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Values

Nature, meaning & purpose of Values. Dr. Jay A. Garcia

The Meaning, Nature and Purpose of Values


Values refer to the major priorities that man chooses to act on, and that creatively enhances his life and the lives of those with whom he associates with.

The Essence of Values


Etymologically, the word values comes from the Latin word valere which means to measure the worth of something. Axiology is defined as the philosophical science of values. Max Scheler is the foremost exponent of axiology.

According to Scheler:
Acts reveal the persons value preferences. Like a prism that reflects the invisible spectrum of colors, a persons acts manifest his invisible order of values.

The Meaning, Nature and Purpose of Values


Values is being itself or the richness of being in as much as it has power to attract the cognitive and appetitive potentials of men. Values refer to the major priorities that one chooses to act on. Brian Hall

The Meaning, Nature and Purpose of Values


Values means whatever is actually liked, prized, esteemed, desired, approved, and enjoyed by anyone at anytime. - Brightman

Phenomenology of Moral Values


1. A description of moral insights into a moral experience shows the following: There is awareness of the difference between right or wrong. Moral experience cannot be reduced to other human experiences.

There is a must quality, i.e., it is expected & demanded that anyone be moral. We experience an ought in doing good & avoiding evil. Yet we are free to do good or evil.

2. From phenomenon of dialogue, when we speak of & judge others.

Characteristics of Moral Values.


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A value becomes moral because it is recognized as reasonable & freely chosen by a human person. Moral values are pro-eminent over the other human values. Moral values are absolute: i.e., independent of other values & preferred for their own sake.

Characteristics of Moral Values.


4. Moral values are universal & necessary for everyone; i.e., friendship remains a value to all even if the friend is a rascal. 5. Moral values are obligatory; i.e., they ought to be realized & cannot be postponed.

Characteristics of Values
Max Scheler, in his theory of values, gives 4 characteristics or properties of values. 1. They are pure valuable essences or qualities. 2. They are objective & transcend the sentimental perceptions to which they appeal.

Characteristics of Values
3. They are hierarchically given, dependent & relative among themselves & with the perceiver. 4. They are always given in pairs, i.e. the positive value has always its corresponding countervalue.

Tomas Andres, outlines other properties of Values.

Value is relative. Any value or good may be viewed as: a) good for what? or b) good for whom? Value is subjective. If all values or good are relative, then, in any relation, there are 3 things to consider:

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2.

That which is related to some other thing. Taken from the Latin word a quo meaning from which. That to which the former is related or referred. Taken from the Latin word ad quem meaning to which.

3. The basis of relationship between the two terms, i.e., the reason why the term a quo is related to the term ad quem.

Tomas Andres, outlines other properties of Values.

Value is objective. Value has an absolute character since it has an objectivity independent from human appreciation or judgement. Value is bipolar. In its deepest structure, value never goes alone but is accompanied by a countervalue.

Tomas Andres, outlines other properties of Values.

Value is hierarchical. Within the realm of value & among the different classes & groups there exists a hierarchy, a scaled gradation of values.

Classification of Values
According to ancient philosophers, there are three fundamental classification of values:

Useful or utilitarian good. A thing is useful when some other things are obtained from & through it. Pleasurable or delectable good. A thing is pleasurable when it provides pleasure to the subject.

Befitting or becoming good. A thing is befitting when it develops, completes, or perfects the subject.

Other authorities classify values as either intrinsic or instrumental.


Intrinsic for its own sake. Instrumental for the sake of some other good.