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2500 BCE Aegean Sea Minoan/Mycenaean (Ancient Greece)

c. 3500 BCE Tigris/Euphrates Sumer/Akkadia (Mesopotamia and Babylonia)

c. 2200 BCE Yellow River Shang and Xia dynasties (ancient China)

c. 3500 BCE Nile River Valley (Ancient Egypt)

c. 3000 BCE Indus River Valley Harappan/Vedic (ancient India)

C. 3200 BCE Norte Chico (Peru/Incan civilization)

Agriculture around the World

Africa (Nile River Valley) Central America and Mexico

India China
(Indus River Valley)

(Mesopotam ia - Fertile Crescent)


5000 BCE

5000 BCE

6000 BCE Millet

5000 BCE

5000 BCE

3000 BCE

Wheat, barley

Beans, corn, squash

5000 BCE Rice


Wheat, barley

Tomatoes, potatoes




Major Questions and Topics Types of sameness created in a civilization? Or, how civilization unified?

Types of difference created by civilization? Or, how civilization divided? Why hierarchies? How were hierarchies created? How were they justified?

General trajectory
Catal Hoyuk


Sumer and city-states

Akkadian Empi

How Civilization Develops

Food production + population growth job specialization supports growth and expansion of civilization.

Early River Valley Civilizations




Why River Valleys?

Water Basic human needs for survival Food Source Animals need water too. Water attracts animals. Animals become food.

Climate Warm and dry consistent

Fertile Land Once humans mastered agriculture, well-watered land produced food. All four river valleys met these criteria

City-States Emerge


City-States Emerge

City-States Emerge

City-States Emerge: Sameness

Political Function as countries do today laws, security, and citizenship e.g. Code of Ur-Nammu (Ur); Code of Hammurabi (Babylon) Rulers pass on Kingship through family Dynasties e.g. Xia Dynasty (China) Religion plays important role in politics

Social/Cultural Polytheism Gods for all reasons --- Ziggurats - temples Cultural Diffusion, e.g. through trading in Mesopotamia

City States Emerge: Difference

Social Classes Occupational Classes
Kings; Priests; Landholders

Wealthy Merchants Field Workers and Trades People Slaves - Captives from War

Advantages: Arts and Sciences, e.g. Geometry; Architecture; Writing

First Regional Empire

Sargon of Akkad 2300 BC - A Sumerian official controls city states of Kish, Lagash, Ur, Uruk, Umma, Agade & Babylon. Declines after 200 years internal fighting Babylonian Empire 2000 BC 1750 BC Had judgments set in stone an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.

Not equally applied to all citizens rich and poor, men and women
Established & reinforced principle that government was responsible for the citizens of its land.

Akkadian Empire
2334 BCE 2154 BCE [180 years]

Other Mesopotamian Empires