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OBJECTIVE:To design and implement a ROBOT: That will follow a black path on the floor.

Stop within safe distance of an object in its path. Automatically continue when object is removed . It should be able to capture and transmit video feed to the user.

BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR ROBOT


LINE SENSORS

MICROCONTROLLER
OBSTACLE SENSORS

MOTOR DRIVER

MOTOR

REGULATED POWER SUPPLY

BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR TRANSMISSION MODULE:

BATTERY

VIDEO CAMERA

AV TRANSMITTER

BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR RECIEVER MODULE:


RADIO AV RECIEVER DISPLAY

RECORDER (OPTIONAL)

LOGIC FOR MOVEMENT


L4 L3 L2 L1 R1 R2 R3 R4

LEFT

CENTRE SENSOR ARRAY

RIGHT

ON THE LINE 0 OFF THE LINE 1 L4 1 L3 1 L2 1 L1 0 R1 0 R2 1 R3 1 R4 1

LEFT

CENTRE DESIRED STATE

RIGHT

ALGORITHM FOR LOGIC DESIGN :


1. Start

2. Assume 0when sensor reads on the black line and 1when sensor reads on white surface.
3. If L=R=0, Search for line. 4. If L=R=3, Move Forward. 5. If L=R=4, Stop for allotted time. 6. If L<R, Turn left. 7. If L>R, Turn right.

8. If L=0 and R>0, Sharp Left turn.


9. If R=0 and L>0, Sharp Right turn. 10. Go to step 3.

BASIC MOVEMENT OF THE ROBOT :-

STAGE 1: MICROCONTROLLER
Why PIC16F877A
PIC16F877A is very cheap. very easy to be assembled. Additional components that you need to make this IC work is just a 5V power supply adapter, a 20MHz crystal oscillator and 2 units of 22pF capacitors. Serial programming and reprogramming

Pic16f877A is a 40 pin microcontroller Port A: It consists of 6 pins from A0 to A5 Port B: It consists of 8 pins from B0 to B7 Port C: It consists of 8 pins from C0 to C7 Port D: It consists of 8 pins from D0 to D7 Port E: It consists of 3 pins from E0 to E2 The rest of the pins are mandatory pins these should not be used to connect input/output devices. Pin 1 is MCLR (master clear pin) pin also referred as reset pin. Pin 13, 14 are used for crystal oscillator to connect to generate a frequency of about 20MHz. Pin 11, 12 and31, 32 are used for voltage supply Vdd(+)and Vss(-)

PROGRAMMING OF MICROCONTROLLER
Software used: Express PCB for designing circuit PIC C compiler - for compilation part ( MACHINE CODE TO HEX CODE) Proteus 7 (Embedded C) for simulation part( ERROR CHECK & DUMPING)

STAGE 2: POWER SUPPLY

VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY


The input supply is connected to the bridge rectifier. A switch is provided for on and off purpose. A filter is connected to the rectifier.

Is then connected to a capacitor.


A voltage regulator is connected to regulate the voltage to 5V. A led with a resistor is there to show that the circuit is on.

Input Voltage=10V

Regulated Voltage Output=5V

STAGE 3: ULTRASONIC SENSOR


Obstacle Detection

5V is fed from the power supply to the positive terminal of the ultrasonic sensor. The negative terminal is grounded.

The output from the middle pin of the ultrasonic is taken. It is fed into pin 2 of the microcontroller. If the microcontroller detects an obstacle, it will send a 5V pulse to the microcontroller. As the microcontroller receives the pulse, it will send a signal to the motor driver to stop.

WITHOUT OBSTACLE, 0V WITH OBSTACLE, 5V

STAGE 4: MOTOR DRIVER

INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF L293D:

INTERFACING DC MOTOR DRIVER TO MICROCONTROLLER:

MOTOR DRIVER , WITHOUT CONNECTION

MOTOR DRIVER AFTER CONNECTION

STAGE 4: IR SENSORS
4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 White COLOUR SHADE

Colour

VOLTAGE

Colour

Black

IR IMPLEMENTATION:

WITH BLACK AND WHITE SURFACE:

STAGE 5: CHASSIS DESIGNING


Should Hold main circuitry and the power supply.

Should accommodate the IR sensors at the bottom with proper distance to surface and between the sensors . Should be able accommodate battery .
Should be able to move freely with all the weights .

PROJECTED VIEWS

STAGE 6: TRANSMITTER MODULE


The camera and transmitter is powered by a 9V battery.

The receiver picks up the signal and outputs it to a TV / Computer / Digital Video recorder.

OUR CAMERA WITH TRANSMITTER

STAGE 7: RECEIVER MODULE


The receiver accepts the wireless transmitters signal and then out puts it to your TV, VCR, Monitor or PC. The receiver needs only power and a Device to view and or record the Signal /Video.

OUR RECEIVER MODULE:

BASIC SETUP OF THE CAMERA AND THE RECEIVING MODULE :


Easy to install. They are dynamic which it comes to positioning. Low power consumption

REQUIREMENT FOR THE ISR


To relieve life risk of security guards.

To create the lower cost security surveillance system.


To perform the monotonous Patrolling of residential or business areas.

To create the dynamic security surveillance system from the initial static security surveillance system.
To secure areas 24 hours continuously compared to manpower.

To enhance the existing security system.

OTHER APPLICATIONS
Industrial automated equipment carriers Automated cars. Tour guides in museums and other similar applications. Medicine carriers in hospitals. Transfer of files from one room to another in a office.

OBSTACLE DETECTION:

90 DEGREE TURNS:

FINAL OUTPUT:

THANK YOU