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Reported Speech

Uso
O Reported Speech serve para deixar as frases de um narrador na terceira pessoa. Por exemplo: Discurso direto: Carlos disse: Amanh viajarei para So Paulo. Discurso indireto (reported speech): Carlos disse que viajaria amanh para So Paulo.

Em ingls...
Direct speech: Carlos said: Tomorrow Ill travel to So Paulo.

Reported speech: Carlos said that he would travel to So Paulo.

That (o que) pode ser ocultado. Para relatar uma frase que foi dita por algum no passado, usamos um verbo introdutrio. Note que os tempos verbais mudaram para o passado.

Say x Tell
So os verbos mais comuns que introduzem o discurso indireto (reporting verbs / verbos introdutrios). He told her he was feeling sick. He said he had been under pressure. He said he was hungry.

Se voc disser com quem est falando, use tell. Megan told Karina that she studied hard. Caso contrrio, use say. Megan said she studied hard.

Se voc quiser mencionar com quem est falando e estiver usando o verbo say, dever acrescentar to. He said to Ana... He said to me... He said to them... He said to the boss...

Ao relatar o que algum disse, no discurso indireto, h tambm mudanas em outros componentes da sentena, tais como o tempo verbal, o advrbio e, s vezes, o pronome.

Veja as mudanas mais frequentes:


She said: I live in San Francisco. She said that she lived in San Francisco.

He said: She works with me. He said that she worked with him.
Simple Present Simple Past

She said: I moved here in September. She said that she had moved there in September. Simple Past Past Perfect

She said: Im living in the dorms. She said that she was living in the dorms.

He said: She is working with me. He said that she was working with him.
Present Continuous Past Continuous

She said: Ive just started school. She said that she had just started school.

Present Perfect Past Perfect

She said: Ive been feeling homesick. She said that she had been feeling homesick.

Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous

She said: Ill stay here for about four weeks. She said that she would stay there for about four weeks. Simple Future - Conditional

Modal Verbs
She said: I may be able to graduate in three and a half years. She said that she might be able to graduatein three and a half years. She said: I have to try and do my best always. She said that she had to try and do her best always.

She said: I must call home as often as I can. She said that she had to call home as often as she could. She said: I can dance this song. She said that she could dance that song.

She said: I ought to take some extracurricular courses. She said that she ought to take some extracurricular courses. She said: I should purchase a second-hand computer. She said that she should purchase a secondhand computer.

Importante ressaltar...
Se o verbo introdutrio do que est sendo relatado estiver no presente, no futuro simples, ou no presente perfeito no h mudanas no tempo verbal do discurso indireto. He says: I love you. He says that he loves you. She will say: I talk to her every day. She will say that she talks to her every day. He has said: She is my friend. He has said that she is his friend.

Situaes em que a mudana do tempo verbal opcional


Quando relatamos algo que acabou de ser dito. Mary: Im freaking out! Carl: What did you say? Mary: I said that Im freaking out! (I said that I was freaking out!)

Quando relatamos algo que ainda verdadeiro. The manager said the paycheck is in the mail. The manager said the paycheck was in the mail.

Quando relatamos uma verdade universal ou lei cientfica. Teacher told his students that the water boils at 100 Celsius. Teacher told his students that water boiled at 100 Celsius.

Ateno para modificaes...


Se na frase houver as palavras this / that / these / those, e tiverem sendo usados como pronomes, devem ser substitudos por it ou them: - Joe said: I built that.
(Joe disse: Eu constru aquilo.)

- Joe said that he had buit it.

Outras palavras ou expresses tambm devem ser alteradas para que a frase fique correta:
here this afternoon next day last day ago today there that afternoon the next day the day before, the following day before that day

Exemplos...
- Mary said: I will stay here, waiting for you. - Mary said that she would stay there, waiting for him.

OBS.: Nesse exemplo, podemos trocar ou no o you por him. Caso o ouvinte da frase seja a pessoa a qual Mary esperou, continua you.

Pronomes Pessoais, Pronomes Objetivos, Pronomes e Adjetivos Possessivos devem ser trocados de acordo com o contexto da frase: "I will call my father", said Angela. Angela said she would call her father.

Reported Commands

Affirmative commands
Father: Do your homework. Father told me to do my homework.

Negative commands
Teacher. Don't talk to your neighbour. The teacher told me not to talk to my neighbour.
Se a ordem ou pedido for para no fazer algo, observe que a negativa feita colocando-se not antes do infinitivo.

Should, could, must, might e would


No mudam de forma. She said: I could go. She said that she could go. She told Mike: You should go to the doctor. She told Mike that he should go to the doctor.

Reported questions

Quando se relata uma pergunta, coloca-se a frase na forma afirmativa fazendo as devidas alteraes. Geralmente, o verbo que introduz o reported speech ask.

Yes / No - questions
Peter: Do you play football? Peter asked me if/weather I played football.
Lisa asked: Has the school bus come yet? Lisa asked him if/weather the school bus had come.

WH - questions
Peter: "When do you play football?" Peter asked me when I played football.
Lisa: What do you see? Lisa asked me what I saw.

Reporting Verbs
Existem outros verbos alm de say e tell para introduzir o discurso indireto. I explained (to John) that it was OK. He reminded me that I had na appointment at three.

He said: Lets take her to the party? He suggested that we shoud take her to the party.

Vamos treinar um pouco?

Que tal passarmos do discurso direto para o indireto?


He said: I go to the Lisas party tomorrow. She said: I can sing Brazils songs. He said: I must be honest to Carl. Tina said: I live in London.

He told me: I work with Lisa. She told Ana: I love my pets. He told you: I fixed my bike.

She told her mom: I dont want to go to school.

She said: Im reading this book. He told me: Ive made this for you. I said: Ill travel to California. Tony told her: Ive been playing guitar.

Dont do this! Do exercise every day! Go to the gym. Pay attention!

She asked: Do you want cheese for breakfast? He asked me: Why do you talk too loud? I asked you: What do you learn?

She said: I have to go out of here. He said: I must cut the grass. She said: I have to run. He said: I shoud call your mother.

Bons estudos!