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# Close Range Photogrammetry

## Saju John Mathew

EE 5358
Monday, 24
th
March 2008
University of Texas at Arlington
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 1
Overview
Definitions
Equipment
Mathematical Explanations
Working
Applications
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 2
Close Range Photogrammetry(CRP)

Photogrammetry is a measurement technique where
the coordinates of the points in 3D of an object are
calculated by the measurements made in two
photographic images(or more) taken starting from
different positions.

CRP is generally used in conjunction with object to
camera distances of not more than 300 meters (984
feet).

Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 3
Vertical Aerial Photographs
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 4
University of Texas at Arlington at
approx. 30 meters
University of Texas at Arlington at
approx. 200 meters
CRP

It can be broadly divided into two main parts:

Acquiring data from the object to be measured by
taking the necessary photographs.
Reducing the photographs (perspective projection)
into maps or spatial coordinates (orthogonal
projection).

Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 5
Acquisition of Data: Camera

Cameras can be broadly classified into two:

Metric
Single Cameras
Stereometric Cameras

Non-metric
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 6
Photogrammetric Camera that enables geometrically
accurate reconstruction of the optical model
of the object scene from
its stereo photographs

Single Cameras
Total depth of field
Photographic material
Nominal focal length
Format of photographic material
Tilt range of camera axis and number of intermediate
stops
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 7
Metric Cameras
Metric Cameras (contd.)

Stereometric Cameras
Base Length
Nominal Focal Length
Operational Range
Photographic Material
Format of photographic material
Tilt range of optical axes and
number of intermediate tilt stops
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 8
Non-metric Cameras
Cameras that have not been designed especially for
photogrammetric purposes:
A camera whose interior orientation
is completely or partially unknown
and frequently unstable.
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 9
Non-metric Cameras
General availability
Flexibility in focusing range
Price is considerably less than for metric cameras
Can be hand-held and thereby oriented in any direction
Lenses are designed for high resolution at the expense of high
distortion
Instability of interior orientation (changes after every exposure)
Lack of fiducial marks
Absence of level bubbles and orientation provisions precludes
the determination of exterior orientation before exposure
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 10
Data Reduction
Analog 1900 to 1960
Analytical 1960 onwards
Semi-analytical
Digital 1980 onwards
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 11
Analytical Photogrammetry

Based on camera parameters, measured photo
coordinates and ground control

Accounts for any tilts that exist in photos

Solves complex systems of redundant equations by
implementing least squares method
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 12
Review
Collinearity Condition

The exposure station
of a photograph, an object
point and its photo image
all lie along a straight
line.
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 13
A
Za
Xa
Ya
XL
YL
ZL
X
Z
Y
O
x
y L
a
Tilted photo
plane
f xa
ya
Image Coordinate System

Ground Coordinate System - X, Y, Z

wrt Ground Coordinate System
Exposure Station Coordinates X
L
, Y
L
, Z
L

Object Point (A) Coordinates X
a
, Y
a
, Z
a

Rotated coordinate system parallel to ground
coordinate system (XYZ) x, y, z

wrt Rotated Coordinate System
Rotated image coordinates x
a
, y
a
, z
a

x
a
, y
a
and z
a
are related to the measured
photo coordinates xa, ya, focal length (f) and the
three rotation angles omega, phi and kappa.

Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 14
Z
Y
X
A
Za
Ya
Xa
YL
XL
ZL
x
z
y
L
za
ya
Xa
Rotation Formulas
Developed in a sequence of three independent two-dimensional rotations.
x
1
= x

y
1
= yCos + zSin

z
1
= -ySin + zCos
x
2
= -z
1
Sin + x
1
Cos
y
2
= y
1

z
2
= z
1
Cos + x
1
Sin
x = x
2
Cos + y
2
Sin
y = -x
2
Sin + y
2
Cos
z = z
2
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 15
Rotation Matrix

X = MX
Rotation Matrix

The sum of the squares of the three direction cosines in any row or in any
column is unity.
M
-1
= M
T
X = M
T
X

Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 16
x = m
11
x + m
12
y + m
13
z
y = m
21
x + m
22
y + m
23
z
z = m
31
x + m
32
y + m
33
z
x = x(CosCos) + y(SinSinCos + CosSin) + z(-CosSinCos + SinSin)
y = x(-CosSin) + y(-SinSinSin + CosCos) + z(CosSinSin + SinCos )
z = x(Sin) + y(-SinCos) + z(CosCos)
(
(
(

(
(
(

=
(
(
(

'
'
'
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
z
y
x
m m m
m m m
m m m
z
y
x
Collinearity Condition Equations
Collinearity condition equations developed from similar triangles

* Dividing x
a
and y
a
by z
a
* Substitute f for z
a

* Correcting the offset of Principal
point (x
o
, y
o
)
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 17
A L
a
L A
a
L A
a
Z Z
z
Y Y
y
X X
x

= =
' ' '
x = m
11
x + m
12
y + m
13
z
y = m
21
x + m
22
y + m
23
z
z = m
31
x + m
32
y + m
33
z
a
L A
L A
a
L A
L A
a
L A
L A
a
a
L A
L A
a
L A
L A
a
L A
L A
a
a
L A
L A
a
L A
L A
a
L A
L A
a
z
Z Z
Z Z
m z
Z Z
Y Y
m z
Z Z
X X
m z
z
Z Z
Z Z
m z
Z Z
Y Y
m z
Z Z
X X
m y
z
Z Z
Z Z
m z
Z Z
Y Y
m z
Z Z
X X
m x
' ' '
' ' '
' ' '
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
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.
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=
(

+ +
+ +
=
(

+ +
+ +
=
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
33 32 31
23 22 21
33 32 31
13 12 11
L A L A L A
L A L A L A
o a
L A L A L A
L A L A L A
o a
Z Z m Y Y m X X m
Z Z m Y Y m X X m
f y y
Z Z m Y Y m X X m
Z Z m Y Y m X X m
f x x
Collinearity Equations
Nonlinear
Nine unknowns
, ,
X
A
, Y
A
and Z
A
X
L
, Y
L
and Z
L

Taylors Theorem is used to linearize the nonlinear
equations
substituting

Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 18
(

+ +
+ +
=
(

+ +
+ +
=
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
33 32 31
23 22 21
33 32 31
13 12 11
L A L A L A
L A L A L A
o a
L A L A L A
L A L A L A
o a
Z Z m Y Y m X X m
Z Z m Y Y m X X m
f y y
Z Z m Y Y m X X m
Z Z m Y Y m X X m
f x x

=

0
) (
) (
!
) (
n
n
n
a x
n
a f
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
23 22 21
13 12 11
33 32 31
L A L A L A
L A L A L A
L A L A L A
Z Z m Y Y m X X m s
Z Z m Y Y m X X m r
Z Z m Y Y m X X m q
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
Linearizing Collinearity Equations
Rewriting the Collinearity Equations

F
0
and G
0
are functions F and G evaluated at the initial
approximations for the nine unknowns
d, d, d are the unknown corrections to be applied to the
initial approximations
The rest of the terms are the partial derivatives of F and G wrt
to their respective unknowns at the initial approximations

Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 19
a o
a o
y
q
s
f y G
x
q
r
f x F
= =
= =
a A
A
A
A
A
A
L
L
L
L
L
L
o
a A
A
A
A
A
A
L
L
L
L
L
L
o
y dZ
Z
G
dY
Y
G
dX
X
G
dZ
Z
G
dY
Y
G
dX
X
G
d
G
d
G
d
G
G
x dZ
Z
F
dY
Y
F
dX
X
F
dZ
Z
F
dY
Y
F
dX
X
F
d
F
d
F
d
F
F
= |
.
|

\
|
c
c
+ |
.
|

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|
c
c
+ |
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
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c
+ |
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+ |
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c
+ |
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c
+
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c
+ |
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c
+
= |
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+ |
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+ |
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+
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+ |
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+ |
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c
+ |
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c
c
+
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\
|
c
c
+ |
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
k
k
|
|
e
e
k
k
|
|
e
e
Taylors Theorem
Applying LLSM to Collinearity Equations
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 20
Residual terms must be included in order to make the
equations consistent

J = x
a
F
o
; K = y
a
G
o
b terms are coefficients equal to the partial derivatives
Numerical values for these coefficient terms are obtained by using
initial approximations for the unknowns.
The terms must be solved iteratively (computed corrections are added
to the initial approximations to obtain revised approximations) until
the magnitudes of corrections to initial approximations become
negligible.
ya A A A L L L
xa A A A L L L
V K dZ b dY b dX b dZ b dY b dX b d b d b d b
V J dZ b dY b dX b dZ b dY b dX b d b d b d b
+ = + + + + +
+ = + + + + +
26 25 24 26 25 24 23 22 21
16 15 14 16 15 14 13 12 11
k | e
k | e
Analytical Stereomodel

Mathematical calculation of three-dimensional ground
coordinates of points in the stereomodel by analytical
photogrammetric techniques

Three steps involved in forming an Analytical
Stereomodel:
Interior Orientation
Relative Orientation
Absolute Orientation
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 21
Analytical Interior Orientation
Requires camera calibration information and
quantification of the effects of atmospheric refraction.
2D coordinate transformation is used to relate the
comparator coordinates to the fiducial coordinate system
to correct film distortion.
Lens distortion and principal-point information from
camera calibration are used to refine the coordinates so
that they are correctly related to the principal point and
free from lens distortion.
Atmospheric refraction corrections are applied.
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 22
Analytical Relative Orientation
Process of determining the elements of exterior
orientation
Fix the exterior orientation elements of the left photo of
the stereopair to zero values
Common method in use to find these elements is through
Space Resection by Collinearity(see slide below)
Each object point in the stereomodel contributes 4
equations
5 unknown orientation elements + 3 unknowns(X, Y & Z)

Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 23
Space Resection by Collinearity
Formulate the collinearity equations for a number of control points whose X,
Y and Z ground coordinates are known and whose images appear in the
tilted photo. The equations are then solved for the six unknown elements of
exterior orientation which appear in them.
Space Resection collinearity equations for a point A

A two dimensional conformal coordinate transformation is used
X = ax by + T
x X, Y ground control coordinates for the point
Y = ay + bx + T
y x, y ground coordinates from a vertical

photograph

a, b, Tx, Ty transformation parameters
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 24
ya L L L
xa L L L
V K dZ b dY b dX b d b d b d b
V J dZ b dY b dX b d b d b d b
+ = + +
+ = + +
26 25 24 23 22 21
16 15 14 13 12 11
k | e
k | e
Analytical Absolute Orientation

Utilizes a 3D conformal coordinate transformation
Requires a min. of 2 horizontal and 3 vertical control
points
Stereomodel coordinates of control points are related to
their 3D coordinates in a cartesian coordinate system
Coordinates of all stereomodel points in the ground
system can be computed by applying the transformation
parameters
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 25

Adjust all photogrammetric measurements to ground
control values in a single solution

Unknown quantities
X, Y and Z object space coordinates of all object points
Exterior orientation parameters of all photographs
Measurements
x and y photo coordinates of images of object points
X, Y and/or Z coordinates of ground control points
Direct observations of the exterior orientation parameters of the photographs
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 26
Photo Coordinates - Fundamental Photogrammetric Measurements made with a
comparator or analytical plotter. According to accuracy and precision the coordinates
are weighed
Control Points determined through field survey
Exterior Orientation Parameters especially helpful in understanding the angular
attitude of a photograph
Regardless of whether exterior orientation parameters were observed, a least squares
solution is possible since the number of observations is always greater than the
number of unknowns.
x
ij,
y
ij measured photo coordinates

of

the

image

of point j on

photo i related to fiducial axis system

x
o
, y
o

coordinates of principal points in fiducial axis
system

f
- focal length/principal distance
X
j
, Y
j
, Z
j

coordinates of point j in object space
m
11i
, m
12i, .,
m
33i rotation parameters for photo i
X
Li
, Y
Li,
Z
Li

coordinates of incident nodal point
of camera lens in object space

Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 27
(
(

+ +
+ +
=
(
(

+ +
+ +
=
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
33 32 31
23 22 21
33 32 31
13 12 11
Li j i Li j i Li j i
Li j i Li j i Li j i
o ij
Li j i Li j i Li j i
Li j i Li j i Li j i
o ij
Z Z m Y Y m X X m
Z Z m Y Y m X X m
f y y
Z Z m Y Y m X X m
Z Z m Y Y m X X m
f x x
Photo coordinates

0
2
reference variance

xij
2
,
yij
2
variances in x
ij
and y
ij
resp.

xijyij =

## yijxij covariance of xij and yij

Ground Control coordinates

Xj
2
,
Yj
2
,
Zj
2
variances in X
j
00
, Y
j
00
, Z
j
00
resp.

XjYj
=
YjXj
covariance of X
j
00
with Y
j
00

XjZj
=
ZjXj
covariance of X
j
00
with Z
j
00

YjZj
=
ZjYj
covariance of Y
j
00
with Z
j
00

Exterior Orientation Parameters

Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 28
1
2
2
2

(
(

=
ij ij ij
ij ij ij
y x y
y x x
o ij
W
o o
o o
o
(
(
(
(

=
2
2
1
0
0
1
ij
ij
y
x
ij
W
o
o
1
2
2
2
2
0
..

(
(
(

=
j j j j j
j j j j j
j j j j j
Z Y Z X Z
Z Y Y X Y
Z X Y X X
W
o o o
o o o
o o o
o
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
.

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
i L i L i L i L i L i i L i i L i i L
i L i L i L i L i L i i L i i L i i L
i L i L i L i L i L i i L i i L i i L
i L i i L i i L i i i i i i
i L i i L i i L i i i i i i
i L i i L i i L i i i i i i
Z Y Z X Z Z Z Z
Z Y Y X Y Y Y Y
Z X Y X X X X X
Z Y X
Z Y X
Z Y X
i
W
o o o o o o
o o o o o o
o o o o o o
o o o o o o
o o o o o o
o o o o o o
k | e
k | e
k | e
k k k k | k e k
| | | k | e | e
e e e k e | e e
Direct Linear Transformation (DLT)
This method does not require fiducial marks and can be solved without
supplying initial approximations for the parameters
Collinearity equations along with the correction for lens distortion

x
,
y
lens distortion
f
x
pd in the x direction
f
y
pd in the y direction

Rearranging the above two equations

Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 29
(

+ +
+ +
=
(

+ +
+ +
=
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
33 32 31
23 22 21
0
33 32 31
13 12 11
0
L A L A L A
L A L A L A
y y a
L A L A L A
L A L A L A
x x a
Z Z m Y Y m X X m
Z Z m Y Y m X X m
f x y
Z Z m Y Y m X X m
Z Z m Y Y m X X m
f x x
o
o
1
1
11 10 9
8 7 6 5
11 10 9
4 3 2 1
+ + +
+ + +
=
+ + +
+ + +
=
Z L Y L X L
L Z L Y L X L
y
Z L Y L X L
L Z L Y L X L
x
y a
x a
o
o
L m f m y L
L m f m y L
L m f m y L
L Z m Y m X m f x L
L m f m x L
L m f m x L
L m f m x L
y
y
y
L L L x
x
x
x
/ ) (
/ ) (
/ ) (
/ ) (
/ ) (
/ ) (
/ ) (
23 33 0 7
22 32 0 6
21 31 0 5
13 12 11 0 4
13 33 0 3
12 32 0 2
11 31 0 1
=
=
=
+ + + =
=
=
=
DLT(contd.)
The resulting equations are solved
iteratively using LSM

- No initial approximations are required
for the unknowns.
Limitations
- Requirement of atleast six 3D object space control points
- Lower accuracy of the solution as compared with a rigorous bundle
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 30
) (
/
/
/
/ ) (
33 32 31
33 11
32 10
31 9
23 22 21 0 8
L L L
L L L y
Z m Y m X m L
L m L
L m L
L m L
L Z m Y m X m f y L
+ + =
=
=
=
+ + + =
(
(
(

(
(
(

=
(
(
(

1
8
4
1
11 10 9
7 6 5
3 2 1
L
L
L L L
L L L
L L L
Z
Y
X
L
L
L
Analytical Self Calibration
The equations take into account adjustment of the
calibrated focal length, principal-point offsets and
symmetric radial and decentering lens distortion.

x
a
, y
a
measured photo coordinates related to fiducials
x
o,
y
o
coordinates of the principal point
= x
a
x
o
where

= y
a
- y
o

Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 31
q
s
f y x p y x p r p r k r k r k y y y
q
r
f y x p y x p r p r k r k r k x x x
a a a a a a a a a a
a a a a a a a a a a
+ + + + + =
+ + + + + =
] 2 ) 3 ( )[ 1 ( ) (
] 2 ) 3 ( )[ 1 ( ) (
1
2 2
2
2 2
3
6
3
4
2
2
1 0
2
2 2
1
2 2
3
6
3
4
2
2
1 0
a
x
a
y
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
23 22 21
13 12 11
33 32 31
L A L A L A
L A L A L A
L A L A L A
Z Z m Y Y m X X m s
Z Z m Y Y m X X m r
Z Z m Y Y m X X m q
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
Analytical Self Calibration(contd.)

k
1
, k
2
, k
3
= symmetric radial lens distortion coefficients
p
1
, p
2
, p
3
= decentering distortion coefficients
f = calibrated focal length
r, s, q = collinearity equation terms

Provides a calibration of the camera under original conditions which existed
when the photographs were taken.
Geometric Requirements
- Numerous redundant photographs from multiple locations are required, with
sufficient roll diversity
- Many well-distributed image points be measured over the entire format to
determine lens distortion parameters
The numerical stability of analytical self calibration is of serious concern.
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 32
2 2 2
a a a
y x r + =
Applications
Automobile Construction
Machine Construction, Metalworking, Quality Control
Mining Engineering
Objects in Motion
Shipbuilding
Structures and Buildings
Traffic Engineering
Biostereometrics

Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 33
Biomedical Applications
Linear tape and caliper measurements of inherently
irregular three-dimensional biological structures are
Subtle movements produced by breathing, pulsation of
blood, and reflex correction for control of postural
stability.
Short patient involvement times, avoids contact with the
patient and thereby avoiding risk of deforming the area of
All medical photogrammetric measurements require
further interpretation and analysis to allow meaningful
information to be given to the end-user.
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 34
Bibliography
Kamara, H.M. (1979). Handbook of Non-Topographic
Photogrammetry, American Society of Photogrammetry.
Wolf , Paul R., Dewitt, Bon A. (2000). Elements of
Photogrammetry, McGraw Hill.
Devarajan, Venkat and Chauhan, Kriti (Spring 2008). Lecture
Notes: Mathematical Foundation of Photogrammetry, EE 5358
University of Texas at Arlington.
Karara, H.M. (1989). Non-Topographic Photogrammetry,
American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.
Mitchell, H.L. and Newton, I. (2002). Medical photogrammetric
measurement: overview and prospects. ISPRS Journal of
Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing, 56, 286-294.

Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 35
Acknowledgments

Dr. Venkat Devarajan

Kriti Chauhan
Monday, March 24, 2008 EE 5358 Computer Vision 36