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How Can We Improve Women Income?

Case Studies of Womens Empowerment Activities at Grass Root Level


Muhammad Dawam
Indonesia National Family Planning Population Board (BKKBN), May 2010

Buying foods or pills for birth control.?

INTRODUCTION
Indonesia family norm: NKKBS (Small family size and prosperity) Prosperity through productive economy activities The are 30 percent poor families in Indonesia (34 million, Central Statistics Board, 2008) Most of poor family planning acceptors have no income generating activities.

What Does this Mean for Indonesia Policy ?


Needs of these women are so great that the present, women empowerment program should be strengthened from central government.

CENTRALIZATION PERIOD:
1976 Income Generating Project focused on Family Planning Performance (Regional Approach) 1979 Family Planning Group Acceptors (UPPKA) 1996 Family Welfare Group (UPPKS) More support from Central and Local Government Budget, International Donor Agencies such as UNFPA, USAID, etc.; Private Sectors/Companies 1997 2003 Family Welfare Fund Foundation (YDSM)

DECENTRALIZATION PERIODE:
2006 2009: Social assistance Rp. 5 million per Income Generating Group 2010 Household Industry Credit from Rp. 5 25 million (KRISTA) per group by Mortgage Company (accessed in 19 provinces)

Current other supports from: Financial Institution (State/private Banks, Local Government Budgets, Foundation, Companies)

THE LEGAL ASPECT


THE GOAL OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY: TO INCREASE FAMILY EMPOWERMENT [GOVERNMENT WORKING PLAN 2009]

PLAN OF ACTION: WOMEN EMPOWERMENT PROGRAM

Women empowerment program through income generating activities purposes: 1. New family planning acceptors contribution (low contraceptive prevalence rate regions) 2. Family planning acceptor supervision (high contraceptive prevalence rate regions).

FAMILY ECONOMY EMPOWERMENT MODEL


SOCIAL FAMILY
Environment

FATHER

MOTHER
Economic Resources

CHILDREN
Natural Resources

Productive Economy Business Empowerment

MG Ana Budi Rahayu, Bina Swadaya Website, 2008

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
WOMEN EMPOWERNMENT PROGRAM [Letter NO.332/HK.010/F3/2008, Income Generating Group Guidance BKKBN, 2008]
ACHIEVE MENT MOTIVA TION TRAINING ACCESS TO: INFORMATI ON & SERVICES

INCOME GENERATING PROMOTIONS

FAMILIES INCOME GENERA TING

PARTNERS: RELATED SECTORS FINANCE INSTITUTIONS ASSOCIATION PRIVATE

UPPKS MANAGEMENT
Human resources (training, technical assistance, internship, study tour). Partnership (human resources, product, capital, business management, marketing). Networking (parties or individual supports). Product development (SNI/Indonesia National Standard). Group facilitation to access more capital. Marketing facilitation through join market, promotion on local/national events.

WHY DO WE CARE OF INCOME GENERATING GROUP (UPPKS) ?

Beyond Family Planning As a media to motivate reproductive age couples and to keep the continuation of contraceptive users The impact: to increase family stage started from Pre Prosperous Family Prosperous Family (PF) stage 1 PF stage 2 PF stage 3 PF stage 3 plus

HOW DO INCOME GENERATING GROUP ACTIVITIES WORK?


Local Family Planning Board motivates, facilitate (funds, training), and developing the local human skill and natural resources. Partnership with sectors concern. Supervising along with local sectors Managed by Family Planning Field Workers (in the village level) operational, monitoring and evaluation. As a learning process at the family level

TRADITIONAL BUSINESS

Harvesting

Processing

Selling

Packaging

INCOME GENERATING GROUP (UPPKS): CYCLIS MODEL


PLAN OF ACTION

COST BENEFITS

PROCESSING

MARKETING

PACKAGING

INCOME GENERATING GROUP (UPPKS): HIERARCHICAL MODEL


HANDICRAFT

INDIVIDUAL

GROUP LEADERS

INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL

BEAUTICIAN STAPLE FOOD

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILY BUSINESS

Age Groups
16 50 34 41 Plus 31-40 30 Below

Total of 5.4 thousand families


Source: Indonesia Middle Development Plan Survey, 2008

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILY BUSINESS

Source: Indonesia Middle Development Plan Survey, 2008

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILY BUSINESS

Source: Indonesia Middle Development Plan Survey, 2008

CURRENT PROFILE OF INDONESIA INCOME GENERATING GROUP (UPPKS)


[The Percentage of Group Levels]

Source: Family Economy Directorate website, UPPKS Baseline, May 2010

Total of: 65 thousand groups

CURRENT PROFILE OF INDONESIA INCOME GENERATING GROUP (UPPKS) [The Percentage Type of Businesses]

Source: Family Economy Directorate website, UPPKS Baseline, May 2010

Total of: 65 thousand groups

CURRENT PROFILE OF INDONESIA INCOME GENERATING GROUP (UPPKS)


[The Percentage of Current family Planning Acceptors]

Source: Family Economy Directorate website, UPPKS Baseline, May 2010

Total of: 1.2 million members

THE CASE STUDY OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT Title: Factors Affecting on Credits Installment Problems, 2000 [Management Aspect]

Locations: West Java and Lampung Provinces


Results:
Lack of business motivation Wrong type of business (not market oriented) Did not have entrepreneurship behavior Without skill (traditional) Unqualified product

Recommendations:
Achievement motivation training intervention. Provide appropriate technological tools/machinery. Saving habit.

THE CASE STUDY OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT Title: Income Generating Group Development, 2002 [Management Aspect]
Locations: West Java, Cental Java, Bali Provinces

Results:
The end of Prosperous Family Credit (YDSM) MOU Many business uncertainty continuing. The new credits scheme inappropriate for the poor. Lack of coordination with partners (sectors and or financial institutions).

Recommendations:
Advocacy and facilitation to develop soft loan from the local funding sources (BRI, Cooperation, Companies). Provide technical assistance on group management (making proposal, access to local financial institutions).

THE CASE STUDY OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT Title: The Impact Of Family Welfare Credit, 2003 [Management Aspect]
Locations: West Sumatera and Yogyakarta Provinces

Results:
Province program Managers lack of supervision on

economic productive techniques (paid more attentions on credit management revolving funds, reporting). Limited managerial and technical training to Family Planning Field Workers and Village Community Institutions Lack of community leaders and local partners participations.

Recommendations:
Province propose capacity building on management and technical training to program managers. Provide technical guidance on economic productive up to village level.

THE CASE STUDY OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT Title: The Evaluation on Income Generating Group (UPPKS) Performance, 2008 [Management Aspect]
Locations: Central Java, South Sulawesi, and Bangka Belitung Provinces

Group activities continuations: Existing supervision Providing technical support Group Leaders pioneering (Transparencies, building trust, closeness). Group product continuations: Self motivations Entrepreneurship Capital (internal capital collection a plus) Technical skills Products quality (output) One Group Pilot Project in a sub district policy.

THE CASE STUDY OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT Title: Income Generating Group (UPPKS) Reposition, 2009 [Management Aspect]
Locations: Papua, South Sulawesi, and North Sulawesi Provinces

Results:

Various strategies implementation among districts (approach: community, and family level). The activities tend to be income generating project it self. Family planning group activities were not integrated yet.

Recommendations:
Back to beyond family planning through: Focusing on the affected target (reproductive age acceptors) Developing integrated family planning group activities across related components in all managerial levels

OPERATIONAL RESEARCH ON INCOME GENERATING GROUP MODEL INTERVENTION


DEVELOPED IN 1998 REPLICATED IN: 2000, 2008 AND 2009

Building a dream Capability and self reliance A succeeded entrepreneur (exposure) Choosing business type (market observation) Increasing quantity and quality of the products Marketing Budget management Group management Business supervision Products skills (practice) Integrated family planning activities and services

LESSON LEARNED BASED ON THE WOMEN EMPOWERMENT CASE STUDIES:


Indonesia NFPCB/BKKBN: During three decades most of Income Generating Group are at basic level. The intensity of information and commitment to access the local capital sources needed by BKKBN institution at districts (BRI, PT Pegadaian, etc). Provincial supervision strengthen the women empowerment program at district level. Districts BKKBN commitment and support keep the program continuation. The Family Planning Field Workers hold a key position to maintain the group development and quality.

LESSON LEARNED BASED ON THE WOMEN EMPOWERMENT CASE STUDIES:


Income Generating Group (UPPKS): The group should be managed professionally The group Cyclic Model are recommended (managable: organization dynamic, administrative and finance, product). Group achievement motivation training is a prerequisite. The group initiative on internal saving guarantee the group life and development: principal deposit compulsory saving voluntary saving Islamic day saving recreational saving

LESSON LEARNED BASED ON THE WOMEN EMPOWERMENT CASE STUDIES FOUND THAT:
Women empowerment contribution/ outcomes: Decision making on the economic activities More women get involved in the productive economy activities Family expenditures support (e.g.: school expenses, extra meals, charity, etc.) Social status impact (invitation for the UPPKS leader champion to meet The President) Basic family health contribution

LESSON LEARNED FROM THE WOMEN EMPOWERMENT CASE STUDIES Succeeded indicators: the increase number of members, groups, types of products, group level. Recruitment level: should be focused on reproductive age group (20-35 years old), and not the beginner entrepreneurs.

Please remember that these women need our help to have more empowerment. Let us act now.

What Needs to be Done:


Reposition/strengthen the Women Empowerment Program with more coordination Between Head of BKKBN and Ministry of Trade and Industry. Changing mind set to distribute more local operational budgetary (Specific Allocation Budget). Ensuring that the 65,000.00 groups meet the capitals they need through the central government commitments (Executive and Legislative). Stronger commitment and support to Districts BKKBN.

Estimating Cost for Capital Support


By the year 2011: 65,000.00 groups x $ 500.00 US= $ 32,500,000.00 U.S.A

NEEDED MORE CAPITALS SOURCES ALTERNATIVES:


Local budgets (districts/municipalities) Finance institutions: banks, mortgages Association for Family Planning Income Generating Groups Private: companies, charity board (YDSM)