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Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings

Experiment 17 - Andrew Underwood

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Purpose

The purpose of this experiment was to show how light interference works in a thin film Part 1: Thin wedge

consecutive lines of fringes circles of fringes

Part 2: Newtons Rings

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Theory

Index of refraction

glass air

n = 1.5 n = 1.0

When nA > nB

rays reflecting from the side where n=nA reflect the same phase rays reflecting from the side where n=nB experience a phase reversal

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Theory

A phase reversal is equivalent to shifting the ray by half a wavelength

Diagram from Physics 294 Laboratory Manual, page 17-1

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Theory

When waves interfere constructively:

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Theory

When waves interfere destructively:

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Theory

When waves interfere destructively:

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Theory Part 1

Diagram from Physics 294 Laboratory Manual, page 17-2

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Theory Part 1

Two glass plates at an angle cause the space between them t to increase with x

t = /2 = x tan

Where

t x

is the distance between the two pieces of glass is the wavelength of the light is the distance between consecutive fringes is the angle between the glass

tan = t / x

Since is constant, t / x should be constant Implies fringes happen at regular intervals

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Theory Part 2

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Theory Part 2

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Theory Part 2

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Theory Part 2

Diagrams from Physics 294 Laboratory Manual, page 17-3

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Theory Part 2

rm2 = xm2/4 + 2 = mR

Where

rm xm ring m

is the actual radius of the mth fringe is the measured diameter is the perpendicular offset from the center of the is the order of the ring

m=0 for the bulls eye m=1, 2, 3, for each consecutive ring

is the wavelength of the light is the curvature radius of the plano-convex lens

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Apparatus

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Apparatus

Diagram from Physics 294 Laboratory Manual, page 17-2

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Procedure

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Procedure Part 1

The distance from an arbitrary (m=0) fringe to 20 consecutive dark fringes was measured The difference between each fringe was calculated

x = xn - xn-1 /2 = x tan

From x we can calculate

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Procedure Part 2

Position the microscope over the center of the bulls eye Measure xL and xR to get xm for 10 rings

xm = |xL - xR| xm2/4 + 2 = mR xm2 = mR/4 - 2/4 y = mx +b

Plot xm2 versus m to find R and 2


Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Analysis

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Analysis Part 1

Error for x

x = (x)2 + (x)2 x = 2(x)2 x = 2(0.004 cm)2 x = 0.006 cm

m 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Xm (cm) 11.883 11.941 11.990 12.040 12.090 12.141 12.190 12.233 12.290 12.332 12.380 12.432 12.486 12.530 12.580 12.632 12.684 12.734 12.786 12.838 12.888

error Xm (cm) 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004

difference Xm (cm) 0.058 0.049 0.050 0.050 0.051 0.049 0.043 0.057 0.042 0.048 0.052 0.054 0.044 0.050 0.052 0.052 0.050 0.052 0.052 0.050

error difference (cm) 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Analysis Part 1

Average x = 0.050

Excel =AVERAGE(x)
Excel =STDEV(x)

Standard Deviation x = 0.004

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Analysis Part 1

t = /2 = x tan /2 = x tan

for sodium light is 589.3 nm = 5.893*10-7m x average was 0.050 cm = 5.0 * 10-4m (5.893*10-7m)/2 = (5.0 * 10-4m ) tan = 3.4 * 10-2 degrees

Solve for

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Analysis Part 1

For small angles (tan) (tan) = (/2) / x


(tan) = (5.893*10-7m )/2 / (6*10-5 m) (tan) = .004

= 0.034 +/- .004 degrees

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Analysis Part 2

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Analysis Part 2

xm2 = xm2 * (xm/xm)2 + (xm/xm)2 xm2 = xm2 * 2(xm/xm)2


x12 = (0.062 cm) * 2(0.006/0.248)2 x12 = 0.002


m 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 xr (cm) 11.900 11.770 11.721 11.678 11.650 11.618 11.594 11.576 11.550 11.530 11.518 xl (cm) 12.018 12.064 12.092 12.124 12.152 12.180 12.202 12.226 12.246 12.260 xm (cm) 0.248 0.343 0.414 0.474 0.534 0.586 0.626 0.676 0.716 0.742 error xm (cm) 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 xm^2 (cm) 0.062 0.118 0.171 0.225 0.285 0.343 0.392 0.457 0.513 0.551 error xm^2 (cm) 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.006 0.006 0.006

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Analysis Part 2
Xm^2 versus m
0.600 y = 0.0555x + 0.0064

0.500

0.400

Xm^2 (cm^2)

0.300

0.200

0.100

0.000 0 2 4 6 m 8 10 12

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings

Used Excels LINEST() function to calculate slope and intercept Slope = 0.0555 +/- 0.0006 Intercept = 0.006 +/- 0.004
0.0555 0.0006 0.006 0.004

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Analysis Part 2

xm2 = mR/4 - 2/4 y = 0.0555x + 0.0064 y = mx +b To find 2


- 2/4 = 0.006 2 = -0.024 cm2 2 = 0.02

2/4 = 0.004

2 = -0.02 +/- 0.02 cm2

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Analysis Part 2

xm2 = mR/4 - 2/4 y = 0.0555x + 0.0064 y = mx +b To find R

mR/4 = 0.0555x

where x = m

= 589.3 nm = 5.893 * 10-5 cm

(5.893 * 10-5 cm)R/4 = 0.0555 R=3.767 * 103 cm

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Analysis Part 2

R/4 = 0.0006 R = 0.0006 * 4 /


R = 0.0006 * 4 / 5.893 * 10-5 cm R = 40 cm

R = 3.77 * 103 +/- 0.04 * 103 cm

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Conclusion

We were able to see how rays of light could interfere causing fringes Dark fringes: destructive interference Bring fringes: constructive interference Interference explains colours in a thin film

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Conclusion

Measured distance between fringes Able to calculate the thin films properties In Part 1 we were able to calculate

= 0.034 +/- .004 degrees 2 = -0.02 +/- 0.02 cm2 R = 3.77 * 103 +/- 0.04 * 103 cm

In Part 2 we found

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Conclusion

Errors

Error in positioning the travelling microscope over the same place for each fringe Error in taking measurements from the micrometer scale Error would arise in Part 1 if the fringes were not aligned perpendicular to the direction of the travelling microscope

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings


Conclusion

Experiment could be improved

by using a travelling light sensor instead of a microscope

Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings

Questions?

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