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Continuous casting machine (CCM)


Purging is done by Argon blowing from the bottom through argon pipe. Time required for purging is around 30 minute. Argon gas purging pressure not more than 2-3 kg/mm2. . During purging ca-si wire is added to remove inclusion from the molten bath.

(1) Purging is done to homogenise the bath.

(2)Remove dissolved gasses from the bath.

Ladle lining:
1st lining which is called safety lining: 80% high alumina (AlO) 2nd lining which is done by dolomite. Life of the lining is 50-55 heats

Ladle lining design:


What is CCm ?
Continuous casting is defined as teeming of liquid metal in a short mould with a false bottom through which partially solidified billet is withdrawn continuously at the same rate at which the metal is poured in the mould. In SMS 1: CCM has two strands which has casting radius 6m and
length 11m. Square billet size varies from 100CC, 120CC, 140CC, 160CC, 200CC. In SMS -2: CCM has two strands which has casting radius 10.25 m and metallurgical length around 19 m. Square Billet size varies from 200,250 and 300 mm thickness and around 9 m long.

Main parts of the CCM are:

(a) The ladle to hold the molten metal. (b) The tundish to regulate the flow of liquid metal in the mould. (c) The mould to allow solidification of the product. (d) The cooling sprays to solidify the ingot completely. (e) The cutting device to obtain the handlable lengths of the product.

Shroud: It connects the ladle and tundish. Molten metal transferred to

tundish through the shroud. It is made of graphite and life is 2-4 heats.

Tundish: - Tundish is the main part of CCM

(1) To maintain the steel flow more accurately by maintaining the metal level during the entire casting period. (2) It can subdivide the flow into several streams to simultaneously cast multiple strands. (3) The important function of tundish is effective cleaning of the steel to produce better cleanliness. This also helps in removing the slag, if any that has come along with the steel in the ladle. Use of tundish allows final de-oxidation adjustments, trimming additions, desulphurization, inclusion modification and temperature control. The capacity of tundish is 4-5 ton and life is 300 -400 heats. Refractory lining is 80% MgO + 10% Al2O3. Casting is started when tundish is filled by the 2ton liquid steel. T/D as well as SEN should be well heated so temperature comes out near 1000-11000C

Ladle and tundish:

Sub-entry nozzle (SEN): It connects mould and tundish. It is

made of zirconia and life is only one heat. Dipping of SEN in mould is 120 mm.

Mould: - The mould is made out of drawn copper tube or is a

welded plate construction of high conductivity electrolytic grade copper. The mould is water cooled. For primary solidification the water flows around copper mould with high speed around 900 lit/min. The mould has open bottom and closed by a dummy plug bar in the beginning. To avoid the transverse cracking it is oscillated at the rate of 90 oscillation/min. The mould is expected to extract 10 % of the total extractable heat in the machine. Moulds are invariably lubricated to assist stripping.