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What is PR
Why PR History of PR What is a PR Campaign

What is PR ?
Public relations is all about reputation. It's the practice of creating, promoting or maintaining goodwill and a favourable image among the public, towards an organisation, service, product or people. It is the art of communicating the right message/s to an audience through appropriate mediums.

The first World Assembly of Public Relations Associations, was held in Mexico City in August 1978. It defined the practice of public relations as "the art and social science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counselling organizational leaders, and implementing planned programs of action, which will serve both the organization and the public interest.
Public Relations goes much beyond Publicity.

Public Relations is also viewed as a management function

that aims to achieve a mutually beneficial relationship between an organisation and its stakeholders / public Unlike advertising or marketing, with which it is often confused, professional public relations is more soft sell than hard sell It emphasizes information and persuasion as opposed to packaging and paid media, diplomacy as opposed to force It's this third-party endorsement that gives PR its power and credibility PR and Advertising are two sides of the same coin and both form a part of the larger marketing function

Edward L. Bernays
"Public Relations is a management function

which tabulates public attitudes, defines the policies, procedures and interest of an organization followed by executing a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance."

Robert L. Heath "Public Relations is a set of management, supervisory, and technical functions that foster an organization's ability to strategically listen to, appreciate and respond to those persons whose mutually beneficial relationships with the organization are necessary if it is to achieve its missions and

the management of communication between an

organization and its publics (Grunig & Hunt, Managing public relations,1984) using communication to adapt relationships between organizations and their publics (Carl H. Botan International public relations: Critique and reformulation in Public Relations Review, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1992: 149-152) historically, most PR has been weak propaganda (Kevin Moloney, Rethinking PR: The Spin and the Substance, 2000)

Why PR
Effective, consistent and sustained communications Maintaining ongoing interest in and a better understanding of the

organization/product/services Maintaining goodwill Maximizing ROI in marketing activities advertising to exhibitions Keep the morale of the internal audience high while addressing the prospective employees Positive contribution to business success Crisis communications In a nutshell to generate support, trust, enhance reputation; ultimately to maximize material or other benefits through generating a more conducive social environment

Who then is your target audience

So PR is a versatile and creative marketing tool that

encourages the use of a wide range of methods in order to get a message across to a target audience in the most efficient manner

Typical TA
Consumers Employees / Prospective Employees Partners Government & quasi govt. bodies Prospective Investors & Shareholders Regulatory bodies

History of PR
Its older than you think

As old as civilization
Informing People Persuading People

Integrating with People

PR &Public Opinion
1641 Harvard University initiated the first fund

raising campaign supported by a brochure New Englands First Fruits 1758 Kings College issues a press release announcing graduation courses 1763 Samuel Adams during the American Revolution 1789 1869- Amos Kendall: First Presidential Press Secretary to Andrew Jackson 1810 1891- P T Barnum: Considered the Master of Press Agentry

PR &Public Opinion
1904 Ivy Lee considered by many the father of PR Formed an Agency with partner George Parker (Parker& Lee) Created the press release Crisis Communications for Penn Rail Road John D Rockefeller Edward Bernays Nephew of Sigmund Freud believed in

messaging influencing audiences

Staged media events and had third party spokespeople Campaigns such as Freedom torches and Lights Golden

Jubilee Wrote the first PR book Crystallizing Public Opinion

Arthur Page, vice President AT&T insisted on PR to be an

integral part of the management function

Excerpts from Ivy Lee's Declarations of Principles

"This is not a secret press bureau. All our work is done in the open. We aim to supply news. "This is not an advertising agency. If you think any of our matter ought properly to go to your business office, do not use it. "Our matter is accurate. Further details on any subject treated will be supplied promptly, and any editor will be assisted most carefully in verifying directly any statement of fact. ... "In brief, our plan is frankly, and openly, on behalf of business concerns and public institutions, to supply the press and public of the United States prompt and accurate information concerning subjects which it is of value and interest to the public to know about."

Propaganda (1928)
In Propaganda (1928), Bernays argued that the manipulation of public opinion was a necessary part of democracy:
The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country. ...We are governed, our minds are moulded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. This is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organized. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society. ...In almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by the relatively small number of persons...who understand the mental processes and social patterns of the masses. It is they who pull the wires which control the public mind.

PRs Uses Throughout History

Promote wars Lobby for political causes Support political parties Promote religion Sell products Raise money Publicize events and people

Stages in PR
First Stage of PR in the USA Preliminary (1600-1799, Initial colonization and American Revolution)
Development of channels of communication Development of PR tactics such as publicity, promotion, press

agentry PR used to sell real estate (50 acres free to anyone who brought a new settler to America) and raise $ in colonies (colleges used brochures, press releases, sponsorships) PR used to promote American Revolution (heroes, slogans, newsletters, parades, songs, publicity), Constitution and Bill of Rights

Stages in PR
Second Stage of PR in the USA Communicating/initiating (1800-1899 Civil War, Western expansion, Industrial Revolution)
Government: first press secretary, PR used in

presidential campaigns, activist groups Development: Land promoted by making Daniel Boone a legendary figure, Greeley editorial in NY Tribune (Go west, young man, and grow up with the country) Entertainment: P.T. Barnum, hoax by Washington Irving Education: Yale had PR and alumni office

Stages in PR
Communicating/initiating (1800-1899 Civil War, Western expansion, Industrial Revolution)
Business: Newspapers became a true mass medium with

Linotype invention, companies realized they had to care about public (The public be damnedW.H. Vanderbilt), financial reports issued, companies creating press departments, department stores Press agents: had a talent for making news, exploited freaks for circuses, invented legends for politicians, told lies to get attention Publicists: Tried to plant stories in newspapers, hiding source

Stages in PR
Third Stage of PR in the USA Reacting/responding (1900 1939: Progressive Era, Muckrakers, WW I, Depression)
Publicists as spokespeople Muckrakers: Upton Sinclairs depiction of meat-packing

industry in The Jungle Founding of national consumer groups Industry had to respond. Could not ignore public and press. First PR specialists came from newspapers. First publicity firm (Publicity Bureau) founded in Boston in 1900. Publicity valuable for public service orgs like YMCA, American Red Cross, Marine Corps.

Stages in PR
Third Stage of PR in the USA Reacting/responding (1900 1939: Progressive Era, Muckrakers, WW I, Depression)
WWI: British urged U.S. to get involved, U.S. entered war

with massive PR effort, newspapers gave free ad space, college professors were four-minute men, citizens encouraged to conserve food 1920s: scientific interest in public opinion, companies wanted to know what publics wanted Depression/New Deal: PR suffered, had to convince people that prosperity was around the corne Presidents used the press: Coolidges photo op, Wilsons press conferences

Stages in PR
Fourth Stage of PR in the USA Planning/preventing (1940 1979)
WW II: More sophisticated PR effort, War Advertising

Council for support and $, use of film for PR (by govt and Hollywood) Maturing of public relations

First full School of Public Relations established at BU in 1947, PR associations developed

1950s: Booming economy, PR grew too, women entered

field, business encouraged to reinvest in society, TV impacted growth of PR

Stages in PR
Fourth Stage of PR in the USA Planning/preventing (1940 1979)
1960s and 1970s: More responsibility for PR in corporate

structure, time of great crisis and change (civil rights, nukes, space program, Vietnam, womens rights, Watergate), MLK Jr. used PR techniques that produced social change in the 1960s, activists used PR Consumerism: advanced rights and interests of consumers, business was the enemy Texas Gulf Sulphur case (1973) required immediate disclosure of info that might affect market value of stock. Mobil sponsored Masterpiece Theatre and launched aggressive ad program.

Stages in PR
Fifth Stage of PR in the USA Professionalism (1980 Present)
Reagan: great communicator, Teflon president, permanent

campaign, controlled, photo ops Integrated communication: mergers Global: Technology, cultural awareness, need for coordination and consistency AIDS awareness Challenger explosion on Jan. 28, 1986 Development of a Body of Knowledge, code of ethics, PR education Desktop computers: improved look of in-house materials WWW: new medium for PR, changed media relations Downsizing created more freelancers, Growth in ethnic PR orgs

Applications of PR
Product image
Crisis management Reputation management Issue management Investor relations and labour relations Grassroots PR Mould opinions

All of the above can form a part of a PR campaign or campaigns can be designed to address each of the above

Broad Categories
Trade Product Services B2B Addressing channel partners Consumer
Corporate Issue / Information

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