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ANIMAL DIVERSITY

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Animalia Basic Characteristics Eukaryotic

Multicellular
Ingestive (heterotrophic)

Reproduced sexually and asexually


Motile Invertebrate vs vertebrates
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Invertebrate

Are animals that lack a backbone

Account for 95% of known animal species

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Exploring invertebrate diversity Major Phyla


1. Porifera- sponges 2. Cnidarian jellyfishes, sea anemones and their kin, and Hydra 3. Platyhelminthes-Turbellaria ( Planaria), Trematoda (liver and blood flukes); Cestoda (tapeworms) 4. Annelida- earthworm 5. Mollusca6. Arthropods7. Nematoda 8. Echinodermata 9. Chordata
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Phylum Porifera
Live in both fresh and marine waters Lack true tissues and organs

Most sponges are hermaphrodites


each individual functions as both male and female Sponges are suspension feeders Capturing food particles suspended in the water that passes through their body

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Phylum Cnidaria
Have diversified into a wide range of both sessile (polyp) and floating (medusa) forms includes jellies, corals, sea anemones and hydras A single opening= functions as both mouth and anus

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Cnidarians are carnivores


That use tentacles to capture prey

The tentacles are armed with cnidocytes


Unique cells that function in defense and the capture of prey Prey
Tentacle
Trigger Discharge Of thread

Nematocyst
Coiled thread
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Cnidocyte

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Four major classes


Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Cubozoa, and Anthozoa

(b)jellies

(a)

. The largest scyphozoans have tentacles more than 100 m long dangling from a bellshaped body up to 2 m in diameter.

c) The sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri). Its poison, which can subdue fish and other large prey, is more potent than cobra venom.

d) Sea anemones exist only as polyps.

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Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)


Live in marine, freshwater, and damp terrestrial habitats Are flattened dorsoventrally and have a gastrovascular cavity

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Major classes 1) Turbellaria - Planaria, free-living forms, mostly marine and carnivorous , has two eyespots (ex. Dugesia) 2) Trematoda - liver and blood flukes parasitic 3) Cestoda - tapeworms parasitic,

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Assignment: Give the common name and class

1.Planaria 2. Fasciola hepatica

3.Schistosoma japonicum 4. Taenia solium 5.Dipylidium caninum


Note: Will be included in the quiz.
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Turbellarian Turbellarians
Are nearly all free-living and mostly marine

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The best-known turbellarians, commonly called planarians


Have light-sensitive eyespots and centralized nerve nets
Pharynx. The mouth is at the tip of a muscular pharynx that extends from the animals ventral side. Digestive juices are spilled onto prey, and the pharynx sucks small pieces of food into the gastrovascular cavity, where digestion continues. Digestion is completed within the cells lining the gastrovascular cavity, which has three branches, each with fine subbranches that provide an extensive surface area. Undigested wastes are egested through the mouth.

Gastrovascular cavity

Eyespots

Ganglia. Located at the anterior end of the worm, near the main sources of sensory input, is a pair of ganglia, dense clusters of nerve cells.

Ventral nerve cords. From the ganglia, a pair of ventral nerve cords runs the length of the body.

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Trematodes
parasitize humans Spend part of their lives in snail hosts

A pair of adult worms of the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni; the more slender female worm resides in the gynecophoral canal of the male
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Tapeworm Tapeworms
Are also parasitic and lack a digestive system

Proglottids with reproductive structures


200 m

Scolex

Hooks Sucker

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Rotifers Rotifers, phylum Rotifera


Are tiny animals that inhabit fresh water, the ocean, and damp soil

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Nemerteans Members of phylum Nemertea


Are commonly called proboscis worms or ribbon worms

Figure 33.15
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Phylum Mollusca
have a muscular foot, a visceral mass, and a mantle Includes snails and slugs, oysters and clams, and octopuses and squids Most are marine; some inhabit fresh water and some are terrestrial are soft-bodied and protected by a hard shell Most have separate sexes with gonads located in the visceral mass The life cycle includes a ciliated larval stage called a trochophore

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4 major classes

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Class Polyplacophora : Chitons


Oval-shaped marine animals encased in an armor of eight dorsal plates

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Gastropods About three-quarters of all living species of molluscs


Slugs lack a shell Or have a reduced shell

(a) A land snail

(b) A sea slug. Nudibranchs, or sea slugs, lost their shell during their evolution.
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The most distinctive characteristic of this class


Is a developmental process known as torsion, which causes the animals anus and mantle to end up above its head Stomach
Mantle cavity Anus Intestine

Mouth

Figure 33.19

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Class Bivalvia: Bivalves


Include many species of clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops Have a shell divided into two halves

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Class Cephalopoda: Cephalopods includes squids and octopuses


Carnivores with beak-like jaws surrounded by tentacles of their modified foot

(b) Squids

(a) Octopuses.

(c) Chambered nautiluses

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Phylum Annelida

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Phylum Annelida: 3 classes

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Oligochaetes Oligochaetes (class Oligochaeta)


Are named for their relatively sparse chaetae, or bristles made of chitin Include the earthworms and a variety of aquatic species

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Class Polychaeta: Polychaetes


Possess paddlelike parapodia that function as gills and aid in locomotion

Parapodia

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Class Hirudinea: Leeches


Are blood-sucking parasites, such as leeches

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Phylum Nematoda: roundworms Nematodes are nonsegmented covered by a tough cuticle Among the most widespread of all animals, nematodes, or roundworms
Are found in most aquatic habitats, in the soil, in moist tissues of plants, and in the body fluids and tissues of animals

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Phylum Nematoda: nematodes The cylindrical bodies are covered by a tough coat called a cuticle Some species- important parasites of plants and animals

25 m
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Ex. Ascaris lumbricoides Trichuris trichura

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Phylum Arthropoda: arthropods are segmented ; have an exoskeleton and jointed appendages
Are found in nearly all habitats of the biosphere

The diversity and success of arthropods


Are largely related to their segmentation, hard exoskeleton, and jointed appendages

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Early arthropods, such as trilobites`

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The body of an arthropod


Is completely covered by the cuticle, an exoskeleton made of chitin

When an arthropod grows


It molts its exoskeleton in a process called ecdysis

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Molecular evidence now suggests


That living arthropods consist of four major lineages that diverged early in the evolution of the phylum

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subphylum Cheliceriformes : Cheliceriforms


Are named for clawlike feeding appendages called chelicerae Include spiders, ticks, mites, scorpions, and horseshoe crabs

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Most of the marine cheliceriforms are extinct


But some species survive today, including the horseshoe crabs

Figure 33.30
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Class arachnida: spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites Most modern cheliceriforms are arachnids

50 m

(a) Scorpions have pedipalps that are pincers (b) Dust mites are ubiquitous scavengers in (c) Web-building spiders are generally most active during the daytime. specialized for defense and the capture of human dwellings but are harmless except food. The tip of the tail bears a poisonous to those people who are allergic to them stinger. (colorized SEM).

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Subphylum Myriapoda: Myriapods Class Diplopoda: Millipedes class Chilopoda Centipedes,

Have a large number of legs Each trunk segment has two pairs of legs

Are carnivores with jaw-like mandibles Have one pair of legs per trunk segment

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Subphylum Hexapoda: Insects and relatives (


Live in almost every terrestrial habitat and in fresh water Class insecta (insects) are classified into about 26 orders

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ORDER Blattodea Coleoptera Dermaptera Diptera Hemiptera Hymenoptera Isoptera Lepidoptera Odonata Orthoptera

cockroach beetle Earwig Flies; Horsefly True bugs, cicadas, planthoppers, leafhoppers Wasp, bees, ants termites Moth and butterflies Dragonflies/damselfies Grasshoppers, crickets, locust

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ORDER

Phthiraptera

Siphonaptera Thysanura Phasmida

Human Body louse Flea Silverfish

Walking stick

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Crustaceans While arachnids and insects thrive on land


Crustaceans, for the most part, have remained in marine and freshwater environments

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Crustaceans, subphylum Crustacea


Typically have biramous, branched, appendages that are extensively specialized for feeding and locomotion

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Class decapoda: decapods=large crustaceans


And include lobsters, crabs, crayfish, and shrimp

(a) Ghost crabs (genus Ocypode) live on sandy ocean beaches worldwide. Primarily nocturnal, they take shelter in burrows during the day.
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Barnacles are a group of mostly sessile crustaceans


Whose cuticle is hardened into a shell

Figure 33.38c

(c) The jointed appendages projecting from the shells of these barnacles capture organisms and organic particles suspended in the water.

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Phylum Echinodermata: echinoderms Includes sea and other echinoderms,


May seem to have little in common with phylum Chordata, which includes the vertebrates

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Living echinoderms are divided into six classes

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Class Asteroidea: Sea Stars Sea stars, class Asteroidea


Have multiple arms radiating from a central disk

(a) A sea star (class Asteroidea)


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Class Ophiuroidea : Brittle Stars Brittle stars have a distinct central disk
And long, flexible arms

(b) A brittle star (class Ophiuroidea)


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Class Echinoidea: Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars have no arms


But they do have five rows of tube feet that function in movement

(c) A sea urchin (class Echinoidea)


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Class Crinoidea: Feather star Feather stars


Crawl about using their long, flexible arms

(d) A feather star (class Crinoidea)

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Class Holothuroidea: Sea Cucumbers Sea cucumbers


Upon first inspection do not look much like other echinoderms Lack spines, and their endoskeleton is much reduced

(e) A sea cucumber (class Holothuroidea)


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Class Concentricycloidea: Sea Daisies Sea daisies were discovered in 1986


And only three species are known in the genus Xyloplax : X. janetae, X. medusiformis X. turneae

(f) A sea daisy (class Concentricycloidea)


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Chordates Chordates
Phylum Chordata

Consists of two subphyla of invertebrates

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Three major Subphyla Urochordata (tunicates), Cephalochordata (cephalochordates) and

Vertebrata (vertebrates)= Craniata


Only the vertebrates possess a vertebral column or backbone which replaces the notochord in adult form. The vertebrate subphylum is sometimes referred to as "Craniata", as all members do possess a cranium or braincase.
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Classes of Subphylum Vertebrata Class Agnatha ::jawless fishes such as lamprey and hagfish Class Chondrichthyes:: cartilaginous fishes such as shark and stingray Class Osteichthyes:: bony fishes such as milkfish and seahorse

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Subphylum Vertebrata: classes Class Amphibia (amphibians such frogs, salamanders, caecilians); Class Reptilia (reptiles such as lizard, snake and crocodile); Class Aves (birds such as eagle, penguin and ostrich); and Class Mammalia (mammals such as kangaroo, bats, whale, carabao and monkey).

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The end

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A summary of animal phyla

Table 33.7
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Read: Trematodes that parasitize humans


Spend part of their lives in snail hosts
1 Mature flukes live in the blood vessels of the human intestine. A female fluke fits into a groove running the length of the larger males body, as shown in the light micrograph at right. Male

Female

5 These larvae penetrate the skin and blood vessels of humans working in irrigated fields contaminated with infected human feces.

1 mm 2 Blood flukes reproduce sexually in the human host. The fertilized eggs exit the host in feces.

3 The eggs develop in water into ciliated larvae. These larvae infect snails, the intermediate hosts. 4 Asexual reproduction within a snail results in another type of motile larva, which escapes from the snail host.

Snail host

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ORDER
Blattodea
4,000

APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES

MAIN CHARACTERISTICS

EXAMPLES

Cockroaches have a dorsoventrally flattened body, with legs modified for rapid running. Forewings, when present, are leathery, whereas hind wings are fanlike. Fewer than 40 cockroach species live in houses; the rest exploit habitats ranging from tropical forest floors to caves and deserts.

German

cockroach
Japanese beetle

Coleoptera

350,000

Beetles comprise the most species-rich order of insects. They have two pairs of wings, one of which is thick and leathery, the other membranous. They have an armored exoskeleton and mouthparts adapted for biting and chewing. Beetles undergo complete metamorphosis.

Dermaptera

1,200

Earwigs are generally nocturnal scavengers. While some species are wingless, others have two pairs of wings, one of which is thick and leathery, the other membranous. Earwigs have biting mouthparts and large posterior pincers. They undergo incomplete metamorphosis.

Earwig
Diptera
151,000 Dipterans have one pair of wings; the second pair has become modified into balancing organs called halteres. Their head is large and mobile; their mouthparts are adapted for sucking, piercing, or lapping. Dipterans undergo complete metamorphosis. Flies and mosquitoes are among the best-known dipterans, which live as scavengers, predators, and parasites.

Horsefly

Hemiptera

85,000

Hemipterans are so-called true bugs, including bed bugs, assassin bugs, and chinch bugs. (Insects in other orders are sometimes erroneously called bugs.) Hemipterans have two pairs of wings, one pair partly leathery, the other membranous. They have piercing or sucking mouthparts and undergo incomplete metamorphosis.

Hymenoptera

125,000

Ants, bees, and wasps are generally highly social insects. They have two pairs of membranous wings, a mobile head, and chewing or sucking mouthparts. The females of many species have a posterior stinging organ. Hymenopterans undergo complete metamorphosis.

LeafFooted bug Cicada-killer wasp

Isoptera

2,000

Termites are widespread social insects that produce enormous colonies. It has been estimated that there are 700 kg of termites for every person on Earth! Some termites have two pairs of membranous wings, while others are wingless. They feed on wood with the aid of microbial symbionts carried in specialized chambers in their hindgut.

Termite
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ORDER

APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES

MAIN CHARACTERISTICS

EXAMPLE

Lepidoptera
5,000

120,000

Butterflies and moths are among the best-known insects. They have two pairs of wings covered with tiny scales. To feed, they uncoil a long proboscis. Most feed on nectar, but some species feed on other substances, including animal blood or tears.

Swallowtail
butterfly

Odonata
Orthoptera
13,000

Dragonflies and damselflies have two pairs of large, membranous wings. They have an elongated abdomen, large, compound eyes, and chewing mouthparts. They undergo incomplete metamorphosis and are active predators.

Grasshoppers, crickets, and their relatives are mostly herbivorous. They have large hind legs adapted for jumping, two pairs of wings (one leathery, one membranous), and biting or chewing mouthparts. Males commonly make courtship sounds by rubbing together body parts, such as a ridge on their hind leg. Orthopterans undergo incomplete metamorphosis.

Dragonfly
Katydid

Phasmida
2,400

2,600

Stick insects and leaf insects are exquisite mimics of plants. The eggs of some species even mimic seeds of the plants on which the Insects live. Their body is cylindrical or flattened dorsoventrally. They lack forewings but have fanlike hind wings. Their mouthparts are adapted for biting or chewing.

Stick

insect

Phthiraptera
Siphonaptera
2,400

Commonly called sucking lice, these insects spend their entire life as an ectoparasite feeding on the hair or feathers of a single host. Their legs, equipped with clawlike tarsi, are adapted for clinging to their hosts. They lack wings and have reduced eyes. Sucking lice undergo incomplete metamorphosis.

Fleas are bloodsucking ectoparasites on birds and mammals. Their body is wingless and laterally compressed. Their legs are modified for clinging to their hosts and for long-distance jumping. They undergo complete metamorphosis.

Human Body louse

Thysanura
7,100

450

Silverfish are small, wingless insects with a flattened body and reduced eyes. They live in leaf litter or under bark. They can also infest buildings, where they can become pests.

Flea Silverfish

Trichoptera

The larvae of caddisflies live in streams, where they make houses from sand grains, wood fragments, or other material held together by silk. Adults have two pairs of hairy wings and chewing or lapping mouthparts. They undergo complete metamorphosis.

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Caddisfly

Mollusks include animals such as:


solenogasters, deep-sea worm-like creatures (Class Aplacophora);

clams, oysters, scallops, mussels (Class Bivalvia); squid, octopus, nautilus, cuttlefish (Class Cephalopoda); nudibranchs, snails, slugs, limpets, sea hares and relatives (Class Gastropoda); deep-sea limpet-like creatures (Class Monoplacophora);

chitons (Class Polyplacophora);

tusk shells (Class Scaphopoda).

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