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What is Regenerative Braking?

Conventional braking systems convert kinetic energy into heat, usually via friction.
This wastes a great deal of energy!

Regenerative braking technology funnels the energy created by the braking process back into the system in the form of charging the battery for further use

How it works ?

In a regenerative braking system the energy normally lost in the braking process is transferred to the generator from the rotating axel then transferred to the battery, thus saving energy

Design requirements of regenerative braking

1. Store energy while braking 2. Return energy to start up 3. Must fit to the vehicle 4. Light weight 5. Good stopping range 6. Good stopping force 7. Inexpensive and affordable 8. Safe to user and eco friendly 9. Reliable 10. Modular

Regen Braking Principles in Electric Transportation

EVs use their drive motors to convert kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy
Motors and generators operate under the

same principle and can be used interchangeably.

The generated electrical energy can be dissipated through a resistive network (Dynamic Braking) or stored (Regen Braking)

How Regen Braking Works Part 1: The Mechanical Aspect

Vehicle has forward momentum The wheels are coupled to the rotors of electric traction motors in an EV

Instead of a current being applied to the motor

to turn the rotors, the rotors are turned by the wheels of the EV

The rotors experience opposing torque as current is induced in the motor coils This opposing torque slows the vehicle The generated electrical energy is stored

Diagram of a Regen Braking System

Part 2: Brake Control Circuitry

Complex electronic circuits that handle braking functions

Coordinates motor and friction brakes under a wide

range of situations The controller will take the following parameters into account and determines how the vehicle will brake
Speed of vehicle Driver input (pedals) Storage medium state-of-charge

Routes and regulates generated power

Depending on the desired output, the brake

controller must be able to supply vehicle batteries or capacitors with the proper polarity, current, and voltage for safe charging (depends on battery state of charge)

Options for storing the Energy

Recharging vehicle battery packs

State of charge influences how much of the

generated current can be safely stored Ubiquitous method for hybrid cars

Charging an array of capacitors/supercapacitors

Pro: Very high charge/discharge rate (high

power density) Con: Much lower energy density than batteries Allows for regen braking if batteries are at a high state of charge Implemented on some buses

Non-electrical methods
Fluid compression Flywheels

Mechanical Methods

Hydraulic Regenerative Braking

Slows the vehicle by

compressing medium and storing it in an accumulator Pressure is used to assist the engine upon forward acceleration Potentially more efficient than electric regenerative brake systems

A VW Beetle converted to a hydraulic hybrid that claims up to 80% regeneration efficiency