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objectives

Define A.I and Intelligence Goals of AI Intelligent Agents Informed and Uninformed search

Artificial Intelligence(AI)
Artificial Intelligence is the study of human intelligence such that it can be replicated artificially. Goals of AI: Systems that think like humans (focus on reasoning and human framework) Systems that think rationally (focus on reasoning and a general concept of intelligence) Systems that act like humans (focus on behavior and human framework) Systems that act rationally (focus on behavior and a general concept of intelligence)

Agent & Environment

Kinds of Agent Programs


Simple reflex agents; Model-based reflex agents; Goal-based agents; and Utility-based agents.

Simple Reflexive Agent


Know as simplest kind of agent Selects action based on the current percept, ignoring the rest of the percept history The vacuum agent program is example of this kind. Condition-action-rule

Vacuum Cleaner world with just two locations

Percept Sequence [A, Clean] [A, Dirty] [B, Clean] [B, Dirty] [A, Clean],[A, Clean] [A, Clean],[A, Dirty] . . [A, Clean] ,[A, Clean],[A, Clean] [A, Clean], ,[A, Clean][A, Dirty]

Action Right Suck Left Suck Right Suck . . Right Suck

Model-based reflex agents


knowledge about "how the world works" is called a model of the world, hence the name "model-based agent". A model-based agent can handle a partially observable environment. should maintain some sort of internal model that depends on the percept history.

Goal-based agents
Expand on the capabilities of the model-based agents, by using "goal" information. Some times goal-based action selection is straight forward but some times more tricky. Search and planning are the subfields of AI devoted to finding action sequences that achieves the agents goal.

Utility-based agents
Goal-based agents only distinguish between goal states and non-goal states. It is possible to define a measure of how desirable a particular state is. This measure can be obtained through the use of a utility function which maps a state to a measure of the utility of the state. For example, there are many action sequences that will get the taxi to its destination (thereby achieving the goal) but some are quicker, safer, more reliable, or cheaper than others.

Solve Problems by Searching


Uniformed search Informed Search

Uninformed Search
Uninformed search uses no information about the likely direction of the goal node(s). It uses only the information available in the problem definition. Initial state Search operators Goal Test Path Cost

iterative deepening Search


Limit 0

Limit 1

Limit 2