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Overview & Objectives

The Research Process Quantitative and Qualitative designs Ethics in Research

The scientific Method

The process of conduction research in the social

sciences involves a scientific approach. Simply planning


ahead and making objectives clear, facts that have never before been discovered may be unearthed. The majority of scientific work is discovered in the field by collecting data. These data are usually the result of careful observation which must be recorded systematically (scientifically) and objectively. This enables researchers to answer questions related to the study.

The Research Process Quantitative and Qualitative designs Ethics in Research

The scientific Method

Scientific research is conducted by using the scientific

method. This involves a generated set of procedures used to generated findings in the sciences. The scientific approach is adopted because it is meaningful, unambiguous and uncontaminated by biases of the parties involved in the research process. In order for social

scientist to obtain meaningful results they must obtain


sound and useful results, thus, it is incumbent of the social scientist to become knowledgeable of research methods and all they involve.

The Research Process Quantitative and Qualitative designs Ethics in Research

The scientific Method

The scientific method involves testing of hypotheses after making

systematic observations. A hypothesis is a prediction made about the causes of certain phenomena. This is very useful in answering empirical questions. These questions may be answered by not only making observations but also through conducting experiments and surveys. These are referred to as research methods. These methods ensure that data collected will yield only one explanation for results. This is enables when a researcher is able to design a study without confounds or flaws which may throw off the results.

The Research Process Quantitative and Qualitative designs Ethics in Research

The scientific Method

The goal of the scientific method is to provide

information that will describe, explain, predict and control the relationship between variables. Some variables are manipulative, these are independent variables. The other type is referred to as the dependent

variable and this is often the outcome of the results of a


study.

The Research Process Quantitative and Qualitative designs Ethics in Research

The scientific Method

Researchers in the social sciences are often

trying to find out the effect of one factor on

behaviour of social situations. Basically, the


researcher wants to know if change in the independent variable will cause changes in the

dependent variable. Thus, the design of the study


must be precise and concrete.

The Research Process Quantitative and Qualitative designs Ethics in Research

The scientific Method

The terms often used to describe this are

reliability and validity. Reliability ensures that the measures used in a research are consistent. Hence,

different researchers who use the same procedures


to conduct a research will yield the same results. Validity is the extent to which the measurement technique measures what it is supposed to measure.

The Research Process Quantitative and Qualitative designs Ethics in Research

The scientific Method

The steps in the research process involves

identifying a topic for the research, learning about the topic, formulating a hypothesis, designing a study, collecting data, analyzing such data, interpreting the results and communicating these results in a logical manner.

The Research Process Quantitative and Qualitative designs Ethics in Research

The scientific Method

There are two types of research designs in the social

sciences. Quantitative designs are more positivistic or

scientific in nature while qualitative designs are more


interpretive or explanatory.

Is the questionnaire is a qualitative tool?

You are incorrect. The questionnaire is not a qualitative tool. Read over!

You are correct the answer is false the questionnaire is a quantitative tool True

False

The Research Process Quantitative and Qualitative designs Ethics in Research

The scientific Method

Quantitative designs

These designs are and statistical or numerical in nature.

These types of designs are useful to examine rates or

incidences of phenomena in society. When planning for this


type of research, one must first take into consideration the sample size, instruments for data collection and how the data will be analyzed. The main quantitative research methods are:
a. b. c.

Questionnaires (primary) Structured Interviews (primary) Official Statistics (secondary)

The Research Process Quantitative and Qualitative designs Ethics in Research

The scientific Method

Qualitative designs

These designs collect more subjective data such as information about peoples emotions, values and feelings. They seek to interpret the motives behind social behaviour or situations. The researcher normally interacts directly with the respondents. This is usually face-to face or by actually joining in the everyday activities. The main qualitative methods include:
a. b. c. d.

Unstructured interviews (primary)


Observations(primary) Case studies(Secondary) Document studies(secondary)

The Research Process Quantitative and Qualitative designs Ethics in Research

The scientific Method

Researchers in the social sciences are supposed to

ensure that follow the ethical guidelines of scientific research. The main guidelines are:
a.

Protection of respondents from personal harm.

b.
c. d.

Respect for the respondents right to privacy.


Avoid forcing respondents to take part in research. Preserve confidentiality.

The Research Process Quantitative and Qualitative designs Ethics in Research

The scientific Method

a.

Seek the respondents permission before starting the


research process.

b. c.

Avoid misleading the respondent. Report findings in such a manner that will not cause any embarrassment to the respondents.

d.

Avoid fabrication of data to support a particular conclusion

The Research Process Quantitative and Qualitative designs Ethics in Research

The scientific Method

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