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VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

DYNAMICS
Ninth
Edition
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

CHAPTER
19
Mechanical Vibrations
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Contents
19 - 2
Introduction
Free Vibrations of Particles. Simple
Harmonic Motion
Simple Pendulum (Approximate
Solution)
Simple Pendulum (Exact Solution)
Sample Problem 19.1
Free Vibrations of Rigid Bodies
Sample Problem 19.2
Sample Problem 19.3
Principle of Conservation of Energy
Sample Problem 19.4
Forced Vibrations
Sample Problem 19.5
Damped Free Vibrations
Damped Forced Vibrations
Electrical Analogues

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Introduction
19 - 3
Mechanical vibration is the motion of a particle or body which
oscillates about a position of equilibrium. Most vibrations in
machines and structures are undesirable due to increased stresses
and energy losses.
Time interval required for a system to complete a full cycle of the
motion is the period of the vibration.
Number of cycles per unit time defines the frequency of the vibrations.
Maximum displacement of the system from the equilibrium position is
the amplitude of the vibration.
When the motion is maintained by the restoring forces only, the
vibration is described as free vibration. When a periodic force is applied
to the system, the motion is described as forced vibration.
When the frictional dissipation of energy is neglected, the motion
is said to be undamped. Actually, all vibrations are damped to
some degree.
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Free Vibrations of Particles. Simple Harmonic Motion
19 - 4
If a particle is displaced through a distance x
m
from its
equilibrium position and released with no velocity, the
particle will undergo simple harmonic motion,
( )
0 = +
= + = =
kx x m
kx x k W F ma
st

o
General solution is the sum of two particular solutions,
( ) ( ) t C t C
t
m
k
C t
m
k
C x
n n
e e cos sin
cos sin
2 1
2 1
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
x is a periodic function and e
n
is the natural circular
frequency of the motion.
C
1
and C
2
are determined by the initial conditions:
( ) ( ) t C t C x
n n
e e cos sin
2 1
+ =
0 2
x C =
n
v C e
0 1
= ( ) ( ) t C t C x v
n n n n
e e e e sin cos
2 1
= =
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Free Vibrations of Particles. Simple Harmonic Motion
19 - 5
( ) | e + = t x x
n m
sin
= =
n
n
e
t
t
2
period
= = =
t
e
t 2
1
n
n
n
f natural frequency
( ) = + =
2
0
2
0
x v x
n m
e amplitude
( ) = =

n
x v e |
0 0
1
tan phase angle
Displacement is equivalent to the x component of the sum of two vectors
which rotate with constant angular velocity
2 1
C C

+
.
n
e
0 2
0
1
x C
v
C
n
=
=
e
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Free Vibrations of Particles. Simple Harmonic Motion
19 - 6
( ) | e + = t x x
n m
sin
Velocity-time and acceleration-time curves can be
represented by sine curves of the same period as the
displacement-time curve but different phase angles.
( )
( ) 2 sin
cos
t | e e
| e e
+ + =
+ =
=
t x
t x
x v
n n m
n n m

( )
( ) t | e e
| e e
+ + =
+ =
=
t x
t x
x a
n n m
n n m
sin
sin
2
2

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Simple Pendulum (Approximate Solution)
19 - 7
Results obtained for the spring-mass system can be
applied whenever the resultant force on a particle is
proportional to the displacement and directed towards
the equilibrium position.
for small angles,
( )
g
l
t
l
g
n
n
n m
t
e
t
t
| e u u
u u
2
2
sin
0
= =
+ =
= +

:
t t
ma F =

Consider tangential components of acceleration and

force for a simple pendulum,
0 sin
sin
= +
=
u u
u u
l
g
ml W

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Simple Pendulum (Exact Solution)
19 - 8
0 sin = + u u
l
g

An exact solution for
( )
}

=
2
0
2 2
sin 2 sin 1
4
t
| u
|
t
m
n
d
g
l
which requires numerical solution.
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
g
l K
n
t
t
t 2
2
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Sample Problem 19.1
19 - 9
A 50-kg block moves between vertical
guides as shown. The block is pulled
40mm down from its equilibrium
position and released.
For each spring arrangement, determine
a) the period of the vibration, b) the
maximum velocity of the block, and c)
the maximum acceleration of the block.
SOLUTION:
For each spring arrangement, determine
the spring constant for a single
equivalent spring.
Apply the approximate relations for the
harmonic motion of a spring-mass
system.
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Sample Problem 19.1
19 - 10
m kN 6 m kN 4
2 1
= = k k
SOLUTION:
Springs in parallel:
- determine the spring constant for equivalent spring
m N 10 m kN 10
4
2 1
2 1
= =
+ = =
+ =
k k
P
k
k k P
o
o o
- apply the approximate relations for the harmonic motion
of a spring-mass system
n
n
n
m
k
e
t
t
e
2
s rad 14 . 14
kg 20
N/m 10
4
=
= = =
s 444 . 0 =
n
t
( )( ) s rad 4.14 1 m 040 . 0 =
=
n m m
x v e
s m 566 . 0 =
m
v
2
s m 00 . 8 =
m
a
( )( )
2
2
s rad 4.14 1 m 040 . 0 =
=
n m m
a x a
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Sample Problem 19.1
19 - 11
m kN 6 m kN 4
2 1
= = k k
Springs in series:
- determine the spring constant for equivalent spring
- apply the approximate relations for the harmonic motion
of a spring-mass system
n
n
n
m
k
e
t
t
e
2
s rad 93 . 6
kg 20
400N/m 2
=
= = =
s 907 . 0 =
n
t
( )( ) s rad .93 6 m 040 . 0 =
=
n m m
x v e
s m 277 . 0 =
m
v
2
s m 920 . 1 =
m
a
( )( )
2
2
s rad .93 6 m 040 . 0 =
=
n m m
a x a
m N 10 m kN 10
4
2 1
2 1
= =
+ = =
+ =
k k
P
k
k k P
o
o o
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Free Vibrations of Rigid Bodies
19 - 12
If an equation of motion takes the form
0 or 0
2 2
= + = + u e u e
n n
x x

the corresponding motion may be considered
as simple harmonic motion.
Analysis objective is to determine e
n
.
( ) ( ) | | mg W mb b b m I = = + = , 2 2 but
2
3
2
2 2
12
1
0
5
3
sin
5
3
= + ~ + u u u u
b
g
b
g

g
b
b
g
n
n n
3
5
2
2
,
5
3
then t
e
t
t e = = =
For an equivalent simple pendulum,
3 5b l =
Consider the oscillations of a square plate
( ) ( ) u u u

I mb b W + = sin
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Sample Problem 19.2
19 - 13
k
A cylinder of weight W is suspended
as shown.
Determine the period and natural
frequency of vibrations of the cylinder.
SOLUTION:
From the kinematics of the system, relate
the linear displacement and acceleration
to the rotation of the cylinder.
Based on a free-body-diagram equation
for the equivalence of the external and
effective forces, write the equation of
motion.
Substitute the kinematic relations to arrive
at an equation involving only the angular
displacement and acceleration.
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Sample Problem 19.2
19 - 14
SOLUTION:
From the kinematics of the system, relate the linear
displacement and acceleration to the rotation of the cylinder.
u r x = u o r x 2 2 = =
u o

r r a = = u o

= u

r a =
Based on a free-body-diagram equation for the equivalence of
the external and effective forces, write the equation of motion.
( ) :

=
eff
A A
M M
( ) o I r a m r T Wr + = 2
2
( ) u o r k W k T T 2 but
2
1
0 2
+ = + =
Substitute the kinematic relations to arrive at an equation
involving only the angular displacement and acceleration.
( )( ) ( )
0
3
8
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
= +
+ = +
u u
u u u
m
k
mr r r m r kr W Wr

m
k
n
3
8
= e
k
m
n
n
8
3
2
2
t
e
t
t = =
m
k
f
n
n
3
8
2
1
2 t t
e
= =
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Sample Problem 19.3
19 - 15
s 13 . 1
lb 20
n
=
=
t
W
s 93 . 1 =
n
t
The disk and gear undergo torsional
vibration with the periods shown.
Assume that the moment exerted by the
wire is proportional to the twist angle.
Determine a) the wire torsional spring
constant, b) the centroidal moment of
inertia of the gear, and c) the maximum
angular velocity of the gear if rotated
through 90
o
and released.
SOLUTION:
Using the free-body-diagram equation for
the equivalence of the external and
effective moments, write the equation of
motion for the disk/gear and wire.
With the natural frequency and moment
of inertia for the disk known, calculate
the torsional spring constant.
With natural frequency and spring
constant known, calculate the moment of
inertia for the gear.
Apply the relations for simple harmonic
motion to calculate the maximum gear
velocity.
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Sample Problem 19.3
19 - 16
s 13 . 1
lb 20
n
=
=
t
W
s 93 . 1 =
n
t
SOLUTION:
Using the free-body-diagram equation for the equivalence
of the external and effective moments, write the equation of
motion for the disk/gear and wire.
( ) :

=
eff
O O
M M
0 = +
= +
u u
u u
I
K
I K

K
I
I
K
n
n n
t
e
t
t e 2
2
= = =
With the natural frequency and moment of inertia for the
disk known, calculate the torsional spring constant.
2
2
2
2
1
s ft lb 138 . 0
12
8
2 . 32
20
2
1
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = mr I
K
138 . 0
2 13 . 1 t =
rad ft lb 27 . 4 = K
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Sample Problem 19.3
19 - 17
s 13 . 1
lb 20
n
=
=
t
W
s 93 . 1 =
n
t
rad ft lb 27 . 4 = K
K
I
I
K
n
n n
t
e
t
t e 2
2
= = =
With natural frequency and spring constant known,
calculate the moment of inertia for the gear.
27 . 4
2 93 . 1
I
t =
2
s ft lb 403 . 0 = I
Apply the relations for simple harmonic motion to
calculate the maximum gear velocity.
n m m n n m n m
t t e u e e e u e e u u = = = sin sin
rad 571 . 1 90 = =
m
u
( )
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s 93 . 1
2
rad 571 . 1
2 t
t
t
u e
n
m m
s rad 11 . 5 =
m
e
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Principle of Conservation of Energy
19 - 18
Resultant force on a mass in simple harmonic motion
is conservative - total energy is conserved.
constant = +V T
= +
= +
2 2 2
2
2
1
2
2
1
constant
x x
kx x m
n
e

Consider simple harmonic motion of the square plate,

0
1
= T ( ) ( ) | |
2
2
1
2
1
2 sin 2 cos 1
m
m
Wb
Wb Wb V
u
u u
~
= =
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
3
5
2
1
2 2
3
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
m
m m
m m
mb
mb b m
I v m T
u
e u
e

=
+ =
+ =
0
2
= V
( ) 0 0
2 2 2
3
5
2
1
2
2
1
2 2 1 1
+ = +
+ = +
n m m
mb Wb
V T V T
e u u b g
n
5 3 = e
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Sample Problem 19.4
19 - 19
Determine the period of small
oscillations of a cylinder which rolls
without slipping inside a curved
surface.
SOLUTION:
Apply the principle of conservation of
energy between the positions of maximum
and minimum potential energy.
Solve the energy equation for the natural
frequency of the oscillations.
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Sample Problem 19.4
19 - 20
0
1
= T
( )( )
( )( ) 2
cos 1
2
1
m
r R W
r R W Wh V
u
u
~
= =
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
4
3
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
m
m m
m m
r R m
r
r R
mr r R m
I v m T
u
u u
e

=
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
+ =
0
2
= V
SOLUTION:
Apply the principle of conservation of energy between the
positions of maximum and minimum potential energy.
2 2 1 1
V T V T + = +
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Sample Problem 19.4
19 - 21
2 2 1 1
V T V T + = +
( ) ( ) 0
2
0
2 2
4
3
2
+ = +
m
m
r R m r R W u
u

( )( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
4
3
2
2
m
n m
m
r R m r R mg e u
u
=
r R
g
n

=
3
2
2
e
g
r R
n
n

= =
2
3
2
2
t
e
t
t
0
1
= T ( )( ) 2
2
1 m
r R W V u ~
( )
2 2
4
3
2 m
r R m T u

=
0
2
= V
Solve the energy equation for the natural frequency of the
oscillations.
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Forced Vibrations
19 - 22
: ma F =

( ) x m x k W t P
st f m
= + + o e sin
t P kx x m
f m
e sin = +
( ) x m t x k W
f m st
= + e o o sin
t k kx x m
f m
e o sin = +
Forced vibrations - Occur
when a system is subjected to
a periodic force or a periodic
displacement of a support.
=
f
e forced frequency
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Forced Vibrations
19 - 23
| | t x t C t C
x x x
f m n n
particular ary complement
e e e sin cos sin
2 1
+ + =
+ =
( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 1
n f
m
n f
m
f
m
m
k P
m k
P
x
e e
o
e e e
=

=
t k kx x m
f m
e o sin = +
t P kx x m
f m
e sin = +
At e
f
= e
n
, forcing input is in
resonance with the system.
t P t kx t x m
f m f m f m f
e e e e sin sin sin
2
= +
Substituting particular solution into governing equation,
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Sample Problem 19.5
19 - 24
A motor weighing 350 lb is supported
by four springs, each having a constant
750 lb/in. The unbalance of the motor is
equivalent to a weight of 1 oz located 6
in. from the axis of rotation.
Determine a) speed in rpm at which
resonance will occur, and b) amplitude
of the vibration at 1200 rpm.
SOLUTION:
The resonant frequency is equal to the
natural frequency of the system.
Evaluate the magnitude of the periodic
force due to the motor unbalance.
Determine the vibration amplitude
from the frequency ratio at 1200 rpm.
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Sample Problem 19.5
19 - 25
SOLUTION:
The resonant frequency is equal to the natural frequency of
the system.
ft s lb 87 . 10
2 . 32
350
2
= = m
( )
ft lb 000 , 36
in lb 3000 750 4
=
= = k
W = 350 lb
k = 4(350 lb/in)
rpm 549 rad/s 5 . 57
87 . 10
000 , 36
= =
= =
m
k
n
e
Resonance speed = 549 rpm
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Sample Problem 19.5
19 - 26
W = 350 lb
k = 4(350 lb/in)
rad/s 5 . 57 =
n
e
Evaluate the magnitude of the periodic force due to the
motor unbalance. Determine the vibration amplitude from
the frequency ratio at 1200 rpm.
( ) ft s lb 001941 . 0
s ft 2 . 32
1
oz 16
lb 1
oz 1
rad/s 125.7 rpm 1200
2
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= = =
m
f
e e
( )( )( ) lb 33 . 15 7 . 125 001941 . 0
2
12
6
2
= =
= = e mr ma P
n m
( ) ( )
in 001352 . 0
5 . 57 7 . 125 1
3000 33 . 15
1
2 2
=

=

=
n f
m
m
k P
x
e e
x
m
= 0.001352 in. (out of phase)
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Damped Free Vibrations
19 - 27
With viscous damping due to fluid friction,
: ma F =

( )
0 = + +
= +
kx x c x m
x m x c x k W
st

o
Substituting x = e
t
and dividing through by e
t

yields the characteristic equation,
m
k
m
c
m
c
k c m
|
.
|

\
|
= = + +
2
2
2 2
0
Define the critical damping coefficient such that
n c
c
m
m
k
m c
m
k
m
c
e 2 2 0
2
2
= = =
|
.
|

\
|
All vibrations are damped to some degree by
forces due to dry friction, fluid friction, or
internal friction.
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Damped Free Vibrations
19 - 28
Characteristic equation,
m
k
m
c
m
c
k c m
|
.
|

\
|
= = + +
2
2
2 2
0
= =
n c
m c e 2 critical damping coefficient
Heavy damping: c > c
c

t t
e C e C x
2 1
2 1

+ =
- negative roots
- nonvibratory motion
Critical damping: c = c
c

( )
t
n
e t C C x
e
+ =
2 1
- double roots
- nonvibratory motion
Light damping: c < c
c

( )
( ) t C t C e x
d d
t m c
e e cos sin
2 1
2
+ =

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
c
n d
c
c
e e damped frequency
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Damped Forced Vibrations
19 - 29
( ) | | ( )( ) | |
( )( )
( )
=

=
=
+
= =
2
2
2
2
1
2
tan
2 1
1
n f
n f c
n f c n f
m
m
m
c c
c c
x
k P
x
e e
e e
|
e e e e
o
magnification
factor
phase difference between forcing and steady
state response
t P kx x c x m
f m
e sin = + +
particular ary complement
x x x + =
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Electrical Analogues
19 - 30
Consider an electrical circuit consisting of an inductor,
resistor and capacitor with a source of alternating voltage
0 sin =
C
q
Ri
dt
di
L t E
f m
e
Oscillations of the electrical system are analogous to
damped forced vibrations of a mechanical system.
t E q
C
q R q L
f m
e sin
1
= + +
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Electrical Analogues
19 - 31
The analogy between electrical and mechanical
systems also applies to transient as well as steady-
state oscillations.
With a charge q = q
0
on the capacitor, closing the
switch is analogous to releasing the mass of the
mechanical system with no initial velocity at x = x
0
.
If the circuit includes a battery with constant voltage
E, closing the switch is analogous to suddenly
applying a force of constant magnitude P to the
mass of the mechanical system.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Electrical Analogues
19 - 32
The electrical system analogy provides a means of
experimentally determining the characteristics of a given
mechanical system.
For the mechanical system,
( ) ( ) 0
2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1
= + + + + x x k x k x x c x c x m
( ) ( ) t P x x k x x c x m
f m
e sin
1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2
= + +
For the electrical system,
( ) 0
2
2 1
1
1
2 1 1 1 1
=

+ + +
C
q q
C
q
q q R q L
( ) t E
C
q q
q q R q L
f m
e sin
2
1 2
1 2 2 2 2
=

+ +
The governing equations are equivalent. The characteristics
of the vibrations of the mechanical system may be inferred
from the oscillations of the electrical system.