977) signed. Opposition to the normalization occurring. Criticized government for being unable to implement the human rights provisions under the Constitution, as well as United Nations agreements[2] -Communists were ousted on November 24, 1989: Dubcek became the chairman of the new administration of Czechoslovakia in what is known as the Velvet Revolution[3]
--------- [1] RP History Online [2] RP History Online [3] BBC ON THIS DAY (1968) Russia brings