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Nursing Research

Prof. Jhessie L. Abella RN, RM, MAN

The Most Important Things in Life


A philosophy professor stood before his class with some items on the table in front of him. When the class began, wordlessly he picked up a very large and empty mayonnaise jar and proceeded to fill it with rocks, about 2 inches in diameter.

The Most Important Things in Life


He then asked the students if the jar was full. They agreed that it was. So the professor then picked up a box of pebbles and poured them into the jar. He shook the jar lightly. The pebbles, of course, rolled into the open areas between the rocks. He then asked the students again if the jar was full. They agreed it was.

The Most Important Things in Life


The professor picked up a box of sand and poured it into the jar. Of course, the sand filled up everything else. He then asked once more if the jar was full. The students responded with a unanimous Yes.

The Most Important Things in Life


Now, said the professor, I want you to recognize that this jar represents your life. The rocks are the important things your family, your partner, your health, your children things that if everything else was lost and only they remained, your life would still be full.

The Most Important Things in Life


The pebbles are the other things that matter like your job, your house, your car. The sand is everything else. The small stuff. If you put the sand into the jar first, he continued there is no room for the pebbles or the rocks. The same goes for your life.

The Most Important Things in Life


Take care of the rocks first the things that really matter. Set your priorities. The rest is just sand.

RESEARCH
Research is a systematic inquiry using scientific methods in answering questions or in solving problems. In nursing, it attempts to develop, refine and expand body of knowledge about matters that are important to the nursing profession (practice, education, administration)
NURSING RESEARCH conducted by nurse through scientific inquiry on areas of cause, diagnosis and prevention of diseases, promotion of health across lifespan.
What is the ULTIMATE GOAL of research?

Improve the practice of its members so that the service provided to its clientele will be maximally effective.

RESEARCH
Research derived from a French word cerchier Research is a formal, systematic and rigorous process of scientific analysis particularly conducted for the purpose of discovery and development of a structured and organized body of knowledge.

RESEARCH
Nursing emerged as a profession when nurses started using systematic, orderly, and objective methods of seeking information derived from research. Research serves the need of nurses for direction in helping solve todays problem. Research problems my arise from the altruistic desire to improve nursing practice. DO you think Nursing Research is IMPORTANT?

Identification naming an unknown phenomenon Description describe a phenomenon Exploration what Explanation why Prediction projects a situation Control puts up a barrier

Purpose of Research

Description. Research describes a phenomenon that relates to the nursing profession as well as observe, define, and document nursing situations under inquiry. Exploration. Research explores the phenomenon being investigated Explanation. Research seeks clarification of prevailing situations Predicts. Projects a situation or events that could arise from research investigation. Control. Puts up a barrier to hinder or minimize the effects of an anticipated outcomes or reactions.

Importance of Nursing Research


The ultimate goal is to: improve the practice of its members so that the service provided to its clientele will be maximally effective Enhance professionalism Increase accountability Strengthen social relevance of nursing Basis for sound decision making SOURCES OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE
Tradition- certain truth are accepted as given on the basis of inherited custom and traditions Authority- refer to people with specialized expertise Experience and Trial and Error- own experience represent a familiar and functional sources of knowledge Logical reasoning- combines, intellectual faculties and formal system of thought

What is the most sophisticated way of acquiring knowledge??

Evidence Based Practice


EBM is a new paradigm in the health care practice, it is the integration of the best research evidenced (clinically relevant patient centered practice) with clinical expertise and patient values. Example:
You are a school nurse who regularly visits a number of elementary and middle schools (children aged 5 to 13 years) in your region. It is cold and flu season once again. One of the teachers stops you in the hall to ask you a question about his 10- year old daughter who also has a cold. He has heard that zinc lozenges can help to relieve cold symptoms and wonders if they really do work and if it is OK to give them to children. You are a nurse practitioner working in a family practice setting. One of your patients is a 28-year old woman who has been taking oral contraceptives (OCs) for the past 6 years. She telephones you to say that she is growing increasingly anxious about taking OCs because recently she has read in magazines and heard from friends that they may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. She has never smoked, is in good health, and has no history of cardiovascular disease in her family. She asks to see you to discuss whether she should discontinue taking the OCs and begin using a different birth control method.

PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS Data Collection Problem Definition PLAN Goal Setting Identifying Solutions Implementation Evaluation and Revision Process

NURSING PROCESS Assessment Data Collection Data Interpretation Nursing Diagnosis PLAN Goal Setting Planned Intervention Implementation Evaluation and Modification

RESEARCH PROCESS Knowledge of the nursing world Clinical Experience Literature Review Problem and Purpose Identification Methodology Design Sample Methods and Measurement Data Collection and analysis Outcome and dissemination of finding

Alternate Route for Problem Solving


Ignore or redefine the Problem Faith, habit or traditional practice Authority Human experience Trial and error Logical reasoning Common sense

What are the Characteristics of Research??


Orderly and Systematic Control the researcher identifies and eliminates specific constraints Empiricism the researcher uses results of experiences and observation rooted in objective reality as sources of knowledge. Generalization this is the holistic statement that is formulated after due analysis

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Identifying the problem Determining the purpose Review of Related Literature Theoretical framework Stating the study assumption Acknowledging the limitation of the study Formulating the null hypothesis Defining study variables Choice of research design Identifying the population Choosing the study samples Conducting the field test

Is ETHICS important in Research?

Ethics in Research
Codes of Nursing Research
Nuremberg Code- first internationally accepted effort to set up formal ethical standards governing human research subject. Requires informed consent to all cases. Helsinki Declaration-differentiates 2 types of research, that which is essentially therapeutic and that which is essentially directed toward developing scientific knowledge and has no therapeutic value. Belmont Report-articulate 3 primary ethical principles, beneficence, respect for human dignity and justice

Belmont Report
I. Respect for persons: protecting the autonomy of all people and treating them with courtesy and respect and allowing for informed consent. Researchers must be truthful and conduct no deception; II. Beneficence: The philosophy of "Do no harm" while maximizing benefits for the research project and minimizing risks to the research subjects; and III. Justice: ensuring reasonable, non-exploitative, and well-considered procedures are administered fairly the fair distribution of costs and benefits to potential research participants and equally.

Ethical Principle and Guidelines for Researcher (Polit and Beck:2004)


Informed Consent Beneficence and Nonmaleficence Respect for Human Dignity
Anonymity cannot link a subject with information
reported

Confidentiality subject divulges will not be made


public

Right to full disclosure Right to self determination

Justice and Fairness Privacy

Right to Full Disclosure


Nature, duration and purpose of the study Methods, procedures, processes by which data will be collected Utilization of the findings Inconveniences, potentials harm or discomfort that might be experienced Side effects Alternatives to participation in the study Right the participate or withhold anytime Identities of the investigator and where to contact them

Rationale for Conducting Research


The demand for Nurses to pursue MA of Doctoral Greater emphasis in the undergraduate programs To produce more research materials Basis for promotion Broader scope of nursing Personal satisfactions No one has the greater access to patients Research is a practical way of improving healthcare

Reason for Lack of Clinical Research


feeling of too busy to care for patients Research seems not important Many nurses do not have the academic training to conduct clinical research Research takes time, cost money which must be budgeted.

Nursing Research Trends and Constraints


Rationale for Conducting Clinical Research Nursing problems and issues are integral to the work situations Personal satisfaction is derived from finding better ways of providing nursing care No one has greater access to the patient than the nurse It could be therapeutic and enjoyable Clinical research is a practical way for a nurse to help improve the health care of the sick

Roles of Nurses in Research


As principal investigator As a member of a research team As evaluator of research findings As consumer of research findings As client advocate in a research study As a subject of research

The Research Process


Conceptual
Problem identification Statement of the problem Conceptual and theoretical framework Significance of the study Definition of terms Scope and limitation Review of related literature

Design
Selecting research design Determining sampling technique Identifying method of data collection Conducting pilot study

Implementation
Developing a time table Appropriating a budget and or seeking funds Recruiting and retaining subjects Data gathering and collation

Analysis Interpretation
oAnalyzing the data oInterpreting and evaluating the findings or results of statistical treatments

Dissemination
Communicating the findings Utilizing research findings

The Research PROBLEM


The selection of a research problem or query is probably the most important and most difficult step in the research process. Research arises from various situations.
Perceived difficulty A feeling of discomfort with the way things are A discrepancy or a gap between what is and what should be The daily experience of human beings which requires further inquiry

The Research

PROBLEM

The selection of a research problem or query is probably the most important and most difficult step in the research process. A research problem as a situation in need of a solution, improvement or alteration. In any research activity, the identification of a problem signals its beginning. When there is no problem, there is no basis for anyone to undertake research.

Sources of Problem Problems are endemic to all organization, including nursing. They arise from various areas of human concern such as the following; Fields of specialization Instructional program Reading program Organizational structure, policies and interpersonal relationship New technologies Conflicting ideas and ideals Journals, books, theses or dissertation and mass media Theories and principles affecting certain phenomenon Problem area in nursing Problem situation and issues Suggestion of experts and authorities

E.L.I.T.E. Source of Problem


Experience Literature Issues (social) Theory External Source

Criteria for Choice of Research Problems


Significance of the Problem Availability of the subjects Time allotment Limitation of tools Limitation of subjects Problem Researchability Feasibility of the Problem Potentials of the Researcher Personal motivation Novelty

S.A.T.L.L.I.N

Interrogative Declarative

Sample Research Problems


Who are more proficient at the bedside, the graduate of a diploma program or those of the basic degree program? Are the hours of nursing care available in general hospital related to patients satisfaction with nursing care? What are the professional attributes of staff nurse and how it relates to patients satisfaction? What is the health seeking behaviors of Muslim living in Subic? Does infant massage increases the weight of an infant? What are the sources of stress and its effect on the clinical performance of nurses? what are the most effective teaching methodology employed by St. Marys College of Nursing and its effect on the student nurses performance?

Common errors to avoid in stating the research problem.


1. Problems that elicit broad, general findings instead of specific information needed for their solutions. 2. Shallow and unimportant inquiries 3. Rhetorically stated problems which tends to elicit emotional reaction that diminished the scientific intent of the inquiry 4. Questions that are not testable cannot be answered through scientific investigation

A good statement of the problem spells out clearly the key variables of the study in order that their meaning is clear to the researcher and the reader of the research report.

Hallmark and Qualities of Good Nurse Researcher


Honest Credible Accurate in his/her data Organized and Systematic Logical Self Awareness Imaginative and Curious Persistent with Barriers Good Relationship with his/her Respondents Updated

What are the Basic Components of Research


1. Title of the Study
Is one of the major components of your research paper. It should be formulated so that the reader would get the idea of what he/she will be reading about. Embodies words or phrases which gives the idea of what the researcher study is all about. This section presents a brief discussion of the rationale and background of the problem or subject of inquiry.
Context of the problem and its historical background Authoritative viewpoints on the problems The researchers interest in working on the problem The purpose of the study in relation to the problem

2. Introduction

What are the Basic Components of Research


TIPS FOR HOW TO WRITE AN INTRODUCTION There are a few tips that can help you write a strong introduction, arousing interest and encouraging the reader to read the rest of your work.
Keep it Short. A long and rambling introduction will soon put people off and lose you marks. Stick closely to your outline for the paper, and structure your introduction in a similar way. Define the Problem. The entire introduction should logically end at the research question and thesis statement or hypothesis. The reader, by the end of the introduction, should know exactly what you are trying to achieve with the paper. In addition, your conclusion and discussion will refer back to the introduction, and this is easier if you have a clearly defined problem. Organization. As you write the paper, you may find that it goes in a slightly different direction than planned. In this case, go with the flow, but make sure that you adjust the introduction accordingly. Some people work entirely from an outline and then write the introduction as the last part of the process. This is fine if it works for you.

Sample
The Aetas are numerous in Luzon, particularly in Zambales mountain range stretching from Bataan, Zambales. They are mountain people with dark skin kinky hair, snub nose black eyes and with small body frame. They usually stand from 1.35 to 1.05 meters tall in height. Their communities belong to the Negritos (ethnic group) there are small Aetas settlement in Iram they have their own dialect but they communicate to the low landers and outsiders in Tagalog vernacular. It used to be a taboo for them to marry a non-tribal member but this tradition was broken in 1977 when a daughter of an old chieftain married a lowlander. According to Macatuno (2006) he elaborated that this event set the trend for mixed marriage that is the one of their tradition but it has many religious and belief practices that performed by the Aetas. They believe in supreme being who rule over lesser spirits or deities. They worship Apo Namalayani, whom they regard as the creator believed to inhabit the mountain top of Pinatubo in Zambales. There is no specific mention of other Gods of the Aetas, but one source mentions that the four manifestation of the Great Creator growth of goods. They also believe that there are spirits mat live in the environment such as in the sky, river, sea, mountain, and others. They also believed that evil spirits are the usual cause of illness as punishment for wrong doing. The purpose of this study is to further support the knowledge of the reader and the researcher ancestral domain the changes of the Aetas life after the Pinatubo eruption and its effect on their way of living, and it triggers the social consciousness of the researchers more than any other indigenous communities in the province. This study also defined how the Aetas at Iram Resettlement affects their primary health by their health belief and their health practices. This study will also give the reader a clearer view about the culture and their activity.

What are the Basic Components of Research


3. Statement of the Problem.
The problem statement must be clearly stated. It must be expressed in precise terms as the subject of inquiry. It indicates the population and the major variables of the study needed to be subjected to empirical testing. Consist of the Main Problem and the Sub Problems MAIN PROBLEM. Directs attention to the subject of the investigation, particularly the main issue to be answered. This is also referred to as the goal of the study that requires a long term and broader solutions.
(Thesis by Magno UST 1996)

To determine the correlation between Staff Nurses Extent of Knowledge and Their Clinical performance of the Nursing Process as a Basis for Improving the Curriculum and the Related Learning Experience Programs of Nursing Education and the Staff Development of the Nursing Service.

What are the Basic Components of Research


(Thesis by

Abella 2009)

This study aimed to assess: What are the professional and behavioral conducts of clinical instructor of the selected private nursing colleges in Olongapo City during the academic year 2009-2010?
Specifically, this study will seek to answer the following questions; Profile of the respondents:
Gender; Age; Qualification/s; Length of Service in the Academic Years experience in the hospital as a staff nurse

1.

2.

How may the professional attributes of the clinical instructors be describe in terms of:
Professional Competencies Integrity and Objectivity Solidarity and teamwork Commitment in serving others Social and Civil Responsibility Observance of Equality Global Competencies

What are the Basic Components of Research


3. How may the behavioral conducts of a clinical instructor be express along the following: Attitude towards work assignment Relationship to the students and patients Relationship to the superiors and colleagues Observance of the proper behavior of a professional Observance of the ethical principle of the nursing profession Approach to stress and anger 4. Is there a significant relationship between the gender, age, qualification, length of service in the academe, years of experience in the hospital as a staff nurse of the clinical instructor with the observance of their professional and behavioral conduct? 5. What is the implication of the findings to the related learning experience and the nursing education?

What are the Basic Components of Research


SUB PROBLEMS: This also refers to the objectives of the study which requires short term inquiry and narrowed down solutions. There should be 3 to 8 sub problems to BREAK the main problem into each sub problems contributing to the solution of the main problem. Example: Magno Masters Thesis 1996 Correlation Between Staff Nurses Extent

of Knowledge and Their Clinical Performance of the Nursing Process


Specifically this study aims to answer the following; 1. What is the staff nurses extent of knowledge of the nursing process in relation to its five aspects;
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Assessment; Diagnosis; Planning; Implementation; Exvaluation?

What are the Basic Components of Research


Example: Magno Masters Thesis 1996 Correlation Between Staff Nurses Extent

of Knowledge and Their Clinical Performance of the Nursing Process


2. What is the extent of the staff nurses knowledge of the nursing process as perceived by themselves and their head nurse? 3. To what extent is the nursing process performed efficiently by the staff nurses as perceived by themselves and their head nurses? 4. Is there significant correlation between the staff nurses extent of knowledge and their clinical performance of the nursing process in relation to the five components? 5. Is there significant differences in the staff nurses knowledge and their clinical performance of the nursing process as perceived by themselves and their head nurse?

Sample
This study assessed the health beliefs and practices among Aetas of Iram resettlement in Olongapo City and its implication to their primary health care. Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions: 1. How may the profile of the respondents be described in terms of; Age; Gender; Civil Status; Occupation? 2. How may the heath beliefs of Aetas be described in terms of; 1. Belief in Supernatural Beings; and its effect on individual health 3. How may the Health Practices of Aetas be described in terms of: 3.1 Restoring the HerbalMedicine; 3.2 Health Consultation or Maintenance; 3.3 Maternal and Child Care and 3.4 Nutrition? 4. Is there a significant difference on the health belief and health practice among Aetas when group according to; 4.1 Age; 4.2 Gender; 5.Is there a significant difference on the implication to their Primary Health Care when Group according to: 5.1 Age; 5.2 Gender; 6. Is there significant relationship between the Aetas health beliefs and health practices and its implication to their Primary Health Care?

Categories of Research
Basic or Pure Research
this is intended to increase knowledge in science. The end product of research is purely knowledge. To widen the knowledge base Formulation or refinement of theory For discovery of general principles

Applied Research

this is performed to acquire knowledge or obtain information that serves a practical purposes. Applied research is focused on finding solutions to existing problem. It is a collaborative process involving other members of the health care team that provides solutions to practical problems in the organization. Focuses on facts which can be changed by intervention to achieve a desired goal For solving problems

Research DESIGN
Experimental Research- this research approaches possible cause and effect relationship of certain variable through careful control or manipulation.
Non Experimental Research. The researcher does not interfere with nature, and the conditions for research are realistic or uncontrolled. This is mostly conducted in natural settings. They are research situation in which the researcher cannot control and manipulate the independent variable.

Experimental Research
True Experiment. An inquiry that consider four properties of experimental research namely;
Manipulation- the researcher subjects the respondents of the study to some kind of
situation for a specific purpose. Control- the researcher impose certain condition over the experimental situation; Control Group- this group is not subjected to any experimental treatment. Experimental Group- this group is subjected to the treatment used by the researcher whose performance is compared and analyzed according to the performance of the control group on a dependent variable. Randomization- the researcher assigns subjects to a control or experimental group on random basis Validity

Quasi Experimental. This is an experiment that lacks one of the four properties of true experiments

Advantage and Disadvantage


Advantage of Experimental Design Explains and establishes causal relationship of variables Increase purity of observations Free from the pressure of daily life when conducted in a controlled unit
Disadvantage of Experimental Research Dangerous Difficult to create condition Time constraint Non cooperative of the subjects Population constraint

Types of Non Experimental


Descriptive Research- it is a systematically, factually and accurately describe an area of interest or situation. Descriptive research may also deal with comparison and contrast; or the discovery of existing relationship between events or groups.

Types of Descriptive Research


Surveys Correlation Studies Case Study Feasibility Study Content Analysis Decision Making Problem Solving

Historical Research- this research purports to reconstruct the past objectively and accurately. The process involves investigation, recording, analysis and interpretation of past events to understand the present better and anticipate the future.

Types of Non Experimental


Types of Descriptive Research

Surveys gathers primarily quantitative data Correlation Studies examines the relationship Case Study in depth study of a single case Feasibility Study determine the variability of an undertaking Content Analysis synthesizing or dissecting Decision Making selects the most possible course Problem Solving solutions

Advantage and Disadvantage


Reasons for Conducting Non-Experimental Research
Situation in which the individual variable is inherently non manipulable There are variables that can be manipulated technically but should not be for ethical reasons There are situations in which it is deemed impractical or undesirable to conduct experiments

Advantages of Non-Experimental Research Retrospective and less expensive Adequate time Cooperation is easy to obtain Funding is available

Disadvantages of Non-Experimental Research Not capable of estimating causal relationship Cannot be applied to a new product or procedure Is not useful in the development of theories, principles and concepts Oftentimes not considered as true research

Other Type of Research


Quantitative Research Associated with positivist tradition Gathers numerical values as its data Uses deductive reasoning Using control Gathers empirical evidence (from objective reality collected through senses) Takes places both in natural as well as in contrived laboratory settings Qualitative Research Associated with naturalistic inquiry Gathers narrative description as its data Investigate phenomena and concepts Uses inductive process Uses subjectivity that enriches the analytic insights Gathers information, insights that leads to search for further evidence Takes place in the field

Other Type of Research


Types of Quantitative Research Descriptive Research-objective is accurate depiction of the characteristics of a person, situation or groups and or frequency with which certain phenomena occurs Correlational Research-explores the interrelationship among variables of interest without any active intervention by the researcher Quasi-Experimental Research-conducted to determine the effects of treatment or independent variables on the dependent variables or outcome variable. It lacks the control of the design, samples or setting. Experimental Research-it examines the cause and effect relationship between independent and dependent variable under highly controlled condition Types of Qualitative Research Phenomological Research-concerned with lived experienced of humans. It is an approach to thinking about what life experience of people are like and what they mean Grounded Theory Research-seeks to understand the key social psychological and structural processes that occurs in a social setting. A major component is the discovery of a core variable that is central in explaining what is going on in that social scene Ethnographic Research-the primary research tradition within anthropology, which provides a framework for studying the meaning, patterns and experience of a defined cultural group in a holistic fashion Historical Research-narrative description or analysis of events that occurred in the remote or recent past Case Studies-in depth examination and analysis of people or group of people in relation to nursing issues or problems that is important to the client and the researcher. Field Studies-natural investigation done in the community, such as in nursing homes, housing project and clinical wards

THE RESEARCH PROCESS


Conceptualizing Phase The researcher develops the formal questions to be studied and place it into some larger context
Formulating and delimiting the problem Reviewing related literature Undertaking clinical fieldworks Defining the framework and developing conceptual definitions Formulating the hypothesis

Empirical Phase
Collecting data Preparing the data for analysis Analyzing the Data Interpreting the result Communicating the findings Utilizing the findings in practice

Design and Planning Phase The researcher make a number of methodological decision regarding the strategies to be used to collect and analyze the data to address the research question and evaluate decisions before implementation
Selecting the research design Developing the protocols for the intervention Identifying the population to be studied Designing the sampling plan Specifying methods to measure the research variables Developing methods for safeguarding human/animal rights Finalizing and reviewing the research plan

Analytic Phase

Dissemination Phase

Sampling Procedure
Guidepost on the Sampling Procedure
Universe totality of the element Population refers to the accessible group Subjects group of individual or object chosen to provide data Stratum mutually exclusive segment Sampling process of selecting a representative portion of the population Sampling unit specific area or place Sampling frame complete list of sampling unit Sloven Formula used to get the sample size Sample portion of the population where data will be solicited

Sampling Procedure
Types of Sampling
Probability Sampling Involves random selection in choosing elements. Researcher can specify the probability that each element of the population will be included in the sample. There is less bias, as every element in the population has equal chances to be selected, but this is time consuming expensive and inconvenient. S i m p l e R a n d o m S a m p l i n g -researcher established sampling frame (listing elements), then numbering all elements then selecting sample elements S t r a t i f i e d R a n d o m S a m p l i n g -researchers divides the population into homogenous subgroups, from which elements are selected at random. C l u s t e r S a m p l i n g -researcher selects random samples successively from larger to smaller units by either simple or stratified random methods S y s t e m a t i c S a m p l i n g -researcher selects kth case from a list (where k=population divided by desired sample size)where k is the sampling interval (standard distance between elements)

Sampling Procedure
Types of Sampling
Non-Probability Sampling Does not involved random selection (non random methods) The researcher cannot estimate the precise elements of the population that will be included in the sample. It is convenient and economical; however it is likely to produce biased samples. C o n v e n i e n c e ( a c c i d e n t a l ) S a m p l i n g -using most convenient available people as participants S n o w b a l l i n g ( n e t w o r k o r c h a i n ) S a m p l i n g -every sample identifies and refers other person who meet the inclusion criteria Q u o t a S a m p l i n g -researcher indentifies population strata and determines how many participants are needed from each stratum P u r p o s i v e ( j u d g m e n t a l ) S a m p l i n g -researchers decide purposely to select subjects who are judged to be typical of the population or particularly knowledgeable about the issues under study.

Research Variables
These are qualities, properties or characteristics of people things, events or situation under study. These variables are assessed and measured qualitatively or quantitatively.

Independent Variable
These are the factors manipulated by the researcher and the focus of inquiry. The presumed cause (antecedent or influence to the dependent variable). It is the factor, characteristics or conditions is introduced, removed or manipulated to cause a change in the dependent variable that is observed or measured. The IV is also called the treatment, stimulus, predictor, input or experimental variable.

Dependent Variable
This is the factor or variable that is affected or influenced by the IV. The presumed effects (output or outcome). It is a factor, characteristics or condition that is observed and measured to find out how the independent variable affects it. Outcomes, response, output, and criterion or attribute variable.

Sample.Sample.Sample
Self Concept, Personal and Professional Characteristics of Staff Nurses in Relation to Patients Satisfaction Work Values of Nurse Managers and Clinical Performance of Staff Nurses Thermoregulation of Infant utilizing Mineral Water Container and Droplight Improve Weight of Infants under Infant Massage Therapy Preoperative Teaching and the Extent of Pain Relief Needed by Patient

Assumptions
These are statements of assertions related to the problems usually drawn from the theoretical framework. These are accepted by the researchers as TRUE on the basic of logical reasoning or reason.
U n i v e r s a l A s s u m p t i o n come from the knowledge of the researcher and from observed facts. They are also beliefs as TRUE by most people and need no testing or verification. S t u d y A s s u m p t i o n s confirm the validity of the explanatory variables as well as basis for formulating the hypothesis of the study.

DEFINITION OF TERMS M o t i v a t i o n . something that causes a person to act M o t i v a t i o n . Ability of the nurse on duty to accomplish her task on time

The Research Hypothesis


Hypothesis educated guess or tentative answer to a question that establishes the basis for statistical treatment.
Should be simple, specific, and dated in advance. Are statements of the expected relationship among the variables being studied A good hypothesis then is easily understood specific, conceptually clear, tangibly measured.

Null Hypothesis- a negative statement which indicates that there is no association or relationship between and among variables. Formal basis for testing the statistical significance (Ho) Alternative Hypothesis- a positive research hypothesis that proposes association or significant relationship between variables (Ha) Directional Hypothesis- states whether the relationship between the variables is positive or negative, directs or inverse

Purpose and Characteristics of Hypothesis


Purpose of Hypothesis:
Unify theory and reliability Hypothesis give direction to research Hypothesis enhance knowledge

Characteristics of Hypothesis
Testability

Is the hypothesis proven?


No it is only accepted or rejected

The Research Hypothesis


Tall people eat more than short people. Tall people and people with high caloric intake tend to weigh more than short people than short people and people with low calorie intake. People who smokes are more prone to lung cancer than those who do not smoke. There is no significant relationship between the perception of the nursing student and their clinical instructors with regards to professional conduct. There is a significant difference in incidence of skin breakdown between patient who are and who are not place in air bed.

Review of Related Literature


Review of literature is composed of discussion of facts and principles to which the present study is related. The literature review consists of a collection of pertinent readings, published or unpublished, in local or foreign settings. Related studies on the other hand are studies, inquiries, or investigations already concluded to which the present proposed study is related and has some similarity.

Types of Related Literature CONCEPTUAL LITERATURE. These are non research references materials written by authorities on the subject that embody experiences, viewpoints and interpretations of the subject of the research study. RESEARCH LITERATURE. These consist of studies and researches or theses and dissertations published or unpublished, which have bearing on the current research.

Review of Related Literature


Sources of Materials for Literature Review PRIMARY SOURCE Information and data for the review are taken directly from the original research or author of the references materials (Nursing literature, Theories, Ideas from other sources, Empirical studies) SECONDARY SOURCE Materials for the review are taken from a researcher or an author who cited the original author in his works. Guidepost in Writing the Review of Related Literature The review should not be a mere collection of quotations It is not merely a series of summaries or abstracts It must be a well integrated discussion Chronology is observed The setting is either local or international

Review of Related Literature


Sources of Materials for Literature Review PRIMARY SOURCE Information and data for the review are taken directly from the original research or author of the references materials (Nursing literature, Theories, Ideas from other sources, Empirical studies) SECONDARY SOURCE Materials for the review are taken from a researcher or an author who cited the original author in his works. Guidepost in Writing the Review of Related Literature The review should not be a mere collection of quotations It is not merely a series of summaries or abstracts It must be a well integrated discussion Chronology is observed The setting is either local or international

Review of Related Literature


Thesis Review describes content of the previous studies conducted Thesis Critique appraisal of the vital components of a study, particularly the problems, methodology, results and conclusion Thesis Abstract the summary of research content Plagiarism presenting the ideas or words of another as ones own nor distort and fabricate the data for the purpose of completing the research on time RA 8293 The Philippine Copyright Law

Data Collection
Methods of Data Collection
1. Use of existing or available data Raw data from basic documents such as records of patient admission, birth dates, discharges etc Tabular data indicating number of patient admitted or discharged in a year or month, or total number of deliveries, surgeries or workloads of nurses 2. Use of observers data gathered through actual observation and recording of events. Subjects must be informed for ethical consideration. Non participant observer does not share the same environment with the subject and is not a member of the group Participant observer shares the same environment and its better acquainted without their knowledge

Data Collection
Methods of Data Collection
3. Use of self recording or reporting approach uses a specifically prepared document intended to collect data called instrument. Questionnaires a paper and pencil approach where participants are asked to answer set of questions, it is the most frequent used research instrument to gather the needed data from the respondents pertinent to the purpose of the study. Interview guide one on one dialogue with the subject asks or reads a questions to elicit answers from the latter. (structure and unstructured) 4. Anecdotal method and documentary materials 5. Mechanical instruments

Research Instrument
Instrument are specially prepared tools or devices used to collect needed data or information and facilitates observation and measurement of research variables.
Must suit the purpose of the study Gather needed data Must be valid indicator should be clearly stated so that respondents perception will not be biased Reliable Should be easy to administer Scale of the measurement should be appropriate

Research Instrument
Types of Research Instrument Questionnaires paper and pencil approach Scanning Questionnaires Interview Guide Types of Questions Asked Open Ended Close Ended

Types of Close Ended Questions Dichotomous Multichotomous Fixed Alternative Projective Question Cafeteria Questions Rank Order Checklist matrix

Research Instrument
Ways to Start Research Questions State in affirmative rather than negative Questions should be neutrally worded Ambiguous questions must be avoided Avoid double negative questions Avoid double barrel questions Advantage of Questionnaires Facilitates gathering Easy to test data reliability and validity Less time consuming than interview Preserves the anonymity and confidentiality Disadvantage of Questionnaires Costly Less chance to clarify ambiguous answer Respondents must be literate Rate of retrieval can be low

Research Instrument
Advantage of Interview
Response are broad and varied Respondents can give complete answer Verbal and non verbal behavior can be observe There is flexibility in questions Disadvantage of Interview Time consuming and expensive Schedule for interview may be difficult Interviewer needs training Respondents answer may be influenced by the interviewers behavior

Criteria for Evaluating Instrument

R.E.S.S.Se.R.V.M.O .

Measurement of Variables
1. Quantitative Measurement
a. 1. 2. Scale of Measurement refers to a device that assigns code numbers. (0-10 Nominal name and classifies persons or objects into 2 or more categories having common set of characteristics Ordinal classifies subject or objects by ranking them from the highest to lowest Likert Scale respondent are asked to indicate the degree to which they agree or disagree. Graphic Rating Scale respondents are asked to respond in a bipolar continuum (highest to lowest or most to least) Guttman Scale used to assess the attitudes of the respondents using a continuum of cumulative statements Semantic Differential use to measure the meaning of concept to determine the emotional evaluative response

2. Qualitative Description

Statistical Measurement
Kinds of Statistics
Descriptive Statistics intended to organize and summarize numerical data from population and sample. Inferential Statistics concerned with population and the use of sample data to predict future occurrence.
Mode the number that occurs most frequent Median divides the distribution at the 50th percentile Mean the arithmetic average (summation of all scores divided by number of cases) Correlation reflects the relationship between two variables (Pearson Correlation Spearman Rank Correlation) T test designed to examine the statically difference between two means Z test unrelated groups ANOVA same with t test but more versatile because it can compare two or more groups

APA Citations
Citing References: The custom of citing references : that is, providing a record of the sources you have used for your research is a form of professional honesty and courtesy that is based on a regard for the responsibilities that writers have to readers and to other writers to indicate when they have used someone else's ideas or words. General Guidelines: Items are presented in alphabetical order by the first author's last name, or, if no author is listed, by the first element of the citation (generally the title). During your research, develop a consistent system for noting bibliographic information (author, title, date, publisher, source, page numbers) and keep it with your notes or copies of the source material you used. Always consult your professor/department/publisher for specific requirements.

APA Citations
Bankes, P., Boss, J., Cochran, A., Duemer, L., McCrary, J., & Salazar, D. (2001). Censorship and restraint: Lessons learned from the Catalyst.College Student Journal, 35, 335-338. Retrieved August 14, 2003, from Ebsco Academic Search Elite database.
Chafee, Z., Jr. (1962). Freedom of speech and press. In W. S. Dowden & T. N. Marsh (Eds.), The heritage of freedom: Essays on the rights of free men (pp. 140-156). New York: Harper.

Thanks for a beautiful day: On a beautiful day, we may thank God and praise him for his many gifts. Father of Jesus, We praise you and give you glory For the wonderful things you do for us; For life and health, for friends and family, for this splendid day. For these reasons, we pray as Jesus taught us: Our Father...

Which one of the following criteria should be considered as a top priority in nursing care? A. Avoidance of destructive changes B. Preservation of life C. Assurance of safety D. Preservation of integrity

Which of the following measures will best prevent manipulation of vulnerable groups? A. Secure informed consent B. Payment of stipends for subjects C. Protect privacy of patient D. Ensure confidentiality of data

Which of the following procedures ensures that Ms. Montana has fully described to prospective subjects the nature of the study and the subjects rights? A. Debriefing B. Full disclosure C. Informed consent D. Covert data collection

After the review session has been completed, Karen and the staff signed the document. Which of the following is the purpose of this? A. Agree about the content of the evaluation. B. Signify disagreement of the content of the evaluation. C. Document that Karen and the staff reviewed the evaluation. D. Serve as basis for future evaluation.

This technique refers to the use of multiple referents to draw conclusions about what constitutes the truth A. Triangulation B. Experiment C. Meta-analysis D. Delphi technique

The statement, Ninety percent (90%) of the respondents are female staff nurses validates previous research findings (Santos, 2001; Reyes, 2005) that the nursing profession is largely a female dominated profession is an example of A. implication B. interpretation C. analysis D. conclusion

He plans to use a Likert Scale to determine A. degree of agreement and disagreement B. compliance to expected standards C. level of satisfaction D. degree of acceptance

Which of the following is NOT true about a hypothesis? Hypothesis is: A. testable B. proven C. stated in a form that it can be accepted or rejected D. states a relationship between variables

The study is said to be completed when Ms. Montana achieved which of the following activities? A. Published the results in a nursing journal. B. Presented the study in a research forum. C. The results of the study is used by the nurses in the hospital D. Submitted the research report to the CEO.

While reviewing journal articles, Stephanie got interested in reading the brief summary of the article placed at the beginning of the journal report. Which of the following refers to this? A. Introduction B. Preface C. Abstract D. Background

She notes down ideas that were derived from the description of an investigation written by the person who conducted it. Which type of reference source refers to this? A. Footnote B. Bibliography C. Primary source

This kind of research gathers data in detail about a individual or groups and presented in narrative form, which is A. Case study B. Historical C. Analytical D. Experimental

She notes that the dependent variable in the hypothesis Duration of sleep of cuddled infants is longer than those infants who are not cuddled by mothers is A. Cuddled infants B. Duration of sleep C. Infants D. Absence of cuddling

She states the hypothesis of the study. Which of the following is a null hypothesis? A. Infants who are breastfed have the same weight as those who are bottle fed. B. Bottle-fed infants have lower weight than breast-fed infants C. Cuddled infants sleep longer than those who are left by themselves to sleep. D. Children of absentee parents are more prone to experience depression than those who live with both parents.

During data collection, Harry encounters a patient who refuses to talk to him. Which of the following is a limitation of the study? A. Patients refusal to fully divulge information. B. Patients with history of fever and cough C. Patients admitted or who seeks consultation at the ER and doctors offices D. Contacts of patients with history of fever and cough

The use of another persons ideas or wordings without giving appropriate credit results from inaccurate or incomplete attribution of materials to its resources. Which of the following is referred to when another persons idea is inappropriately credited as ones own? a. Plagiarism b. Quotation c. Assumption d. Paraphrase

Which of the following usually refers to the independent variables in doing research? a. Result b. Cause c. Output d. Effect

The information that an investigator like Vinz collects from the subjects or participants in a research study is usually called: a. Hypothesis b. Data c. Variable d. Concept

Medel conducts sampling at Barangay Maligaya. He collected 100 random individuals and determine who is their favorite actor. 50% said Piolo, 20% said John Lloyd, while some answered Sam, Dingdong, Richard, and Derek. Medel conducted what type of research study? a. Phenomenological b. Case study c. Non experimental d. Survey

Diana, Arlene, and Sally are to conduct a study about relationship of the number of family members in the household and the electricity bill, which of the following is the best research design suited for this study? 1. Descriptive 2. Exploratory 3. Explanatory 4. Correlational 5. Comparative 6. Experimental a. 1 and 4 b. 2 and 5 c. 3 and 6 d. 1 and 5 e. 2 and 4

Jezza and Jenny researched about TB its transmission, causative agent and factors, treatment, signs and symptoms, as well as medication and all other in-depth information about tuberculosis. This study is best suited for which research design? a. Historical b. Case study c. Phenomenological

A supposition or system of ideas that is proposed to explain a given phenomenon, best defines: a. A paradigm b. A concept c. A theory d. A conceptual framework

An 85 year old client in a nursing home tells a nurse, I signed the papers for that research study because the doctor was so insistent and I want him to continue taking care of me. Which client right is being violated? a. Right of self determination b. Right to privacy and confidentiality c. Right to full disclosure d. Right not to be harmed

In the hypothesis: The utilization of technology in teaching improves the retention and attention of the nursing students, which is the dependent variable? a. Utilization of technology b. Improvement in the retention and attention c. Nursing students d. Teaching

In any research study where individual persons are involved, it is important that an informed consent of the study is obtained. The following are essential information about the consent that you should disclose to the prospective subjects except: a. Consent to incomplete disclosure b. Description of benefits, risks, and discomforts c. Explanation of procedure d. Assurance of anonymity and confidentiality

The researcher implemented a medication regimen using a new type of combination drugs to manic patients while another group of manic patients receives the routine drugs. The researcher however handpicked the experimental group for they are the clients with multiple episodes if bipolar disorder. The researcher utilized which research design? a. Quasi experimental b. Pure experimental c. Phenomenological d. Longitudinal

Which of the following is not true about a pure experimental research? a. There is a control group b. There is an experimental group c. Selection of subjects in the control group is randomized d. There is a careful

A professional nurse can do research for varied reasons except: a. Professional advancement through research participation b. To validate results of new nursing modalities c. For financial gains d. To improve nursing care

Each nurse participant was asked to identify a problem. After the identification of the research problem, which of the following should be done? a. Methodology b. Review of related literature c. Acknowledgement d. Formulate hypothesis

Which of the following communicate the results of the research to the readers. They facilitate the description of the data. a. Hypothesis b. Statistics c. Research problem d. Tables and graphs

She knows that there are three elements of experimental research. Which is NOT included? A. Manipulation B. Randomization C. Control D. Trial

One of the related studies that she reads is a phenomenological research. Which of the following questions is answered by this type of qualitative research? A. What is the way of life of this cultural group? B. What is the effect of the intervention to the dependent variable? C. What the essence of the phenomenon is as experienced by these people? D. What is the core category that is central in explaining what is going on in that social scene?

Harry knows that he has to protect the rights of human research subjects. Which of the following actions of Harry ensures anonymity? A. Keep the identities of the subject secret B. Obtain informed consent C. Provide equal treatment to all the subjects of the study. D. Release findings only to the participants of the study