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DNA REPLICATION

Biochemistry Department Medical Faculty USU

DNA Base Pairing A G C G A T C T G G T C G C T A G A C C


Double helix consists of 2 complimentary strands of DNA.

DNA Replication
Each of the 2 DNA strands is copied by machinery in the cell Each new daughter strand has a sequence complimentary to the original template strand Replication essential to allow cell division (Mitosis) where 1 cell becomes 2

DNA Replication
C A T T A G A T T

G A T

T
A A G

semi-conservative 2 daughter cells

DNA Replication

DNA Replication
Replication fork : leading strand and lagging strand DNA synthesized in the 5 3 direction The 5-3 synthesis of the leading strand is continuous. The lagging strand is also synthesized in the 53 direction but in small segments This segments referred to as Okazaki fragments Okazaki fragments has 100 200 nucleotides DNA ligase joined the Okazaki fragments. 5 DNA Polymerase : , , , and

The DNA Replication Fork

DNA Replication in Meiosis


During the replication of chromosomes, there is a cross-over of portions of one DNA strand to another (of the same chromosome). This cross-over, along with randomization assures that offspring differ from the parents.

meiosis

Gene Structure
5UTR

Introns Exons

3UTR

Promoter

ATG start

TAA TAG stop TGA

Exon = coding sequence Intron= intervening sequence (non-coding)

Protein Synthesis
Transcription

DNA

RNA

Protein

Translation

Transcription
3 Nuclear RNA Polymerase : mRNA transcribed by RNA Polymerase II The initiation of transcription involves binding RNA Polymerase to a specific DNA sequence called a Promoter Many promoters for RNA Polymerase II contain consensus sequences, referred to as the TATA box ( T A T A A/T A A/T A/G) which occur about 25-35 bp upstream from the transcription initiation site. The activity of many promoters is affected by Enhancers (regulatory sequences that may occur thousands of base pairs upstream or downstream of the gene they affect.

Protein Synthesis - Transcription


Each gene codes for a protein DNA antisense strand acts as template and is transcribed into messenger RNA (mirror image of the DNA but Uracil instead of Thymine)
DNA mRNA ATC G G UAGCC

Protein Synthesis
Transcription

DNA

RNA

Protein

Translation

rRNA : 40s particle (sebuah 18S RNA dan 55 % protein) ; 60S particle (28S; 5,8S; 5S rRNA dan protein) Translation: 1. Initiation 2. Elongation 3 Termination Translational initiation signal : AUG mRNA become translated through 5 3 direction Elongation : Peptidyl transferase. Termination : Stop Codon (UAG, UAA, UGA) Amino acid will be activated and linked to the tRNA by Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase.

Protein Synthesis- Translation


Introns are spliced out of the mRNA mRNA leaves the nucleus In the cytoplasm, ribosomes attach to the mRNA ensuring the correct amino acid, for each codon, is added to a growing chain of amino acids which forms the resulting protein.

Nukleotida 1. (5) U U Phe

Nukleotida 2.

C
Ser

Nukleotida 3. (3) A G Tyr Cys U

U
U U C C C C

Phe
Leu Leu Leu Leu Leu Leu

Ser
Ser Ser Pro Pro Pro Pro

Tyr
STOP STOP His His Gln Gln

Cys
STOP Trp Arg Arg Arg Arg

C
A G U C A G

U
A Ile

C
Thr

A
Asn

G
Ser U

A
A

Ile
Ile

Thr
Thr

Asn
Lys

Ser
Arg

C
A

A
G G G G

Met
Val Val Val Val

Thr
Ala Ala Ala Ala

Lys
Asp Asp Glu Glu

Arg
Gly Gly Gly Gly

G
U C A G

Transmembrane Protein Synthesis