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Cell Structure and Function

Chapter 4 Part 1

A highly magnified straight pin; what are those clumps?

Fig. 4-2a, p. 54

Yep, these clumps

Fig. 4-2b, p. 54

Very highly magnified, clumps turn out to be bacteria!

Fig. 4-2c, p. 54

Measuring Cells
A micrometer is 1/1,000 of a millimeter and these bacillus shape bacteria are about 5 micrometers in length (thats 0.000005 meter).

Animalcules and Beasties

Van Leeuwenhoek was the first to describe small organisms seen through a microscope, which he called animalcules and beasties Hooke was the first to sketch and name cells He chose the name cell because the cork structure he was observing looked like the cells that monks lived in.

Development of the Microscope

The Cell Theory Emerges

In 1839, Schleiden and Schwann proposed the basic concepts of the modern cell theory
All organisms consist of one or more cells A cell is the smallest functional unit with all of the properties of life Each new cell arises from division of another, preexisting cell Each cell passes its hereditary material to its offspring

4.2 What Is a Cell?

The smallest unit that shows all the usual properties of life and is functional
All cells have a plasma membrane and cytoplasm, and all start out life with DNA and its instructions

The Basics of Cell Structure

Eukaryotic cell
Cell interior is divided into functional compartments, including a nucleus that contains the DNA key here is the nucleus that separates eukaryotes from the prokaryote life forms Usually have organelles and sexual reproduction

Prokaryotic cell
Small, simple cells without a nucleus No organelles and asexual reproduction only

All Cells Have Three Things In Common

Plasma membrane a lipid bilayer Controls movement of substances in/out of cell

In the DNA containing region

Nucleus in eukaryotic cells, or Nucleoid region in prokaryotic cells

A semifluid mixture containing cell components

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell Examples


DNA in nucleus

plasma membrane

b Plant cell (eukaryotic)

Fig. 4-4b (1), p. 56


DNA in nucleus

plasma membrane

c Animal cell (eukaryotic)

Fig. 4-4b (2), p. 56

Cell Size
Surface-to-volume ratio restricts cell size by limiting transport of nutrients and wastes

Preview of Cell Membranes

Lipid bilayer
A double layer of phospholipids organized with hydrophilic heads outward and hydrophobic tails inward and thus limit movement in or out of cell Many types of proteins embedded or attached to the bilayer carry out membrane functions Combination of above allows cell to regulate entry and exit of materials from cell

Basic Structure of Cell Membranes

one layer of lipids

one layer of lipids

B A lipid bilayer has two layers of lipids, the tails of which are sandwiched between the heads. Proteins (not shown) typically intermingle among the lipids.
Fig. 4-6b, p. 57


lipid bilayer fluid

C The hydrophilic heads of the phospholipids bathe in the watery uid on both sides of the bilayer.
Fig. 4-6c, p. 57

4.1-4.2 Key Concepts:

What All Cells Have In Common

Each cell has a plasma membrane, a boundary between its interior and the outside environment The interior consist of cytoplasm and an innermost region of DNA

Different Microscopes, Different Characteristics

Resolving Power

4.4 Introducing Prokaryotic Cells

Bacteria and archaea are the prokaryotes (before the nucleus), the smallest and most metabolically diverse forms of life (i.e. diverse in terms of energy attainment) Bacteria and archaea are similar in appearance and size, but differ in structure and metabolism Are bacteria and archaea successful in terms of evolutionary history? Yes, they simply keep cloning and surviving.

General Prokaryote Body Plan

Cell wall surrounds the plasma membrane
Made of peptidoglycan (in bacteria) or proteins (in archaea) and coated with a sticky capsule

Flagellum for locomotion Pili help cells move across surfaces and attach
Sex pilus aids in sexual reproduction


4.6 Introducing Eukaryotic Cells

Eukaryotic (true nucleus) cells carry out much of their metabolism inside membrane-enclosed organelles, in addition to a formed nucleus Organelle
A structure that carries out a specialized function within a eukaryotic cell

Organelles of Eukaryotic Cells

Cell Structure and Function

Chapter 4 Part 2

4.7 Visual Summary of a Plant Cell

4.7 Visual Summary of an Animal Cell

4.8 Reasons for the Nucleus

The nucleus keeps eukaryotic DNA away from potentially damaging reactions in the cytoplasm The nuclear envelope controls when DNA is accessed (envelope will disolve before the mitosis or meiosis begins and then reform after process finishes)

DNA Chromatin, Chromosomes, genes

The DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus Name used when DNA is not condensed

A single DNA molecule with its attached proteins During cell division, chromosomes condense and become visible in micrographs Human have 46 chromosomes (23 sets of 2) Name used when DNA is condensed Genes are identified stretches of DNA that carry the heritable information for a trait

Chromosome Condensation

The Endoplasmic Reticulum

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
An extension of the nuclear envelope that forms a continuous, folded compartment

Two kinds of endoplasmic reticulum

Rough ER (with ribosomes) makes proteins, folds polypeptides into their tertiary form Smooth ER (no ribosomes) makes lipids, breaks down carbohydrates and lipids, detoxifies poisons

Small, membrane-enclosed saclike organelles that store or transport substances

Vesicles containing enzymes that break down hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, and other toxins

Vesicles for waste disposal, excess water

Golgi Bodies and Lysosomes

Golgi body
A folded membrane containing enzymes that finish polypeptides and lipids delivered by the ER Packages finished products in vesicles that carry them to the plasma membrane or to lysosomes Sort of the UPS of the cell

Vesicles containing enzymes that fuse with vacuoles and digest waste materials

The Endomembrane System

The Endomembrane System

The Endomembrane System

4.10 Lysosome Malfunction

When lysosomes do not work properly, some cellular materials are not properly recycled, which can have devastating results Different kinds of molecules are broken down by different lysosomal enzymes
Example, one lysosomal enzyme breaks down gangliosides, a kind of lipid

Tay Sachs Disease

In Tay Sachs disease, genetic mutation alters a lysosomal enzyme disposing the gangliosides that accumulate in nerve cells. Affected children usually die by age five.

4.11 Other Organelles

Eukaryotic cells make most of their ATP in mitochondria Plastids function in storage and photosynthesis in plants and some types of algae

Eukaryotic organelle that carries out respiration (energy release from food) and makes the energy molecule ATP for energy storage Contains two membranes, forming inner and outer compartments; buildup of hydrogen ions in the outer compartment drives ATP synthesis Has its own DNA and ribosomes Resembles bacteria; may have evolved through endosymbiosis from bacteria

Mitochondrion Structure

Plastids Other Organelles

Organelles that function in photosynthesis or storage in plants and algae; includes the chromoplasts, amyloplasts, and chloroplasts

Plastids specialized for photosynthesis Unique ability to capture radiant energy of sun Resemble photosynthetic bacteria; may have evolved by endosymbiosis from bacteria

Chloroplast Energy Storage Plastid

Greatly magnified, of course, not visible with light microscope

The Central Vacuole Of Plants

Central vacuole
A plant organelle that occupies 50 to 90 percent of a plant cells interior Stores amino acids, sugars, ions, wastes, toxins Fluid pressure in the central vacuole helps keep plant cells firm (hydrostatic pressure)

Eukaryotic Cell Walls

Animal cells do not have cell walls outside the cell membrane, but plant cells and many protist and fungal cells do Primary cell wall
A thin, pliable wall formed by secretion of cellulose into the coating around young plant cells

Secondary cell wall

A strong wall composed of lignin, formed in some plant stems and roots after maturity this is the heart wood of tree-like plants

Plant Cell Walls Have Plasmodesma

Plant Cuticle Waxy Outer Protection

A waxy outer covering that protects exposed surfaces and limits water loss

Cell Junctions Allow Communication

Cell junctions allow cells to interact with each other and the environment In plants, plasmodesmata extend through cell walls to connect the cytoplasm of two cells Animals have three types of cell junctions: tight junctions, adhering junctions, gap junctions

Cell Junctions in Animal Tissues

Cilia, Flagella, And False Feet

Eukaryotic flagella and cilia
Whiplike structures formed from microtubules organized into 9 + 2 arrays Grow from a centriole which remains in the cytoplasm as a basal body (centrioles are only in animal cells, not plants)

False feet used by amoebas and other eukaryotic cells to move or engulf prey

Examples Of Moving Cells

Flagellum of the human sperm, and pseudopods of a predatory amoeba allow movement

4.13 Key Concepts:

A Look at the Cytoskeleton

Diverse protein filaments reinforce a cells shape and keep its parts organized As some filaments lengthen and shorten, they move cell structures or the whole cell

Summary Of Components Of Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Cells