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# moatazamahmoud@yahoo.com

Important statistical terms
Population:
a set which includes all
measurements of interest
to the researcher
(The collection of all
responses, measurements,
counts that are of interest)
or
Sample:
A subset of the population
Why sampling?

Data Collection

# Method of selecting sampling units from sampling frame

Types of sampling

• #  Probability samples

Non probability samples
Convenience samples (ease of access)

# sample is selected from elements of a population that are easily accessible

Snowball sampling (friend of friend….etc.)
Purposive sampling (judgemental)

#  You chose who you think should be in the study

Quota sample
Non probability samples

# Cheaper- but unable to generalise potential for bias

Probability samples

Conclusions

# Methods used in probability

samples
Simple random sampling
Systematic sampling
Stratified sampling
Multi-stage sampling
Cluster sampling

# Simple random sampling

Table of random numbers
6
8 4 2 5 7 9 5 4 1 2 5 6 3 2 1 4 0
5
8 2 0 3 2 1 5 4 7 8 5 9 6 2 0 2 4
3
6 2 3 3 3 2 5 4 7 8 9 1 2 0 3 2 5
9
8 5 2 6 3 0 1 7 4 2 4 5 0 3 6 8 6

# Systematic sampling

Sampling fraction
Ratio between sample size and population
size

Cluster sampling

# Cluster sampling

Section 1
Section 2
Section 4

### Section 3

Section 5
Stratified sampling
Multi-stage sampling

# Sampling error (random error)

Type 1 error
The probability of finding a difference with
our sample compared to population, and
there really isn’t one….
Known as the α (or “type 1 error”)
Usually set at 5% (or 0.05)
Type 2 error
The probability of not finding a difference
that actually exists between our sample
compared to the population…
Known as the β (or “type 2 error”)
Power is (1- β) and is usually 80%
Sample size
Quantitative
Qualitative
2
2
2
Z
σ
Z π(1
π)
n 
n 
2
2
D
D
2
2
σ )xF
2 P (1- P) F
1
2
n 
n 
2
2
D
D
Problem 1
A study is to be performed to determine a
certain parameter in a community. From a
previous study a sd of 46 was obtained.
If
a sample
error
of
up
to
4
is
to
be
accepted. How many subjects should be
included in this study
at
99%
level
of
confidence?
2
2
Z
σ
n 
2
D
2
2
2.58
x
46
n 
 880 .3 ~ 881
2
4
Problem 2
A study is to be done to determine effect
of 2 drugs (A and B) on blood glucose
level. From previous studies using those
drugs, Sd of BGL of
obtained respectively.
8 and 12 g/dl were
A significant level of 95% and a power of
90% is required to detect a mean
difference between the two groups of 3
g/dl. How many subjects should be include
in each group?

# D

2

2

2
3

### in each group

 242.6 ~ 243
Problem 3
It was desired to estimate proportion of
anaemic children in a certain preparatory
school. In a similar study at another school
a proportion of 30 % was detected.
Compute the minimal sample size required
at a confidence limit of 95% and accepting
a difference of up to 4% of the true
population.

# (0.04)

Problem 4
In
previous
studies,
percentage
of
hypertensives among Diabetics was 70%
and among non diabetics was 40%
in a
certain community.
A
researcher
wants
to
perform
a
comparative study for hypertension among
diabetics and non-diabetics
at
a
confidence
limit
95%
and
power
80%,
What is
the minimal sample to be taken
from each group with 4% accepted
difference of true value?

 2413.2

Cost