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Chapter Ten, Section Three October 15, 2012

James Monroe, Fifth President

What

do you think this country would be like if Democrats and Republicans ceased to exist? Would the fighting and bickering among the parties stop? Why or why not?

The

absence of major political divisions after the War of 1812 helped forge a sense of national unity. Imagine that todayno Democrats or Republicans fighting with one another. What a peaceful time that would be! In the 1816 presidential election, Republican candidate James Monroe faced almost no opposition. The Federalists barely existed as a party after the War of 1812. Monroe won the election by an overwhelming margin.

James Monroe is basically the symbol of the Era of Good Feelings. Monroe toured the nation wearing breeches and powdered wigsdress no longer in fashion. He was like Miss Sees in the sense that he wore old clothes. No president had done this since George Washington. Monroe represented a united America free of political strife. Everyone celebrated his visits. In 1820, Monroe won reelection, winning all but one electoral vote. That is a landslide.

The

Era of Good Feelings did not last very long. Regional differences came to surface, ending the period of national harmony. Most Americans felt strong allegiance to the region where they lived. IE: Westerners, Southerners or Northerners
This

sectionalism, or loyalty to their

region, became more intense as differences arose over national policies. The conflict over slavery, for example, always simmered beneath the surface.

Northerners

slavery. Southerners believed it was a necessity. Southerners stressed the importance of states rights to protect this and other rights they believed in. The different regions also disagreed on need for tariffs, a national bank, and internal improvements. (federal, state, and privately funded projects, such as canals and roads)

were increasingly opposed to

Was

a planter from South Carolina. Was a nationalist for some time after the war He favored support for internal improvements and developing industries and backed a national bank. He believed these programs would greatly benefit the South. In the 1820s, his views began to change. He became an advocate for states rights.

Sectional

tension reached new heights in 1820 over the issue of admitting new states to the Union. The problem revolved around slavery. The South wanted Missouri, part of the Louisiana Purchase, admitted as a slave state. Northerners wanted Missouri to be free of slavery. The issue became the subject of debate throughout the country.

Eventually,

Henry Clay helped work out a compromise that preserved the balance between North and South. The Missouri Compromise, reached in March 1820, provided for the admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. The agreement banned slavery in the remainder of the Louisiana Territory.
predictions can you make about the future of the United States?

What

Section

3 Review, #3, 4, 5. Page 320