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# ECEG287 Optical Detection Course Notes Part 15: Introduction to Array Detectors

Profs. Charles A. DiMarzio and Stephen W. McKnight Northeastern University, Spring 2004
March 2004
Charles A. DiMarzio, Northeastern University

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Imaging Detectors
Goal:
Measure I(x,y,t) Or perhaps E(x,y,t)
x A -x A s s

Other Variables
z, l, etc.

Approaches:
Scanning Arrays Combinations
March 2004
Charles A. DiMarzio, Northeastern University

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## Nipkow Disk, 1884

The Nipkow disk was a device which its inventor, Paul Nipkow, thought that could be used to transmit pictures by wire. The disk had a spiral of holes cut into it. These holes were positioned so that they could scan every part of an image in turn as the disk spun around. The light coming from each point would then be turned into an electrical current. This electrical signal would light up a second light at the other end of the wire. The second light would flicker because the amount of current it received would depend on the brightness of the image being scanned. The light from this light bulb passing through a second disk spinning at the same speed, would then project the picture onto a screen.

## http://www2.fht-esslingen.de/telehistory/nipkow2.html March 2004

Charles A. DiMarzio, Northeastern University

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## Image Orthicon ~1940-60

The front of the Image Orthicon contains a screen called a photocathode that releases electrons when light from the camera lens strikes it. Bright parts of the scene knock out more electrons than dim parts do. Another screen behind the photocathode, called the target, attracts the released electrons, and a positively charged electronic image of the scene forms on the target. The image consists of highly and weakly charged spots that correspond to the bright and dim areas of the scene. A beam of electrons then scans the target, which absorbs electrons from the beam in proportion to those knocked out by the image.

## http://www.acmi.net.au/AIC/IMAGE_ORTHICON.html March 2004

Charles A. DiMarzio, Northeastern University

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Scanning Systems

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## Pixelation and Digitization

255 Count

0 Brightness
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Charles A. DiMarzio, Northeastern University

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2N-1 Saturation

Maximum Signal

0
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## Signal Voltage Dark

Charles A. DiMarzio, Northeastern University

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## Linearity and AGC

1 0.8 Output Voltage 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

y Gx
0.5

## Automatic Gain Control (AGC) Feedback

2
Control G Based on...
Peak Signal Average Signal Peak in a Region
1

0.2

0.8

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## CCD Charge Transfer

Clock Voltage 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 0.5 1 0.9 0.8 Row Number 0.7 0.6

m10057_1.m Figure 1

## 1 1.5 2 time, Clock Cycles

2.5

V Clock Signals
March 2004
Charles A. DiMarzio, Northeastern University

One Line
time
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Formats
Frame Transfer
Collection Frame Transfer Frame

Line Transfer

March 2004

## Charles A. DiMarzio, Northeastern University

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Computer Interfacing
Analog Camera and Frame Grabber Digital Camera
Analog Camera
Computer with Frame Grabber

## Digital Camera Computer

Analog Monitor
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Computer Monitor
Charles A. DiMarzio, Northeastern University

Computer Monitor
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(Gaussian)

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## Some Standard and Extreme Parameters

VGA Frame Size: 640 by 480
Up to 4k Square?

Up To few kHz.

Up To 12.

## Pixel Size: 10 micrometers. Color Camera: 3 Channels, 8 Bits Each

March 2004
Charles A. DiMarzio, Northeastern University

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Quantitative Imaging
Quantitative Calculations
Difficult Subject to Change

Sources of Variation
Light Source Camera Sensitivity Filter Losses Geometry Atmosphere? Other?

Calibration Standards
Light Level Reflectance

## Target Dark R White Dark

March 2004
Charles A. DiMarzio, Northeastern University

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