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# Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 1

## Lecture 17: Motion in a circle

R
x
y
(x,y)
u
t/2
t 3t/2 2t
-1
1
0
cos sin
u
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 2
Uniform Circular Motion
Motion in a circle :
with constant Speed v = |v|
R
v
x
y
(x,y)
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 3
Acceleration in Uniform Circular Motion
Even though the speed is constant, velocity is not
constant since the direction is changing acceleration !
Consider average acceleration in time At
a
av
= Av / At
v
1
v
2
Av
v
2
v
1
R
a
For small displacements Av
is perpendicular to v
1
and
thus points at the origin
Thus a points at the origin
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 4
Polar Coordinates A cleverer way
t/2
t 3t/2 2t
-1
1
0
Cos (x) Sin (y)
u
) sin , cos (
sin
cos
) , (
t R t R r
t
R y
R x
y x r
e e
e u
u
u
=
=
=
=
=

## e is the angular velocity

R
v
dt
dL
R dt
R
L
d
dt
d
= =
|
.
|

\
|
= =
1 u
e
R
x
y
(x,y)
u
L
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 5
Polar Coordinates...
Now solve for v, a
) cos , sin ( ) cos , sin ( t t R t t R
dt
r d
v e e e e e e e = = =

) sin , (cos t t R r e e =

## ) sin , (cos ) sin , cos (

2
t t R t t R
dt
v d
a e e e e e e e e = = =

r v r a

/
2 2
= = e
a = - e
2
r acceleration points
to the center of the circle
By the second law there must
be a force towards the center
of the circle
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 6
But h is much smaller than r
But from
Therefore
A satellite orbiting the earth with
velocity v would go in a straight
line P
1
to P
2
in time t if there were
no forces on it (1
st
law)
Because of gravity it falls to P'
2

a distance h
From the triangle

Centripetal Acceleration in Orbit
2 2
2 t v rh ~
2 2
0
2
1

2
1
' at h at t v r r = + =
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
) 2 (
2
) ( ) (
t v h r h
r t v h hr r
r vt h r
= +
+ = + +
+ = +
Condition for
orbiting is that
it falls just
enough that r
stays constant
r
v
a t v at r
2
2 2 2
or
2
1
2 = =
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 7
Uniform Circular Motion
A fighter pilot flying in a circular turn will pass out if
the centripetal acceleration he experiences is more
than about 9 times the acceleration of gravity g. If his
F18 is moving with a speed of 300 m/s, what is the
approximate diameter of the tightest turn this pilot can
make and survive to tell about it ?

(a) 500 m
(b) 1000 m
(c) 2000 m
UIUC
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 8
ICQ: Uniform Circular Motion
A fighter pilot flying in a circular turn will pass out if
the centripetal acceleration he experiences is more
than about 9 times the acceleration of gravity g. If his
F18 is moving with a speed of 300 m/s, what is the
approximate diameter of the tightest turn this pilot can
make and survive to tell about it ?

(a) 500 m
(b) 1000 m
(c) 2000 m
UIUC
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 9
ICQ: Uniform Circular Motion: Solution
a
v
R
g = =
2
9
2
2
2
2
s
m
81 9 9
s
m
90000
g 9
v
R
.
= =
m 1000 m
81 9
10000
R ~ =
.
D R m = ~ 2 2000
2km
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 10
R
v
Motion in a Vertical Circle
A professor ties a rock of mass m to the end of a string
and twirls it in the vertical plane. The distance from his
hand to the rock is R. The speed of the rock at the top of
its trajectory is v.
T
What is the tension T in the string at the top of the
rocks trajectory?
UIUC
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 11
Motion in a Vertical Circle...
Draw a Free Body Diagram (pick y-direction to be
down):
T
mg
y

Find F
NET
in y direction:
F
NET
= mg +T

Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 12
Motion in a Vertical Circle...
F
NET
= mg +T
T
R
v
mg
y
F = ma
Acceleration in y direction:
a = v
2
/ R
mg + T = mv
2
/ R
T = mv
2
/ R - mg
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 13
Bucket of nails
What is the minimum speed of the bucket at the top of
the trajectory so that the nails dont fall out?
Alternatively, so the string does not go limp?
R
mg
v Rg =
i.e. find v such that T = 0.
mv
2
/ R = mg + T
v
2
/ R = g
Does not depend on m.
v
T= 0
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 14
ICQ: Bucket of nails
What is the force keeping the nails in the bucket?
a) Gravity
b) The tension in the string
c) The contact force between the bucket and nails
d) Centrifugal force
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 15
ICQ: Bucket of nails
What is the force keeping the nails in the bucket?
a) Gravity
b) The tension in the string
c) The contact force between the bucket and nails
d) Centrifugal force
By Newtons First Law the nails want to keep going in a
straight line
The contact force with the bucket stops them doing it
By the second law the contact force supplies the
acceleration needed to make the nails travel in a circle
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 16
ICQ: Motion in a Circle
A skier of mass m goes over a mogul having a radius of
curvature R. How fast can she go without leaving the
ground?
(a) (b) (c) Rg v = mRg v =
m
Rg
v =
R
mg
N
v
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 17
ICQ: Motion in a Circle
A skier of mass m goes over a mogul having a radius of
curvature R. How fast can she go without leaving the
ground?
(a) (b) (c) Rg v = mRg v =
m
Rg
v =
R
mg
N
v
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 18
ICQ: Motion in a Circle: Solution
mv
2
/ R = mg N

R
v
mg
N
v Rg =
If she leaves the
ground N = 0:
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 19
Rotating puck & weight
A mass m
1
slides in a circular path with speed v on
a horizontal frictionless table. It is held at a radius
R by a string threaded through a frictionless hole
at the center of the table. At the other end of the
string hangs a second mass m
2
.
What is the tension (T) in the string?
What is the speed (v) of the sliding mass?
m
1
m
2
v
R
UIUC
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 20
Rotating puck & weight...
FBD of hanging mass:
Since R is constant, a = 0.

so T = m
2
g
m
2
g
T
m
2
m
1
m
2
v
R
T
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 21
F
x
= T = m
1
a
a = v
2
/ R
T = m
2
g (from hanging mass)
m
1
T
m
1
g
N
Rotating puck & weight...
FBD of sliding mass:

v gR
m
m
=
2
1
m
1
m
2
v
R
T
m
2
g = m
1
a = m
1
v
2
/ R
Physics 1301: Lecture 17, Pg 22
Homework

Do Homework problems Chapter 5; 61,87