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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Technishe Universiteit Eindhoven


from 3nd April to 5th May College 4W100 room MA-1.50 Lectures tue/wen/thu 13:30-15:15

Week 18
10 - Drilling a well How we can produce oil & gas from underground ? Drilling technology is the key to reach the deep reservoirs and to produce from its. 11 - The well completion and its performance These series of lectures regard the key element in the production: the well. The well is the part of the production system who links reservoir and surface. Knowing the performance of the well is possible to define the possible limits in production as well as the work-over intervention to enhance it 12 - The surface facilities: gathering systems and treatments of oil and gas The final step in production are the surface treatments before selling the produced oil & gas. The lectures are focused on the description of basic treatment components and on the most common procedure in treating oil & gas.

The well completion and its performance

Production system

Well

Surface equipment

Reservoir

Perforating the casing

Perforations

Single string compeltion

Multiple zone completion

Dual string completion

Well completion and well head

Christmas tree & Well head

IPR and driving mechanisms


The PI is defined as

the IPR represent the dependency of the PI from pressure From the following identity is clear the link between PI and change in reservoir pressure

qo PI pr pbh

IPR f pr , pbh , So , qo
Water drive

Pressure

Solution gas drive

Gas cap drive

Ckkro S o PI o Bo p

Oil flow rate

Tubing Performance Relationship


The TPR represents all possibile flow conditions through the tubing Different tubing diameters or configurations produce different curves the choice must be operated comparing the results through the overall performance of the well, the Vertical Lift Performance (VLP)

TPR f pwh , pbh , d , l , qo , qg


d1 d2

Pressure

d3

Oil flow rate

Choke valves
Positive choke

MOV choke Trim & stem choke

The choke valve & CPR


CPR f d ch
The choke valve operates in choking conditions Choking conditions are obtained when increasing the pressure drop the flow rate doesnt In choked flows the upstream parameters are not influenced by the changes in downstream parameters

d1
Pressure d2

d3 Oil flow rate

qo Cv A being

pwh Cpwh
o

pds C pwh

From Bottom Hole to Well Head


Knowing the IPR is possible to build from TPR the Pressure Well Head Curve
TPR

Pressure bottom hole

IPR

Oil flow rate

Choke sizing
Having the oil flow rate to be produced, from PWHC is possible to know which is the Pwh Comparing with the different curves of CPR the appropriate choke diameter will be identified The downstream pressure must be verified if is sufficient for the fluid handling up to the oil center

Pressure well head

PWHC CPR

Oil flow rate

Overall perfomance

Subsummersible pumps

Gas lift pumping

Sucker rod pumps