Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 57

# SKN SINHGAD INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCES, LONAVALA

## UNIT III Uses of Maps and Field Surveys

First year of Engineering ( Common to all branches)

Assistant Professor

Presented by

## Online Objective Examination on UNIT III and IV October 16.10.12 -20.10.12

Weightage: 25 Marks

## UNIT No. III III

Topic Various types of maps and their uses. Principles of survey. Modern survey methods using levels, Theodolite, EDM, lasers, total station and GPS Introduction to digital mapping. Measuring areas from maps using digital planimeter. Conducting simple and differential levelling for setting out various benchmarks, determining the elevations of different points and preparation of contour maps. Introduction to GIS Software and other surveying softwares with respect to their capabilities and application areas.

III III

III

CLASS TEXT

NOTES

REFERENCE

## BOOKS: Introduction to SurveyingAnderson-McGraw-Hill International Student Edition.

To understand. What is a Map? Types of Maps Scale of Maps Map Projections Uses of Maps

Maps

## We think of the earth as a sphere

It is actually a Ellipsoid, slightly larger in radius at the equator than at the poles

## Imaginary Lines on the surface Earth

Map is a fundamental language of geography which gives the descriptive information about the world.
A map is a small scale conventional representation of the earth (or part )as seen from above A Cartographic representation without scale should not be called a map. It should be considered as a sketch or a diagram.

A map is an integrated assemblage of four category of information Point Lines Areas Names (Labels)
All these have to be considered in terms of their interrelationship. All these are presented in different Shapes, patterns, size, symbols, and thickness.

## There are two basic parts of maps The Figure

Title: Describes what a map Shows Legend: Defines the Symbols Scale: Shows the relationship of map distance to actual distance on the ground. Direction: Refers to the cardinal directions and is shown by an arrow

Source: The institution or resource from which the information on the map was compiled.
Date: Shows when the map was made and the date of information on the map Border : Defines the edges of the map and separates the map from the text Author : The Institution or the individual that created the map Ground Relationship: Ground and water features differentiated

Types Of Maps

Thematic maps: Thematic maps are specialized maps Containing information about a Single Theme i.e. Landuse map, Population distribution, soils, Geology, Contours, Road network etc.

Topographical Maps: Topographic maps provide the most authentic base or reference tool showing natural and man made features including terrain information of part of the earth plotted to scale Example: Toposheet

## These maps represent the spatial dimensions of a particular phenomenon (theme).

Types:
Isopleth maps - isolines connect points of equal magnitude. Choropleth map - A choropleth map is a thematic map in which areas are shaded or patterned in proportion to the measurement of the statistical variable being displayed on the map, such as population density or per-capita income.

## Choropleth maps have areas of equal values separated by boundaries Example:1

Example:2

Maps portray quantitative data modeled by continuous surface. The variations are shown by lines connecting to points of equal value Examples are:
Contours : Lines of same elevation value Isotherm : Lines of equal Temperature Isohyets : Lines Showing equal Rainfall Isobars : Lines showing equal air pressure value Isolines : Lines showing equal value of the referred theme Isobaths : Lines showing equal depth

## Topographical Maps Topo Sheets

"Topo" maps provide highly detailed information about the natural and man-made aspects of the terrain, but are best known for their series of contour lines that show elevation changes, and colors signifying varying land types and bodies of water.

Toposheet

Topographic Maps

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Topographic_map_example.png

A cadastral map is a map which provides detailed information about real property within a specific area. These maps are usually maintained by the government,

## The World Political

Political maps show how people have divided places on the Earth into countries, states, cities and other units for the purpose of governing them.

Political maps
They show where the boundaries and locations of countries, states, cities, towns and counties are. These boundaries and locations are generally determined by people rather than nature.

## The World Physical

Physical maps show what the surface of the Earth looks like.

Aerial maps
Photo maps taken from up in the air.

Weather maps
Show predictions of coming weather or report on weather that is actually happening.

Contour Map

Show where roads, highways, routes, etc. are. The more a user zooms in on a map the more detailed the map is as to local roads, routes, etc.

Climate Maps

Give general information about the climate and precipitation (rain and snow) of a region.

Climate Maps

## Economic or Resource Maps

Feature the major types of natural resources or economic activity in an area.

Atlas

A collection of maps

Map Scale
Map scale is a ratio between the distance on the map to distance on the earths surface. Scales are shown in 3 ways on the maps RF Scale (Representative Fraction) Example : 1:50,000 Verbal Statement (Descriptive Scale) Example : 1 cm = 5 Km or 1 Inch = 1 Mile Bar Scale (Graphical Scale) Example :

## Large Scale Maps and Small Scale Maps

Large Scale maps show great detail, small features and Representative fraction is Large i.e. 1:2500 Example: Cadastral map, Topographical map Small scale maps show only large features and Representative fraction is small i.e. 1:250,000 Example: Atlas ,Wall maps The entire township is shown as a small block

Small Scale
shows large area 1:10,000,000 would

Large Scale
shows small area 1:63,360 would

## Map Projections: the concept

A method by which the curved 3D surface of the earth is represented on a flat 2D map surface. Location on the 3D earth is measured by latitude and longitude;

## Location on the 2D map is measured by X,Y Cartesian coordinates

cylindrical conical planar (azimuthal-zenithal)

## Map Projection: Map Scale:

Representative Fraction
Globe distance = Earth distance (e.g. 1:24,000) =

## All maps introduce distortion:

shape (conformance)
size (equivalence) direction

Distance

## Map Projections: the inevitability of distortion

Because we are trying to represent a 3-D sphere on a 2-D plane, distortion is inevitable Thus, every two dimensional map is distorted (inaccurate?) with respect to at least one of the following:
area shape distance direction
We are trying to represent this amount of the earth on this amount of map space.

Types of Projections
Conic (Albers Equal Area, Lambert Conformal Conic) - good for East-West land areas Cylindrical (Transverse Mercator) - good for North-South land areas Azimuthal (Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area) - good for global views

Conic Projections
(Albers, Lambert)

Cylindrical Projections

Azimuthal
(Lambert)