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# Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings

## Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings

Purpose

The purpose of this experiment was to show how light interference works in a thin film Part 1: Thin wedge

## Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings

Theory

Index of refraction

glass air

n = 1.5 n = 1.0

When nA > nB

rays reflecting from the side where n=nA reflect the same phase rays reflecting from the side where n=nB experience a phase reversal

Theory

Theory

Theory

Theory

Theory Part 1

## Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings

Theory Part 1

Two glass plates at an angle cause the space between them t to increase with x

t = /2 = x tan

Where

t x

is the distance between the two pieces of glass is the wavelength of the light is the distance between consecutive fringes is the angle between the glass

tan = t / x

Theory Part 2

Theory Part 2

Theory Part 2

Theory Part 2

## Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings

Theory Part 2

rm2 = xm2/4 + 2 = mR

Where

rm xm ring m

is the actual radius of the mth fringe is the measured diameter is the perpendicular offset from the center of the is the order of the ring

m=0 for the bulls eye m=1, 2, 3, for each consecutive ring

is the wavelength of the light is the curvature radius of the plano-convex lens

Apparatus

Apparatus

Procedure

## Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings

Procedure Part 1

The distance from an arbitrary (m=0) fringe to 20 consecutive dark fringes was measured The difference between each fringe was calculated

x = xn - xn-1 /2 = x tan

## Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings

Procedure Part 2

Position the microscope over the center of the bulls eye Measure xL and xR to get xm for 10 rings

Analysis

Analysis Part 1

Error for x

## x = (x)2 + (x)2 x = 2(x)2 x = 2(0.004 cm)2 x = 0.006 cm

m 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Xm (cm) 11.883 11.941 11.990 12.040 12.090 12.141 12.190 12.233 12.290 12.332 12.380 12.432 12.486 12.530 12.580 12.632 12.684 12.734 12.786 12.838 12.888

error Xm (cm) 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004

difference Xm (cm) 0.058 0.049 0.050 0.050 0.051 0.049 0.043 0.057 0.042 0.048 0.052 0.054 0.044 0.050 0.052 0.052 0.050 0.052 0.052 0.050

error difference (cm) 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006

## Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings

Analysis Part 1

Average x = 0.050

Excel =AVERAGE(x)
Excel =STDEV(x)

## Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings

Analysis Part 1

t = /2 = x tan /2 = x tan

for sodium light is 589.3 nm = 5.893*10-7m x average was 0.050 cm = 5.0 * 10-4m (5.893*10-7m)/2 = (5.0 * 10-4m ) tan = 3.4 * 10-2 degrees

Solve for

Analysis Part 1

Analysis Part 2

Analysis Part 2

## x12 = (0.062 cm) * 2(0.006/0.248)2 x12 = 0.002

m 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 xr (cm) 11.900 11.770 11.721 11.678 11.650 11.618 11.594 11.576 11.550 11.530 11.518 xl (cm) 12.018 12.064 12.092 12.124 12.152 12.180 12.202 12.226 12.246 12.260 xm (cm) 0.248 0.343 0.414 0.474 0.534 0.586 0.626 0.676 0.716 0.742 error xm (cm) 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 xm^2 (cm) 0.062 0.118 0.171 0.225 0.285 0.343 0.392 0.457 0.513 0.551 error xm^2 (cm) 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.006 0.006 0.006

## Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings

Analysis Part 2
Xm^2 versus m
0.600 y = 0.0555x + 0.0064

0.500

0.400

Xm^2 (cm^2)

0.300

0.200

0.100

0.000 0 2 4 6 m 8 10 12

## Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings

Used Excels LINEST() function to calculate slope and intercept Slope = 0.0555 +/- 0.0006 Intercept = 0.006 +/- 0.004
0.0555 0.0006 0.006 0.004

Analysis Part 2

2/4 = 0.004

Analysis Part 2

mR/4 = 0.0555x

where x = m

Analysis Part 2

## Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings

Conclusion

We were able to see how rays of light could interfere causing fringes Dark fringes: destructive interference Bring fringes: constructive interference Interference explains colours in a thin film

## Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings

Conclusion

Measured distance between fringes Able to calculate the thin films properties In Part 1 we were able to calculate

= 0.034 +/- .004 degrees 2 = -0.02 +/- 0.02 cm2 R = 3.77 * 103 +/- 0.04 * 103 cm

In Part 2 we found

## Interference in a Thin Film: Newtons rings

Conclusion

Errors

Error in positioning the travelling microscope over the same place for each fringe Error in taking measurements from the micrometer scale Error would arise in Part 1 if the fringes were not aligned perpendicular to the direction of the travelling microscope

Conclusion

Questions?