Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 36

Interkoneksi

Modul-09

Universal Access and Service (UAS)

Basic definitions
Universal access (UA) is when everyone can access the service somewhere, at a public place, thus also called public, community or shared access. Universal service (US) describes when every individual or household can have service, using it privately, either at home or increasingly carried with the individual through wireless devices The three hallmarks of UA and US are:
o Availability: the service is available to inhabited parts of the country through public, community, shared or personal devices o Accessibility: all citizens can use the service, regardless of location, gender, disabilities and other personal characteristics o Affordability: the service is affordable to all citizens

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

UA and US in ICT
Telephony (voice calls and text messages)
o Offering one-to-one communication as well as content distribution to a wider group. o Text messages are often also significant for UAS

Narrowband and broadband Internet, providing e-mail, livechats, web-browsing, content distribution, Voice Over IP (VoIP) and IP Television (IPTV), among many other applications and services Radio and television broadcasting

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

UAS Target
Universal access and service (UAS) measures are usually targeted at rural areas that are unserved or underserved, and especially low-population density areas where provision of services is not viable. UAS targets can also be focused on very poor urban areas in large metropolitan cities, including slums.
April 2011 Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011 4

UAS Target
Developing countries typically set the following universal access (UA) targets:
A public phone for a certain size of community (e.g., for all communities larger than 2000 inhabitants); A limited walking distance to a public phone (e.g., 5 km for communities too small to have their own public phone); An Internet POP in districts centres, provincial capitals or towns above a certain size (e.g., above 20,000 inhabitants) that provides either high-speed or broadband capacity; and A public access Internet centre accompanying the Internet POP

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

UAS Target Characteristics


Targets should focus on needs that have clear indicators and high priorities so that efforts are not spread too thinly among too many targets Targets should be designed to look ahead three to five years Targets should be ambitious but realistic in the light of a countrys actual situation Targets should be reviewed regularly (e.g., every two or three years) to remain ambitious but realistic Targets should be objectively measurable, so that progress can be assessed

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

UAS Features Specification


Times of day when there is access to the service Type of shelter for the terminals (e.g. secure building for a telecentre) Access to and usability of the terminal for people with physical disabilities Convenience and pleasantness of location for all target groups of users (e.g., women might not wish to enter a bar to use a service) Quality of service (network reliability, fault repair times and call quality for telephony and prescribed down and upstream data rates for the Internet service) Payment methods (e.g., cash or prepaid cards) and for prepaid cards, availability of sales outlets Personal support for using the services

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

Other UAS Services


Other services that are entering UAS policies include:
Directories and directory enquiry services; Support services for Internet subscribers (e.g. help-lines, training); Emergency call answering facilities (dispatch of help for emergencies); and Special facilities to permit use by people with disabilities on equality with all other facilities

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

Scope of UAS
The services to be included in the scope of (UAS) will change as technology and society change. In 2002, the European Union (EU) built into the EU Universal Service Directive a requirement that the scope of universal service (US) obligations be reviewed every three years. To be included in the scope of a UAS policy, a service has to satisfy two tests:
o In the light of social, economic and technological developments, has the ability to use the service become essential for social inclusion?; and o Are normal commercial forces unable to make the service available for all to use?

The scope of US in the EU was originally confined to telephony at a fixed location for voice calls, fax calls and data calls (for narrowband Internet using dial-up). The first review of the scope took place in 2006. Two services, mobile telephony and broadband Internet were new candidates for addition to the USs scope.
April 2011 Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011 9

Scope of UAS
(for Developing Countries)
For developing countries, modified forms of this general test regarding which services to include into the UAS scope might be preferred. The main driver for UAS may be economic before social factors come to the fore, so policy makers in developing countries could ask the following questions:
o In light of economic, social, and technological developments, has the ability to use the service become essential for uniform countrywide economic development or social inclusion?; and o Are normal commercial forces unable to make the service available for all to use, within a timescale consistent with the contribution of the service that will meet the Millennium Development Goals?
April 2011 Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011 10

Steps in Developing Communications Capability

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

11

Regulatory intervention for UAS


Universal Service Obligations (USOs) have been a form of regulatory intervention for achieving universal service (US). The future of USOs is a topic for debate among stakeholders in developed countries, as represented by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) and the EU. Some believe that USOs will soon be both impracticable and unnecessary, while others see them as more important than ever in an era when universal broadband access could contribute significantly to mitigating climate change and its effects. The outcome of this debate will differ from country to country, depending on political factors as well as on the need for, and supply of, communications services

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

12

Regulatory intervention for UAS


(for Developing Countries)
For developing countries, a parallel debate will take place, with an equally uncertain outcome. Industry stakeholders like the GSM Association (GSMA) argue forcefully for regulators to stand aside and allow the markets to stimulate and fulfil demand for new services. At the same time, ICTs are a vital tool for development in sectors such as health and education that are usually understood to be commercially unviable and that need central government support. This toolkit aims to help policymakers and regulators in developing countries make informed decisions about the scope of UAS and regulatory intervention in their own countries.

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

13

Arguments for a UAS Policy


ICTs are social and economic enablers.
o ICTs are increasingly used in all sectors of economies. o In many regions, economic activity is shifting away from agriculture and industry to services sectors, and towards the new information economy and society. o The ICT sector is considered to be a significant engine of growth for economies

Supply and demand increases the importance of UAS policy


o The increased supply of ICTs through rapid o Technological developments and base of pyramid marketing, actually fuels the requirement for UA

Market gaps can remain in place


While market forces, after liberalization and sector reform, have had the greatest impact on improvement of UAS in many developing countries, for various reasons market gaps can remain in place. Some countries, for example, have exceptionally challenging geographic characteristics combined with extremely low population Constant change in technology, services, and pervasiveness of various ICT services makes it necessary that the status of UAS should be monitored and policies continue to be updated and developed
Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011 14

Monitoring and updating UAS

April 2011

Regulatory Reform
A thorough liberalization process is vital to the success of a UAS program for the following reasons:
Without an effective regulator operating within a modern communication law, there are significant challenges for the implementation of a UAS program Where a government continues to be a market player (by owning all or a part of the incumbent operator):
It is likely that the government cannot be impartial when making sector policy and UAS policy, as it will have a vested interest in one of the market participants. There is a risk that governments will continue to direct the incumbent operator to serve certain areas for political reasons.

Only a reformed or renewed institutional framework is conducive to network and service expansion on an equitable basis. Therefore, competition, interconnection, licensing/authorization policies and any economic disincentives must be properly addressed
April 2011 Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011 15

Impact and Importance of Competition on UAS


Competition promotes UAS in the following ways:
Competition drives expansion (i.e., coverage and availability) Competition lowers prices (i.e., affordability), introduces new pricing models and promotes better quality of services Competition encourages market segmentation and stimulates the introduction of innovative new services (i.e., more choices and new services); and promotes the less expensive services (through removal of non-price barriers) and subscriber growth Competition makes universal access and service fund (UASF) tenders for subsidies to provide UAS successful

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

16

Universal Service Obligation (USO)


Before liberalization, there was usually a single network operator in an area (or country); this operator had to fulfill whatever social obligations were required, particularly when these organizations were government departments Universal service obligations (USOs) were often not explicit but were seen as part of the organizations general public service mandate When any losses were recognized, they were expected to be met by internal cross-subsidies When liberalization was being considered, many incumbent operators initially used their social roles to help secure preferred arrangements for the new regime

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

17

Universal Service Obligation (USO)


When a fight against liberalization was lost, incumbents often argued in favor of access deficit charges or shared funding of USOs In a liberalizing market, imposing USOs on the incumbent operator alone is contrary to the objective of creating a level-playing field A liberalizing market moves away from forced obligations towards a regime where the cost of universal access and service (UAS) provision is shared proportionally among all industry participants and all players have an opportunity to participate in the provision of UAS, typically through a competitive mechanism

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

18

Access Deficit Charges (ADC)


The term access deficit, is defined as the loss made by a telephone company on providing access lines if this is regarded as a stand-alone business. The figure shows the small proportion of countries that still use this funding method in the last six years.

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

19

Tariff Rebalancing
In the past, fixed line monopolies commonly set line rentals well below any reasonable estimate of the relevant costs. They recovered costs primarily through international call charges, which were commonly set well above cost. This charge structure was popular, especially during the mass market phase of network growth, when many middle-income people were subscribing to the phone for the first time. New competitors usually targeted the high-margin markets of business customers as well as long distance and international calls first; this meant that the incumbent risked large losses unless it rebalanced its tariffs to be more in line with underlying costs It was therefore necessary to raise line rentals to remove the access deficit while lowering call charges so as to compete with new entrants. Tariff rebalancing of this kind has taken place in most countries at varying speeds
April 2011 Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011 20

Main Approaches of Universality


Market Based Reforms
Especially privatization, competition and cost-based pricing

Mandatory Services Obligations


Imposed by licence conditions or other regulatory measures

Cross Subsidies
Between or within services provided by incumbent operators

Access Deficit Charges (ADC)


Paid by telecommunications operators to subsidized access deficit of incumbents

Universality Funds
Independently administered funds that collect revenue from various sources and provided targeted subsidies to implement universality programs
April 2011 Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011 21

Perbandingan beberapa alternatif


Option Market Based Reforms Advantages Efektif dalam perluasan Privatisasi Ada insentif untuk layanan Konsisten Efektif bila anti kompetitif Efektif bagi operator yang baru privatisasi Disadvantages Kurang baik dalam kompetisi dan privatisasi Bisa timbul konflik Timbul efek anti kompetitif Rasionlisasi

Mandatory Services Obligations

Cross Subsidies

Tradisional

In-effesiensi Hanya dilakukan oleh eksisiting Dampak akibat anti kompetitif


Sulit menghiitung biaya akses In-effeisien Transaksi kompleks bagi beberapa admin. Potensi kurang baik bagi Pemerintah Sulit memperkirakan revenue dan cost

Access Deficit Charges (ADC) Universality Funds

Dana bersama seluruh operator Effektif Effisien Transparant Terbaik dalam eskpansi jaringan

22

Universal Access and Service Funds (UASF)


UASFs have been created in emerging markets and developing countries, in the context of liberalized markets, to provide financial assistance for the following:
o Meeting regional and rural service targets for telephony and Internet services; o Supporting key users, such as schools and health clinics to access the Internet in regional and rural areas; o Supporting ICT projects by commercial and development organizations that provide national and local content, services and applications that stimulate Internet take-up and usage; and o Supporting various activities related to regionally balanced network and service development, such as Internet Exchange Points and regional Internet points of presence (POPs).

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

23

Universal Access and Service Funds (UASF)


All UASFs use a reverse auction or minimum-subsidy auction (lowest subsidy demanded wins) mechanism. This mechanism, also known as Output-Based Aid (OBA) OBA is defined as a strategy for using explicit performance-based subsidies to support service delivery in cases where the market is not expected to reach, but where policy concerns justify public funding or redistribution. OBA subsidies are provided to support the provision of services, for example, in rural areas where the cost of service provision combined with limited revenue potential might render service provision commercially unviable. A key requirement for OBA is that a one-time smart subsidy results in service provision that is ultimately self-sustaining and commercially viable OBA is now often the preferred method used to distribute one-time subsidies to network service providers in order to meet roll-out targets for voice and Internet services in certain designated remote areas and communities

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

24

Sources of Funds
UASFs are generally financed from one or more of the following sources:
Government general budget; Industry levy, as a percentage of annual revenue, on certain classes of licensed operators; Various other regulatory sources such as the proceeds of license competitions, frequency spectrum auctions and fees; and Once-only contributions from government, financed by loans or grants from international donors such as the World Bank, contributing seed finance to assist UASF start-up in the early years

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

25

Technologies for UAS


Developments in technology affect the cost, acceptability and feasibility of services and have a direct impact on universal access and service (UAS). Because technological developments influence regulators expectations and users technology preferences, minimum requirements for and expectations of UAS increase over time. Country by country, whether a particular technology is an appropriate solution for UAS and rural areas, and for low income people, depends strongly on these market factors:
Competition (the market position of the providers, their service packages and pricing strategy); Demand and affordability; Customer density; and End user terminal distribution and availability

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

26

Pengeluaran untuk komunikasi


Di negara dengan GDP per capita rendah pegeluaran untuk komunikasi < 1% dari GDP, namun dilain tempat, pengeluaran untuk komunikasi bisa mencapai 4 -5 % GDP. Berdasarkan riset , rata-rata didunia pengeluaran untuk komunikasi adalah sebesar 2.5 s/d 3 % dari GDP Sebagai kesimpulan dari kondisi tersebut maka diperoleh suatu asumsi :
Bagi daerah yang penduduknya mengeluarkan 2.5 % income untuk komunikasi sebaiknya dipromosikan UA Bagi daerah yang pengeluaran untuk telekomunikasi < 2.5 % akan tmibul masalah antara lain:
o o o o sarana komunikasi yang ada tdk memadai tdk ada prioritas bagi pengembangan sarana telekumunikasi tdk ada kertarikan sektor swasta untuk membangun jaringan telekomunikasi kompetisi sulit dilaksanakan.
Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

April 2011

27

Regulasi Indonesia

Universal Service Obligation (USO)


USO atau Universal Service Obligation atau dalam PP 52/2000 disebut Kewajiban Pelayanan Umum (KPU) merupakan kewajiban pemerintah untuk men-subsidi publik Definisi umum :
making basic telephony services available to all at an affordable price

Pada negara2 dengan teledensitas rendah spt Indonesia, fokus USO untuk meningkatkan aksesabilitas telekomunikasi Kategori USO :
High cost (rural) area -> subsidi perlu untuk area di mana terdapat access deficit yang lebih besar dari profit yang diperoleh penyelenggara di area tsb Low income area -> subsidi perlu untuk akses teleponi dasar Unprofitable customer > subsidi perlu krn customer menghasilkan sedikit trafik (low calling rate) sehingga profit < cost-nya

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

28

Regulasi Indonesia

Universal Service Obligation (USO)


UU No. 36 Pasal 16 :
(1) Setiap penyelenggara jaringan telekomunikasi dan atau penyelenggara jasa telekomunikasi wajib memberikan kontribusi dalam pelayananan universal.
Penjelasan ayat (1) : a. Tujuan : memenuhi kebutuhan masyarakat terutama di daerah terpencil dan atau belum berkembang untuk mendapatkan akses telepon b. Prinsip : ketersediaan pelayanan jastel yang menjangkau daerah berpenduduk dengan mutu yang baik dan tarif yang layak. c. Kriteria wilayah : secara geografis terpencil, secara ekonomis blm berkembang serta membutuhkan biaya tinggi perintisan, pedalaman, pinggiran, terpencil & atau daerah yg secara ekonomi kurang menguntungkan. d. Kewajiban untuk menyediakan oleh penyelenggara jaringan tetap yg tetalh memperoleh izin berupa jasa SLJJ dan atau jasa sambungan lokal.

(2)

Kontribusi pelayanan universal sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (1) berbentuk penyediaan sarana & prasarana telekomunikasi dan atau kompensasi lain
Penjelasan ayat (2) : Kompensasi lain berupa kontribusi biaya melalui biaya interkoneksi

(3)

Ketentuan kontribusi pelayanan universal sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (2) diatur dengan Peraturan Pemerintah.
Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011 29

April 2011

Regulasi Indonesia

Universal Service Obligation (USO)


PP 52/2000 :

Kewajiban pelayanan universal :


Kewajiban yang dibebankan kepada penyelenggara jaringan telekomunikasi dan atau jasa telekomunikasi untuk memenuhi aksesibilitas bagi wilayah atau sebagian masyarakat yang belum terjangkau oleh penyelenggaraan jaringan dan atau jasa telekomunikasi.

Pencatatan & Reporting :


Pendapatan dari hasil kontribusi kewajiban pelayanan universal yang berasal dari pendapatan interkoneksi

Penyelenggara
Jartap Lokal
POI

Jar. Lain

Jar. Lain (No I/K)

Jasa

Regulator c..q. Menteri


Penetapan :
Wilayah PU

Pengawasan & pengendalian

KPU :
Penyediaan (pembangunan) jar & jastel
Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

Kapasitas jaringan setiap WPU Jenis jasa Penyelenggara jar. yg ditunjuk untuk menyediakan KPU April 2011

Kontribusi Biaya interkoneksi

Kontribusi lainnya
30

USO dalam Regulasi Interkoneksi


Bagian dalam struktur tarif interkoneksi
Sesuai PP 52/2000 pasal 36 ayat 1 :
Struktur tarif penyelenggaraan jaringan telekomunikasi terdiri atas :

a. biaya akses;
b. biaya pemakaian; c. biaya kontribusi pelayanan universal.

Biaya interkoneksi menjadi salah satu kontributor USO


Sesuai PP 52/2000 pasal 26 ayat 2 :
Kontribusi kewajiban pelayanan universal sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1) berupa:
a. penyediaan jaringan dan atau jasa telekomunikasi; b. kontribusi dalam bentuk komponen biaya interkoneksi; atau c. kontribusi lainnya.
Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

April 2011

31

Access Deficit Contribution


Incumbent mengoperasikan (local loop) access networknya secara defisit. Biaya untuk membangun dan memelihara > revenue yang diperoleh (krn pada umumnya diatur price cap)
Pada masa monopoli, tidak menjadi masalah karena incumbent bisa melakukan cross-subsidy dengan jasa yang berprofit tinggi seperti jasa long distance Pada masa kompetisi, posisi berubah,
o incumbent harus menghilangkan cross-subsidy (tarif long distance turun, tarif lokal dan akses network naik) -> kenaikan tarif dibatasi price cap krn pertimbangan afordabilitas publik o new entrant akan memanfaatkan rendahnya biaya penggunaan access network incumbent (fasilitas esensial) pada saat berinterkoneksi, tanpa turut berkontribusi

Incumbent memerlukan kontribusi melalui biaya interkoneksi kepada penyelenggara yang melakukan terminasi maupun originasi melalui jaringannya (via access network) Penerima ADC secara teoritis :

Semua operator yang memiliki fixed access network -> tarif retail fixed di-cap Hanya incumbent -> argumentasinya bhw incumbent harus men-serve seluruh populasi tapi new entrant bisa memilih yang profitable saja Semua operator yang memiliki access network termasuk mobile operator -> namun pada umumnya tarif retail mobile tidak di-cap
Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011 32

April 2011

USO-ADC-Interkoneksi
USO memiliki keterhubungan erat dengan ADC -> bila defisit akses incumbent dikontribusi oleh ADC maka akan mengurangi besaran USO (dlm hal ini ADC bagian dari komponen USO) Merecover USO melalui tarif interkoneksi dimungkinkan
EU memungkinkan sebagai suplemen dari tarif interkoneksi Banyak negara memisahkan USO, karena :
o Untuk maksimasi efisiensi ekonomi. Tarif interkoneksi harus mencerminkan harga yang obyektif, sehingga new entrant dapat menentukan keputusan investasinya. o Untuk modal kompetisi. USO merupakan pajak sosial dalam industri telekomunikasi sehingga kontribusinya harus sesuai kemampuan operator
April 2011 Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011 33

Alokasi dana USO dan ADC


Cost daerah perintisan Cost / Tarif wajar USO Fund Tarif Wajar Special Tarif

ADC
Tarif di Cap

Daerah NonUSO

Daerah USO

Sekolah, Rumah sakit, dll

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

34

Aliran dana USO


Jartap SLJJ, Jartap SLI, Jartap tertutup, Jarber , Jaringan ITSP (?) Kontribusi dlm bentuk komponen biaya interkoneksi (ADC) Defisit akibat regulasi tarif

Jasa Tel
Kontribusi lainnya
Dan USO utk Low income & masyarakat tertentu, sebagai pemerataan akses Dana USO utk High cost area, sebagai insentif bagi penyelenggara dan industri

Jartap Lokal

Penyediaan jaringan

Kontribusi dana USO

Surplus ADC

USO FUND

Pemerintah Bantuan LN

April 2011

Interkoneksi Semester Genap 2010-2011

35

Terima Kasih