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Motivation

Motivation
the individual internal process that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior; the personal force that causes you or me to behave in a particular way. Key elements: intensity, direction, persistence

Why Study Motivation?


- key to performance improvement.
-helps us to understand the nature of motivation in a work setting. - It is worthwhile to understand motivational theories because you will see how true they are, use them and improve your skills in motivation.

Model of Motivation

Morale
an employees feelings about his or her job and superiors and about the firm itself.

Scientific Management (Taylorism)


the application of scientific principles to management of work and workers. began w/n the manufacturing industries improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity From craft to mass production

Frederick W. Taylor
Soldiering: productivity levels Jobs broken down into tasks Management should determine
Best way to perform tasks (i.e. break, time) Job output to expect

Management should also


Choose the best person Train the best person Cooperate with workers

Frederick W. Taylor
Now one of the very first requirements for a man who is fit to handle pig iron as a regular occupation is that he shall be so stupid and so phlegmatic that he more nearly resembles in his mental make-up the ox than any other type. The man who is mentally alert and intelligent is for this very reason entirely unsuited to what would, for him, be the grinding monotony of work of this character. Therefore the workman who is best suited to handling pig iron is unable to understand the real science of doing this class of work.

Frederick Winslow Taylor, 1911

Piece-Rate System
F.W. Taylor
People work only to earn money

More output ->


Increased productivity

Piece-rate = people paid a certain amount for each unit of output they produce

Figure1: Taylors Piece-Rate System

Hawthorne Studies by Elton Mayo


Western Electric: 1927, 1932 Determine effects of work environment on productivity Relay assembly experiments and Bank Wiring Room Experiments Varied light level Pressure to produce higher output Human factors (informal groups or cliques) Beginning of Human Relations movement (study the behavior of people in
groups, in particular workplace groups

Figure 2: Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Understanding Maslows Hierarchy


Physiological = survival Safety = physical/emotional security Social = love/affection and sense of belonging Esteem = respect/recognition; sense of accomplishment and worth Self-actualization = growth/development to become all capable of being

Frederick Herzberg Two-Factor Theory


Attitude is determined on 2 sets of factors: hygiene and motivating factors

Herzberg, American Psychologist

Frederick Herzberg Two-Factor Theory (cont.)


Motivation-hygiene theory: satisfaction and dissatisfaction are separate and distinct dimensions
Factors of motivation create satisfaction Factors of hygiene / maintenance reduce dissatisfaction

Figure 3: Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene Theory

Douglas McGregor
Theory X
Assumes employees dislike work and will function only in a highly controlled work environment

Theory Y
Assumes employees accept responsibility and work toward organizational goals if they achieve personal rewards

Theory X
1. People dislike work and try to avoid it. 2. Managers must coerce, control, and threaten employees to achieve organizational goals.

3. People must be led because they have little ambition and will not seek responsibility; they are concerned mainly with security.

Theory Y
1. Work is important in peoples lives. 2. People will work toward goals to which they are committed. 3. People commit to goals when accomplishing them will bring personal rewards. 4. People seek out responsibility. 5. Employees have potential to accomplish goals. 6. Organizations do not make full use of human resources.

Reinforcement Theory
BF Skinner based on premise that behavior that is rewarded is likely to be repeated, whereas behavior that is punished is less likely to recur the external environment of the organization must be designed effectively and positively so as to motivate the employee

Reinforcement
Action follows from particular behavior
Positive: strengthen desired behavior by providing a reward Negative: strengthen desired behavior by eliminating undesirable situation Punishment: create undesired consequence of undesirable behavior Extinction: eliminate undesirable behavior by not responding

Equity: people are motivated to obtain/preserve equitable treatment for themselves Inputs Outcomes
Expectancy: motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely to get it Goal-Setting: employees motivated to achieve goals they and managers set

Contemporary Motivation Theories

Figure 5: Expectancy Theory


Victor Vroom, business school professor at the Yale School of Management based on estimates of how well the expected results of a given behavior would lead to desired results

VROOMS EXPECTANCY THEORY


Motivational Force(MF)= Valence(V) X Expectancy(E) X Instrumentality Valence: It is the anticipated reward from an outcome (Promotion from performance) Expectancy: It is the perceived probability of performing sufficiently Expectancy is of two types:

Expectancy of Effort leading to Performance (ie E P) Expectancy that Performance leading to Outcome (ie P O)
Instrumentality- Perception that a person will receive a reward if the performance expectation is met

Expectancy Theory
Effort Performance Outcome
Individual Needs

Expectancy

Expectancy

Expectancy

Job Enrichment
Provides employee with more variety and responsibility in job (job rotation, combine jobs, etc) Job enlargement: expanding a workers assignments to include additional but similar tasks Job design: restructuring work to cultivate worker-job match

Equity Theory

Adams Equity Theory


Decision Rule: We choose the behavior which restores equity.
Equity theory is a social comparison theory. To calculate equity we compute an outcome/input ratio for self and other and then compare the two ratios.

Equity exists when O/I (self) = O/I (other)

Equity Theory (cont.)

Employee Choices if an Inequity Exists


Change work habits Change job benefits and income

Distort their perception of themselves


Distort their perception of others

Look at situation from different perspective


Leave the situation

Work-Scheduling Options
Compressed Workweek Fitting 40 hours into a shorter workweek Employees decide what their work hours will be Employees work from home via a linked computer Allows two individuals to split the tasks and hours of a workweek

Flextime

Telecommuting

Job Sharing

Recognition
Formal awards Informal interaction Monetary awards or time off Congratulatory e-mails, notes, or pat on the back

Economic Incentives
Piece-Rate Plans Profit Sharing

Gain Sharing
Stock Options Bonuses