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QUALITY BY DESIGN

Prepared By -Vishal Shinde(166) -Jyoti H Khadse(188) -Shailesh Thorat(231)

Quality By Design vs Sequential Engineering


Sequential engineering is a process of traditional methods Quality of design is a concurrent engineering. It consist of team of specialists who simultaneously design and develop product to ensure ease of producibility and customer satisfaction. Difference between communication models

Sequential Engineering Method Of Working Lead Time Cost Traditional Method Longer Higher

Quality by Design Concurrent Engineering Shorter Lesser

Quality of products
Changes Technology

Poor
Throughout life cycle of product Simple

Better
At the initial stage of Design Expert

Double Hump Camel Due to Sequential Engineering

Communication Models

Product Development Time at different Stages

Quality By Design Approach


IMPLEMENTATION Its a changing the way Managers think & Conduct Business It helps control Design changes By shifting all the design to the beginning of the project rather than throughout its life cycle. BENEFITS Faster product Development Better Quality Less work in progress Increased productivity Quicker response to customer needs Chain reaction of customer satisfaction

Design for Six sigma


Its a refinement of quality by Design STEPS Define the project goals and customer deliverables. Measure and determine customer needs and specifications Analyze to generate innovative concepts,evaluate and select best among them Design Details,Optimze,plan for design verification & validation,if required simulations Verify & Validate design relibility & capability to meet customer requirements

Team Structure & The Role of Top management


Top down commitment of team members towards projects. Avoid problems among team members Leadership skills Allow the dynamics of the team to evolve & react quickly to changes. Ex. A 15 member improvement team at Pacific Bell

Implementation of Quality by Design


Top down Commitment to quality for the entire process is key to the success of quality by design Allow communication channels to open Regular meetings at set intervals Co-located team

Design tools??
Tools: A model that can be used by a design team to evaluate and discuss in terms of design options CAD and CAM- bridged gap between rapid prototypes and design A proper mix of tools- reduction in lead times

Chronology of Tools
1980-1990: Desktop PCs and Graphics capabilities Typewriters suffered a setback The old paper and pencil techniques were not as effective as these software programs. In 1990, even the smallest organization had a PC based finite element software package

ORGANIZATIONAL TOOLS
Total Quality Management Philosophies Computer Networks ISO-9000 ISO-14000 Total Productive Maintenance TQM Quality Function Deployment QFD Information Technology Electronic Meeting Software EMS Enterprise Resource Planning Software ERP

CN- LAN and Global Information Networks ISO- ISO 9000(QMS), is a standardized quality system and ISO 14000(EMS), is a standardized environmental management Total Productive Maintenance- is a system to keep a plant at its highest production level QFD- defined as a perfect blueprint for quality relates customer requirements or expectations EMS- allows individuals to communicate in a group in a more structured way

ERP- unites several applications (Finance, HR, sales, materials procurement, manufacturing, so on ) within a management of a company under the umbrella of one software PDM, Product Data Management , a subset of ERP, is also used for design reviews and approvals, transforming conceptual designs into end products Furthermore like HTML, XML language is used for these tools, doing wonders .

Product Development Tools


Computer Aided Drafting Solid Modeling / Geometric Modeling Finite Analysis Software FEA Parametric Analysis Software Rapid Prototyping Techniques Design for Manufacture and Assembly Design for Reliability Design for Maintainability or serviceability Failure Mode and Effect analysis

CAD
Used foe Engineering drawings, in views- planar, isometric, 3 dimensional , etc. An easy way to incorporate changes in the drawings It is Compatible with production software and hardware This drawings can be used in FEA, CAM, CNC machines, etc.

SOLID Modeling
Visual verification of components or system of components 3 dimensional Solid modeling can provide an insight on the problems between part interactions

FEA
Most powerful tool for an Engineer
Analyzes and optimizes the response of a system prior to prototype development and testing Encompasses all Engineering fields like solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, vibrations and Electromagnetics

Parametric Analysis
Extension of FEA and Solid modeling
Design changes can be costly and time consuming and laborious too PAS allows user the ability to automate any changes by making decisions regarding specified functions, variables and selected analysis criteria

It works on part libraries and design optimization

Rapid Prototyping Techniques


Used to produce a quick, physical one piece model of a component or product 6 types- STL- Stereolithography SGC-Solid Ground Curling SLS-Selective Laser Sintering FDM-Fused Deposition Modeling DSPC-Direct Shell Production Casting LOM- Laminated Object Method Exact geometrical replicas of an engineering design is produced in less time than traditional machining process But cannot produce a model with realistic mechanical characteristics

Design for Manufacture and Assembly DFMA


Philosophy that identifies production and assembly problems Problems- excessive costs due to complexity, number of parts, difficult assembly procedures, increased assembly times, and unreasonable or unwanted tolerances
Cost effective technique

DFR
Reliability is built in the design Following tools are used1. Failure mode and effect analysis 2. Stress strength analysis 3. Part selection 4. Derating- to increase reliability 5.Accelerated life testing- to reduce test duration 6.MEOST- Multiple Environment Open Seas Testapplies combined loads to all failure modes in the lab tests

Design for Maintainability


Low fastener count

Low tool count


Predictable Maintenance Schedules One step service functions Provide diagnostics and monitoring facilities

PRODUCTION TOOLS
Robotics CAM Computer Numerical Controlled Tools Continuous Process Improvement Just in time Production Virtual Manufacturing Software Agile/ Lean Manufacturing Advanced Measurement and Verification

Robotics
Merits- Advanced welding operations, tolerance verification, material handling and precision paintings on automobile assembly line Increased Applications like rescue operations, mining etc. Cost can be prohibitive at times

CAM
After design made by CAD, it identifies the machine tools path and other production parameters to optimize the machining of a part Parameters are based on part geometry, size, dimensions and tolerances, and materials Parameters like, machine tool feed rates, stock required, bit size, and optimum tool paths

Computer Numerical Controlled Tools CNCs


Machine tools like lathe, mills, and presses that are completely controlled by a microprocessor are called CNC machine tools
Specialized Computer languages like G&M codes and Coordinate locations can be used for programming CNC machines User friendly interfaces

Just in time Production


A process controlled method, that provides parts, components and assemblies to production at the exact times they are needed Results in less inventory, less work, shorter lead times Reduction in floor space,, less overhead and most importantly, reduction in cost. Choosing suppliers with good product and service also fall under this.

Virtual Manufacturing Software


It enables production Engineers to create a factory on their desktops
Simulation pertaining to each processes can be done Helps to analyze and debug production facilities prior to the capital equipment investment

Agile / Lean
Incorporates versatility in the rapidly changing and competitive marketplace Changes can be made easily in less time It recently gave rise to Flexible Manufacturing Systems, also called as manufacturing cells and centers These cells are capable of doing multiple machining operations, materials handling, and so on

Advanced Measurement and Verification


Brought together the worlds of Computer-oriented product development tools and computer oriented manufacturing tools Coordinate Measuring Machines can automatically measure 3 dimensional object and transfer the data back and forth to CAD for measurement, alignment, dimensioning and verification

STATISTICAL TOOL
Statistical tool that covers all aspects of design, testing & production are: 1. Statistical tolerance stack up analysis 2. Reliability & life data analysis 3. Design of experiments 4. Response surface methods 5. Statistical process control

STATISTICAL TOOL (cont..)


Statistical tolerance stack up analysis Prevents functional or assembly problems due to incorrect tolerance. Stimulations before actual manufacturing in order to avoid any problems. Reliability & life data analysis Measures mean time between the failure (MTBF) or B10 Important to draw conclusion regarding reliability validation.

STATISTICAL TOOL (cont..)


Design of Experiments (DOE) Identifies variables in the process that are critical or cause significant variation in the process Changes to process / product are implemented in random or by planned & structured fashion. Approaches
1. 2. 3. Classical Taguchi shainin

Response surface method (RSM)

To optimize solution of DOE if response is nonlinear Statistical process control (SPC) To monitor process variation & problems DOE should precede SPC

Pitfalls Of Quality By Design Tool


Expert & Experience employees
Technical people in quality by design group Resources & capital investment for professional employment development Increase in employee retention & satisfaction

Examples of Tools (Quality By Design)


1. 2. Boeing 777: - Saved $20 Million & create another $ 10 million business Aircraft Industry: F-22 by Lockheed Martin: cost for communication & navigation system reduced by $ 0.5 million per plane. Man-hour reduced from 96 to 1.5. X-32 by Boeing: Scrap reduction using automate tool paths before metal cutting Iomega Corp.: - Easy manufacturability in HipZip digital music player Harley Davidson: - JIT, successful TPM, computer aided manufacturing, design for manufacturing & assembly. BMWs X5 SUV: - using CAD, reduced vehicle development time, tighter manufacturing tolerance to respond faster to customer needs.

3. 4. 5.

Examples of Tools (Quality By Design)(Cont..)


6. Big three Automakers:GM: reduce assembly time by 33% Fort: Mustang was redesign in just 35 months Plymouth Neon: 300 fasteners are used instead of 650 - first profitable small cars 7. GE:- Ground based radar system: 60% reduction in engineering & testing time 8. Ingersoll Rand corporation:- Air powered grinder designed in 1 year instead of 4 years 9. Lamb Technicon:- By virtual manufacturing software time required to program the robots was reduced from 1600 to 300 man-hours.

Misconceptions
1) Not simultaneous design & production.
2) Not quick to success:- Development of technical expertise. 3) Not requires multiple tests, but one pass design

4) Products are designed well to facilitate Statistical Process Control (SPC)

To Avoid Pitfalls
Avoid promising to meet an unobtainable schedule. Avoid using tight tolerance & requirements to obtain one pass design Avoid changing product definition 7 specification during design phase Avoid business as usual parts vendoring by using low bidder Avoid automating the product development phase before it is simplified.

Summary
Requires major change from over the wall to simultaneous engineering Quality by design can be more effective when combined with production tools such as robotics, computer aided manufacturing, JIT. To prevent pitfalls of quality by design, building over the sequential engineering rather than completely eliminating & promising unobtainable schedule is needed.

Thanks