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Cisco Router IOS

M Clements

This week

Cisco IOS versions IOS Features Choosing an IOS IOS upgrade Practical work

11-Oct-12

IOS Version - choice and deployment

Internetworking Operating System


Multifunction operating system on most Cisco routers and switches Generally meant for CLI usage Different versions have different features Need correct feature set for proposed usage Not easy to work out necessary features

11-Oct-12

IOS Version - choice and deployment

Why might I need an upgrade?


Your router may have a corrupt IOS Your router may not be able to perform the actions that you want it to carry out You may be planning an network upgrade and the current IOS does not contain the features that you desire for the future Perhaps your router does not support VLANS
11-Oct-12 IOS Version - choice and deployment

Find an IOS to support VLANs


Cisco IOS Software Selector http://tools.cisco.com/ITDIT/ISTMAIN/servlet/ index# Allows search of IOS by feature and platform Can see DRAM and FLASH requirements These are important why?
11-Oct-12 IOS Version - choice and deployment

Try it out

Go to:
http://tools.cisco.com/ITDIT/ISTMAIN/servlet/index#

Click Search by Feature Use Search by full or partial feature name Type VLAN then click Search Narrowed results appear below
11-Oct-12 IOS Version - choice and deployment

Narrowed results

Add IEEE 802.1Q ISL VLAN Mapping and click Add then Continue

11-Oct-12

IOS Version - choice and deployment

Results of search

11-Oct-12

IOS Version - choice and deployment

Next Step .

What platform are you using? This will be necessary to ensure that the IOS you need is available for your particular router (or switch) Assume you are working with a 2610 router What choices do you see in the Quick Pick? What is the difference between GD and LD release?
11-Oct-12 IOS Version - choice and deployment

Release Designations Defined


Early Deployment (ED)
Software releases that provide new features and new platform support in addition to bug fixes. Cisco IOS CTED, STED, SMED, and XED are variations of ED software releases.

General Deployment (GD)


Date at which this software release reached the "General Deployment" milestone in its lifecycle. A Major Release of Cisco IOS software reaches the "General Deployment" milestone when Cisco feels it is suitable for deployment anywhere in customer networks where the features and functionality of the release are required. Criteria for reaching the "General Deployment" milestone are based on, but not limited to, customer feedback surveys from production and test networks using the releases, CE bug reports, and reported field experience. Only Major Releases are candidates to reach the General Deployment milestone.

Limited Deployment (LD)


A Major Release of Cisco IOS software is said to be in the "Limited Deployment" phase of its lifecycle during the period between initial FCS and the General Deployment (GD) milestones.

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11-Oct-12

IOS Version - choice and deployment

Download the IOS


For this you will need a Cisco account Your company will have one if it is using Cisco devices University of Greenwich has an account we cannot use it for student work We will assume we have downloaded a new IOS version
11-Oct-12 IOS Version - choice and deployment

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IOS upgrade method


Put IOS onto a TFTP server Upload from TFTP server Trivial File Transfer Protocol not good for public usage no passwords etc See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tftp It uses UDP port 69 as its transport protocol It cannot list directory contents. It has no authentication or encryption mechanisms. It is used to read files from, or write files to, a remote server.
11-Oct-12 IOS Version - choice and deployment

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Open Packet Tracer


You will need as a minimum Server PT Router choose 1841 Switch any PC with any Ethernet interface

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11-Oct-12

IOS Version - choice and deployment

Connections

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11-Oct-12

IOS Version - choice and deployment

Connection Details

Use copper straight through between server and switch and also between switch and router Use lowest numbered interfaces on all devices for Cat 5 cabling Use console cable between PC and router Connects to console ports on router and RS232 port on the PC
11-Oct-12 IOS Version - choice and deployment

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Connecting to router from the PC


Go to PC Desktop then Terminal Make sure settings are as shown below Click OK

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11-Oct-12

IOS Version - choice and deployment

Setup of Router

Give the router a /24 IP address on an Ethernet interface Work this address out before you continue Change the routers name to my_new_router You can do this yourself or follow the instructions on the following slides
11-Oct-12 IOS Version - choice and deployment

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Router Initial Setup


At Continue with configuration dialog? [yes/no]: type n, Return Now type the following commands
Router>enable
Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interface ?

This displays the available interfaces


Router(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
11-Oct-12 IOS Version - choice and deployment

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Router Setup Continued


Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#hostname my_new_router

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11-Oct-12

IOS Version - choice and deployment

Router Setup Continued


my_new_router(config)#exit %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console my_new_router#write Destination filename [startup-config]? Building configuration... [OK] my_new_router#

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11-Oct-12

IOS Version - choice and deployment

Configuring the Router


Visit the CLI and ascertain the IOS version that is currently running Use the show version command to do this IOS is not the same as System Bootstrap! Note the values for NVRAM, DRAM and FLASH Where are these values written?
11-Oct-12 IOS Version - choice and deployment

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Noting the IOS currently in use

The IOS is displayed prefixed by its location on the router Make a note of the location and the FULL name of the IOS Note the value of the Configuration Register This tells the router where to look at boot for its IOS
IOS Version - choice and deployment

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11-Oct-12

Configuring Server

Open server properties by clicking on it Under Config, Services turn off all services except TFTP Notice the IOS versions already downloaded to the TFTP server Set a /24 address and subnet mask from the routers FastEthernet network range
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Check Connectivity

Make sure that your network has connectivity between the server and router before continuing Use a ping from either the router or the server to make sure of this Copy the results of the ping Carry out diagnostics if the ping fails
11-Oct-12 IOS Version - choice and deployment

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Boot Router to ROMMON

The ROM monitor (also called the bootstrap program) is the firmware that runs when you power on Cisco routers During normal operation, the ROM monitor helps to initialize the processor hardware and boot the operating system software Accomplished by changing the configuration register to either 0x2100 or 0x0
11-Oct-12 IOS Version - choice and deployment

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From the PC .
my_new_router#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. my_new_router(config)#config-register 0x2100 my_new_router(config)#exit %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console my_new_router#reload Proceed with reload? [confirm]

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11-Oct-12

IOS Version - choice and deployment

Router boots into ROMMON


Press Enter Type ? Note the response Now look at files in FLASH memory rommon 8 > dir flash: File size Checksum File name

13832032 bytes (0xd30f60) 0x1033 c1841-ipbase-mz.123-14.T7.bin Now reboot the router (reset)
11-Oct-12 IOS Version - choice and deployment

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Choosing the new IOS from the TFTP server

Choose the IOS image on the TFTP server that you do not currently have in the routers FLASH note the COMPLETE name Enter Priv Exec mode on your router

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11-Oct-12

IOS Version - choice and deployment

Enter the relevant details


my_new_router#copy tftp flash: Address or name of remote host []? 192.168.1.2 Source filename []? c1841-ipbasek9-mz.124-12.bin Destination filename [c1841-ipbasek9-mz.124-12.bin]? Accessing tftp://192.168.1.2/c1841-ipbasek9-mz.124-12.bin.... Loading c1841-ipbasek9-mz.124-12.bin from 192.168.1.2: !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! [OK - 16599160 bytes] 16599160 bytes copied in 30.097 secs (123409 bytes/sec)

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11-Oct-12

IOS Version - choice and deployment

Check file is in FLASH then boot it


my_new_router#dir flash: Directory of flash:/ (read the output) Now re-enter ROMMON rommon 1 > boot flash:c1841ipbasek9-mz.124-12.bin Observe the boot process and verify that the router has booted the new IOS using the show version command
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11-Oct-12 IOS Version - choice and deployment

Delete the old IOS


my_new_router#delete flash: c1841-advipservicesk9mz.124-15.T1.bin Delete filename [c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.12415.T1.bin]? Delete flash:/ c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-15.T1.bin? [confirm] my_new_router#dir flash: Directory of flash:/ 2 -rw16599160 ipbasek9-mz.124-12.bin <no date> c1841-

32514048 bytes total (15914888 bytes free)

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11-Oct-12

IOS Version - choice and deployment

Reboot and reset config register


Reload the IOS Router boots to rommon again rommon 2 > confreg 0x2102 rommon 3 > reset

Once router reboots, verify that the IOS is now the new version use show version

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11-Oct-12

IOS Version - choice and deployment

Saving config file to TFTP


my_new_router#copy running-config tftp Address or name of remote host []? 192.168.1.2 Destination filename [my_new_router-confg]? .!! [OK - 352 bytes] 352 bytes copied in 3.184 secs (0 bytes/sec)
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11-Oct-12 IOS Version - choice and deployment

Check TFTP server


Look in the TFTP server for the config file that you copied This can be useful as a backup in case of router failure

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11-Oct-12

IOS Version - choice and deployment

Summary

IOS contains commands for routers and switches Can be upgraded over network using TFTP ROMMON can be used as basic boot option TFTP server accessed by router to copy the IOS TFTP server can also be used to save or upload a config file
11-Oct-12 IOS Version - choice and deployment

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Extra Resources

Free TFTP server see engweb.info/apps

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11-Oct-12

IOS Version - choice and deployment

References

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cisco_IOS
http://tools.cisco.com/ITDIT/ISTMAIN/servlet/index#
http://www.roadkillnetworks.com/cisco/tftp_rom_monitor_appen dc.htm

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11-Oct-12

IOS Version - choice and deployment