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Submitted By: GAURAV DUBEY Roll no. 0928731026

Indian Railway is a department owned and controlled by the Govt.of India,via the Ministry of Railways. Indian railway is divided into zones,which are further divided into divisions. Gorakhpur is the zonal headquarter of the North Eastern Railway zone The formal inauguration ceremony of IR was performed on 16th April 1853 with the first passenger train steamed out of Howrah station destined for Hooghly, a distance of 36 km . .

It runs 12000 trains every day. It is fuel efficient system. Railways has 7500 engines,38000 coaches & about 2.5 lakh of wagons 7000 stations & about 500 computerized passenger reservation centers 1 lakh km of track 17 lakh employee(10 lakh in Group C) including 10000 officers

Practical Training under NER

We have received the scheduled Summer Practical Training as a part of our curriculum, from 22nd June, 2011 to 19th July, 2011 under Divisional Railway Manager North Eastern Railway, Gorakhpur. Ms.Sunita Verma is the General manager, North Eastern Railway and Mr.Vinod Yadav is the DRM of Gorakhpur Division presently. We've studied about the following operational technologies in the IR Module 1:Railway signaling & Signal workshop Module 2:Microwave communication in Railway


All over the world Railway transportation is increasingly used, as this mode of transport is more energy efficient and environmentally friendly than road transportation. Trains move on steel rail tracks and wheels of the railway vehicle are also flanged Steel wheels. Hence least friction occurs at the point of contact between the track & wheels. Therefore trains carry more loads resulting in higher traffic capacity since trains move on specific tracks called rails, their path is to be fully guided and there is no arrangement of steering.

Clear of obstruction as available with road transportation, so there is a need to provide control on the movement of trains in the form of Railway signals which indicate to the drivers to stop or move and also the speed at which they can pass a signal Since the load carried by the trains and the speed which the trains can attain are high, they need more braking distance before coming to the stop from full speed. Without signal to be available on the route to constantly guide the driver accidents will take place due to collisions

Railway Signalling & Signal Workshop

Signal: Signal is a medium to convey a particular predetermined meaning in nonverbal form Trains uses signaling to control movement of trains on tracks and divides tracks into several sections which are protected by the signals.

In case of a failure like a broken wire, rail fracture, power supply failure, failure of the source the detector will lose the signal and conclude the section is occupied by a train. This will allow the detection to maintain safety even under failure condition and satisfy requirments of fail safety Multiple Aspect Color Light Signal (MACLS)Multiple means more than 2 indications .They may have 3 or 4 different aspects or indications to be given to the driver. These signals have longer range of visibility and Improved reliability.

Signal Workshop
In the signal workshop of N.E.Railway, Gorakhpur following machine are manufactured which are used as a part of signaling system-: 1. Electric point machine. 2. Relays Points are provided to divert the running trains from one track to another. The points have movable switches which can be operated electrically by a point machine.


Solid State Interlocking is a data-driven signal control system designed for use throughout the British railway system. SSI is a replacement for electromechanical interlockings which are based on highly reliable relay technology SSI is a multicomputer system with two panel processors, a diagnostic processor, and three central interlocking processors which operate in repairable triple modular redundancy

Ssi model

The international telecommunications system relies on microwave and satellite links for long-distance international calls. Microwaves are electromagnetic waves whose frequencies range from 1 GHz to 1000 GHz. There are large number of bands in microwave region

Before the advent of fiber optics, these microwaves formed the heart of the long distance telephone transmission system. In its simplest form the microwave link can be one hop. A single hop is typically 30 to 60 km in relatively flat regions for frequencies in the 2 to 8 GHz bands.

A general microwave setup

Microwave Transmitter and Receiver-:

The voice, video, or data channels are combined by a technique known as multiplexing to produce a BB signal. This signal is frequency modulated to an IF and then up converted (heterodyned) to the RF for transmission through the atmosphere. The reverse process occurs at the receiver. The microwave transmission frequencies are within the approximate range 2 to 24 GHz.

Role Of Microwaves In Passenger Reservation System-:

In PRS,the Gorakhpur Zone is connected to the main server through communication lines and there is the need of non stop working of PRS in Indian Railways otherwise there will be big loss to Indian Railways. to increase the reliability of PRS,the main server is also connected to the zones through microwave links.In case if there is a failure in the physical mediathen the PRS can be operated by microwave.

Application Of Microwave In Indian Railways-:

controlling of trains. to give correct running and stopping information of the trains. It help the railway staff to communicate for this purpose. Stations on average of 40 km can communicate with each other by microwave.