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SEX, GENDER DEFINED

SEX
refers to the BIOLOGICAL aspects of being male or female. Differences in chromosomes, anatomy, reproductive systems

ASCRIBED STATUS

GENDER
refers to the PHYSIOLOGICAL and SOCIOCULTURAL aspect of being male or female. Its a dichotomous social category that prescribes behaviors, attitudes, feelings, and other characteristics as being appropriate for a male or a female Can be viewed on a continuum of characteristics demonstrated by a person regardless of the persons biological sex ACHIEVED ROLES

GENDER DIFFERENCES
MEN VALUES - Independence - Power - Accomplishments SOCIAL WORLD - Hierarchy of POWER Men are externally focused: Situations are issues to be resolved. WOMEN VALUES - Communication - Connection - Relationships SOCIAL WORLD - A network of connections Women are internally focused and often talk to connect.

SOCIAL STRUCTURE

SOCIAL STATUS

STATUS SETS

GENDER ROLE

Position in the social system Significant determinant on how one will be treated and defined

Different statuses/position a person may acquire

expected behavior associated with a status performed according to social NORMS

STATUS

MOTHER

FATHER

ROLE

Nurturing, Caring, Loving

Provider, Discipline

GENDER ROLE THEORIES


Evolutionary Theory
Genetic differences between male and female Behavioral differences evolved differently to fulfill their different and complimentary functions w/c are necessary for survival (Sheilds 1975) Behavioral differences stem from different sexual & reproductive strategies that have evolved to ensure that men and women are to efficiently reproduce and effectively pass on their genes (Buss 1995)

GENDER ROLE THEORIES


Object-Relations Theory (Chodorow 1989)
Focuses on effects of socialization in gender development Relationships between people, in particular with family esp. between mother and child Relationship between the subject/SELF and the OBJECT The way we relate to people and situations in our adult world has been programmed into us by the way we experienced our parents when we were infants SELF relates to OBJECTS in the unconscious

GENDER ROLE THEORIES


Gender Schema Theory (Bem 1981)
Focuses on the role of cognitive organization in addition to socialization Children learn how their cultures and societies define the roles of men & women and internalize this knowledge as a gender schema or unchallenged belief Children will incorporate themselves their own concepts into their gender schema and will assume the traits and behavior suitable for their gender

GENDER ROLE THEORIES


Social Role Theory (Alice Eagly 1987)
the sexual division of labor and societal expectations based on stereotypes produce gender roles

the communal and agentic roles Communal Role is characterized by attributes, such as nurturance and emotional expressiveness, commonly associated with domestic activities, and thus, with women; Agentic Role is characterized by attributes such as assertiveness and independence, commonly associated with public activities, and thus, with men
Behavior is strongly influenced by gender roles when cultures endorse gender stereotypes and form firm expectations based on those stereotypes

GENDER STEREOTYPE
Stereotype is a term used to define all people of a certain belief into a mostly negative category that may only reflect a selected few of the racial demographics.

Stereotyping are overgeneralized beliefs about people based on their membership in one of the many social categories (Anselmi & Law, 1998)
Stereotyping is basically putting someone down because someone of their sex is/are not believing they are able to do something because they are either male or female. Male and female are stereotyped according to the traits that they are assumed to process by virtue of their biological make-up.

GENDER STEREOTYPE
Sexism is the assignment of negative stereotype. Its perpetuated by systems of patriarchy : male-dominated social-structures leading to oppression.
Example: Women labeled as being unreliable, erratic due to hormones

Womens status are more stigmatized because the statuses are more associated with being inside the house less power, no income, etc.

Patriarchy exhibits androcentrism: male-centered norms throughout the social institution that becomes standard to w/c people adhere. Altogether, patriarchy and androcentrism, perpetuates beliefs that gender roles are biologically determined and unalterable.

Any woman who understands the problems of running a home will be nearer to understanding the problems of running a country
Watch your thoughts, for they become words. Watch your words, for they become actions. Watch your actions, for they become habits. Watch your habits, for they become character. Watch your character, for it becomes your destiny.

Margaret Thatcher
First Woman British Prime Minister

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