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Control Systems-I Unit- I

Ms. Pragati Deb Sr. Assistant Professor EEE Department ABES Engineering College

Introduction to Control System

System means:
A system is an arrangement of physical components connected or related in such a manner so as to form an entire unit to attain a certain objective.

Control system

Input
The input is the stimulus, excitation or command applied to a control system. Typically from external energy source, usually in order to produce a specified response from the control system.

Control Systems

Output
The output is the actual response obtained from a control system.
It may or may not be equal to specified response implied by the input.

Control Systems

Control
The word control is usually taken to mean : - regulate,
- direct,

- command.

Control Systems

Control system
A control system is an arrangement of physical components connected or related in such a manner as to command, direct, or regulate itself or another system to achieve a certain objective.

A control system is an interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a desired system response.

Control Systems

Two Types of Control Systems


Open Loop
No feedback Difficult to control output with accuracy

Closed Loop
Must have feedback Must have sensor on output Almost always negative feedback

Control Systems

Open-loop control
A system in which the control action is totally independent of the output of the system is called as open loop system. OR An open-loop control system utilizes an actuating device to control the process directly without using feedback.

Block diagram of Open-loop control system

A common example of an open-loop control system is a traffic l signal; washing machine; electric toaster in the kitchen.

Another Example of open loop system

Control Systems

Closed-loop control
A system in which the control action is some how dependent on the output of the system then the system is said to be closed loop system. or A closed-loop control system uses a measurement of the output and feedback of this signal to compare it with the desired output.

Control Systems

Block Diagram of Closed loop control systemControl Systems

Examples of closed loop system

Control Systems

Example: A person steering an automobile by looking at the autos location on the road and making the appropriate adjustments.

Control Systems

Control Systems

Manual control system

Goal: Regulate the level of fluid by adjusting the output valve. The input is a reference level of fluid and is memorized by operator. The power amplifier is the operator. The sensor is visual. Operator compares the actual level with the desired level and opens or closes the valve ( actuator).
Intelligent Control 17

Another example: The level of fluid in a tank control.

Intelligent Control

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Feedback
Feedback is that property of the system which permits the output to be compared with the reference input so that appropriate control action is formed.

Control Systems

Types of Feedback Control


Positive Feedback control:
The output signal is fed back so that it adds to the input signal.

Negative Feedback control:


The output signal is fed back so that it
subtracts from the input signal.
Control Systems

Positive Feedback close loop system

Control Systems

Negative Feedback close loop system

Control Systems

Transfer Function
The relationship between input and output of a system is given by the transfer function.
Definition: The ratio of the Laplace transform of the output to the Laplace transform of the input under the assumption of zero initial conditions is defined as the transfer function of the given system.
Control Systems

Transfer function of open loop system


Standard representation of open loop system is

U1 ( s) G1 ( s) Y1 ( s)
Control Systems

Transfer function of close loop system


Y( s ) G1 R( s ) 1 G1G2

The gain of a single-loop negative feedback system is given by the forward gain divided by the sum of 1 plus the loop gain

Control Systems

Derivation of transfer function of a negative feedback system


Ea(s) = R(s) - B(s) = R(s) - H(s) Y(s) Y(s) = G(s) Ea(s) Y(s) = G(s) [ R(s) - H(s) Y(s) ] Y(s) [ 1 + G(s) H(s) ] = G(s) R(s)

Y(s)/R(s) = G(s) /(1 + G(s) H(s))

Control Systems

Derivation contd.
Ea(s) = R(s) - B(s) = R(s) - H(s) Y(s) Y(s) = G(s) Ea(s) Ea(s) = R(s) - H(s) G(s) Ea(s) Ea(s) [ 1 + G(s) H(s) ] = R(s)

Ea(s)= R(s) /(1 + G(s) H(s)) Y(s) = R(s) G(s)/(1 + G(s) H(s)) Ea(s)= R(s) /(1 + G(s) H(s))
Control Systems

Block Diagram Technique


Block diagrams consist of unidirectional, operational blocks that represent the transfer function of the variables of interest. The block diagram representation of a given system often can be reduced to a simplified block diagram with fewer blocks than original diagram. A graphical tool can help us to visualize the model of a system and evaluate the mathematical relationships between their elements, using their transfer functions.

Block Diagram
It represents the mathematical relationships between the elements of the system.

U1 ( s ) G1 ( s ) Y ( s ) 1

The transfer function of each component is placed in box, and the input-output relationships between components are indicated by lines and arrows.

Block Diagram Algebra


We can solve the equations by graphical simplification, which is often easier and more informative than algebraic manipulation, even though the methods are in every way equivalent. It is convenient to think of each block as representing an electronic amplifier with the transfer function printed inside.
The interconnections of blocks include summing points, where any number of signals may be added together.

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Rules of Block Diagrams


1) Blocks in series: 2) Blocks in parallel with their outputs added:

Y2 ( s ) G1G2 U1( s )

Y(s) G1 G2 U(s)
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3)Combining blocks in cascade

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4) Moving take off point after a block

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5) Moving a take off point ahead of a block

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6) Moving a summing point ahead of a block

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7) Moving a summing point behind a block

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8) Eliminating a feed back loop


Single-loop negative feedback

Transfer function

Y( s ) G1 R( s ) 1 G1G2

Two blocks are connected in a feedback arrangement so that each

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Example 1

Y( s ) T( s ) R( s ) 2s 4 s2 T( s ) 2s 4 1 2 s 2s 4 T( s ) 2 s 2s 4
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Example 2

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Example 2 contd.

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Example 2 contd.

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Example 2 contd.

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Example 2 contd.

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Example 2 contd.

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Example 2 contd.

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TF of Block Diagram of example 2

G1G2G5 G1G6 T( s ) 1 G1G3 G1G2G4


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