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induction motor 1

AC Machine Stator
a phase axis
b phase axis
c phase axis
120
0

120
0

120
0

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1 Cycle
Amp
time
t
0

t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
01
t
12

Currents in different phases of AC Machine
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Axis of phase a
a


-90 -40 10 60 110 160 210 260
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
F
a

Space angle (theta) in degrees
t
0

t
01
t
12
t
2
a
MMF Due to a phase current
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a F
c

-93 10 113 216
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
a


b
c
a
a


b
c
a
a


b
c
a
a


b
c
F
b

F
a F
F
b

F
c

F
F
a
F
F
b

F
c

F
c

F
b

F
Space angle (u) in degrees
F
F
a F
c

F
b

t = t
0
= t
4

t = t
1
t = t
2
t = t
3
t = t
0
= t
4

RMF(Rotating Magnetic Field)
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Video of the unfolded rotating magnetic field
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RMF(Rotating Magnetic Field)
-Analogy with DC machines
The salient field structure in DC
machines is mimicked along with speed
in an AC machines by a multiphase (2 or
more) winding. The number of poles are
determined by winding distribution and is
independent of the number of phases.
The rotational speed is determined by the supply frequency and
the number of poles, such that an observer in air-gap counts same
number of poles per second, meaning the more the number of poles
the slower the machine will run and vice-versa.

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Induction Motor
Most popular motor today in the low and medium horsepower range

Very robust in construction

Speed easily controllable using V/f or Field Oriented Controllers

Have replaced DC Motors in areas where traditional DC Motors
cannot be used such as mining or explosive environments

Of two types depending on motor construction: Squirrel Cage
or Slip Ring

Only Disadvantage: Most of them run with a lagging power factor

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Squirrel Cage Rotor
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Slip Ring Rotor
The rotor contains windings similar to stator.

The connections from rotor are brought out using slip rings that
are rotating with the rotor and carbon brushes that are static.
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Torque Production in an Induction Motor
In a conventional DC machine field is stationary and the
current carrying conductors rotate.
We can obtain similar results if we make field structure
rotating and current carrying conductor stationary.
In an induction motor the conventional 3-phase winding
sets up the rotating magnetic field(RMF) and the rotor
carries the current carrying conductors.
An EMF and hence current is induced in the rotor due to
the speed difference between the RMF and the rotor,
similar to that in a DC motor.
This current produces a torque such that the speed
difference between the RMF and rotor is reduced.
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Slip in Induction Motor
However, this speed difference cannot become zero because that
would stop generation of the torque producing current itself.

The parameter slip s is a measure of this relative speed difference
s
s
s
s
n
n n
s
e
e e
=

=
where n
s
,e
s
,f
1
are the speeds of the RMF in RPM ,rad./sec and
supply frequency respectively
n,e are the speeds of the motor in RPM and rad./sec respectively

The angular slip frequency and the slip frequency at which voltage
is induced in the rotor is given by
1
1
2
2 1 2 2
, , E
N
N
s E sf f s
s
= = = e e
turns Rotor N turns Stator N = =
2 1
poles of p
p
f
n
s
# ;
120
1
= =
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Induction Motor Example
A 100 hp, 460V, 8 pole, 60 Hz, star connected
3 phase induction motor runs at 891 rpm under full load.
Determine the synchronous speed in rpm, slip, slip
frequency (frequency of the rotor circuit),slip rpm at full load.

What is the speed of the rotor field relative to (i) rotor structure, (ii)
stator structure, (iii) stator rotating field?

Voltage induced in rotor under full load? N
2
/N
1
=0.5
Solution on Greenboard
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Induction motor Equivalent Circuit
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Relation between air-gap, gross mechanical
power and rotor copper loss
s s P P P
mech ag
: 1 : 1 : :
2
=
Internal efficiency =
s
P
P
ag
mech
=1
Implies lower the slip higher is the induction motor efficiency

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Example problem related to the
formula shown in the previous
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Approximate Equivalent Circuit
Assumes negligible magnetizing current

Note Rc has been removed.
The sum of core losses and the windage and friction loses are treated
as constant. This is because as speed increases rotor core loss
decreases (lower f
2
) but windage and frictionloses increase.With
decrease of speed the converse is true. Thus the sum is constant at
any speed and is termed as rotational loss.
j
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IEEE Equivalent Circuit
Assumes 30-50% magnetizing current and drop across R
1
+jX
1
not
negligible

As before, the sum of core losses and the windage and friction loses are
treated as constant.
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Thevnins equivalent of the
IEEE Equivalent Circuit
This is done by applying Thevenins theorem and treating the rotor
side as load
1
1 1
2
1
, , ,
X X
X
K X X R K R V K V
m
m
th th th th th th
+
= ~ ~ ~
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Determining equivalent circuit parameters
j
Uses no-load test and blocked rotor tests to determine them
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Example problem related to no-load and blocked rotor test
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Performance Characteristics(1)
syn
ag
mech
mech
mech
p
f
syn syn mech
ag mech mech mech
P
P
T
s
s P s
s
R
I T P
e e
e e e
e
t
= =
= =
= = =
1
4
2
2
2
; ) 1 (
); 1 ( ) 1 (
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Performance Characteristics(2)
s
R
X X s R R
V
T
s
R
I
P
P
T
th th
th
syn
mech
syn syn
ag
mech
mech
mech
'
2
2 '
2
2 '
2
2
'
2
2 '
2
) ( ) / (
1
1
+ + +
=
= = =
e
e e e
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Performance Characteristics(3)
Case 1:
) ( zero to close small s =
'
2
'
2
'
2
X X
s
R
and
R
s
R
Then
th
th
+ >>
>>
s T
s
R
V
T
mech
th
syn
mech

=
) (
1
'
2
2
e
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Performance Characteristics(4)
Case 2:
) ( arg one to close e l s =
'
2
'
2
X X
s
R
R Then
th th
+ << +
s
T
s
R
X X
V
T
mech
th
th
syn
mech
1
) (
1
'
2
'
2
2

+
=
e
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Performance Characteristics(5)
Combining case 1 and 2 the approximate torque speed characteristics
would look approximately like:
T
mech

Speed (n)
T
max

n
m

n
s

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Performance Characteristics(6)
How to obtain T
max?
By differentiating the following equation
with respect to s and equating it to zero.
s
R
X X s R R
V
T
th th
th
syn
mech
'
2
2 '
2
2 '
2
2
) ( ) / (
1
+ + +
=
e
One can obtain the following:
Slip at maximum torque =
] ) ( [
2 '
2
2
'
2
max
X X R
R
s
th th
T
+ +
=
) (
) (
1
2
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
1
'
2
2
1
'
2
2
2 '
2
2
2
max
R small
L L
V p
X X
V
X X R R
V
T
th
th
th
th
syn
th th th
th
syn
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
~
+ + +
=
e e
e
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Performance Characteristics(7)
(Speed Control)
Speed control by varying
rotor resistance (vary
T
max
by varying s
Tmax
)
(inefficient)

Speed control by varying
supply voltage and frequency
(V
th
/e
1
)
(efficient)
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Performance Characteristics(8)
s
R
X X s R
V
T
th
th
syn
mech
'
2
2 '
2
2 '
2
2
) ( ) / (
1
+ +
~
e
Also using
) (
'
2
'
2
max
X X
R
s
th
T
+
~
and
for small R
1
one can write the following:
s s
s s
T
T
T
T
mech
max
max
2
2 2
max
+
=
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Example problem based on the formula on previous to
express maximum torque and starting torque in terms of rated
torque
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Performance Characteristics(9)
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Example problem related to efficiency calculation of induction motor
based on equivalent circuit parameters
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Related to the problem
in the previous slide
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Different modes of IM operation
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Different modes of IM operation
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Example problem on variable frequency supply using a slip-ring
induction motor
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Speed control of SRIM with ext. resistors
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Applications of SRIM
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Wind Power applications of SRIM
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