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METROLOGY & INSTRUMENTAION

K.Srinivasulu Reddy Department of Mechanical Engineering Sreenidhi Institute of Science & Technology
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When you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers, you know something about it, but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind". ---Lord Kelvin
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What is Metrology?
Metrology is the science of measurement, and measurement is the language of science. So, if you think about it, if "science is measurement, " then without metrology, there is no science.

Types of Metrology
Subfield Definition
concerns the establishment of quantity systems, unit systems, units of measurement, the development of new measurement methods. concerns the application of measurement science to manufacturing and other processes and their use in society, ensuring the suitability of measurement instruments, their calibration and quality control of measurements. concerns regulatory requirements of measurements and measuring instruments for the protection of health, public safety, the environment, protection of consumers and fair trade.
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Scientific or fundamental metrology

Applied or industrial metrology

Legal metrology

In accordance with the recommendation of two international bodies namely,


a)The General Conference on Weights and Measures, the body which takes policy decisions on metrological standards, b)The International Organization of Legal Metrology, the body which regulates metrological standards, India is a member, the Central Govt. enacted 2 Acts & 7 Rules for implementation of modern system of weights and measures so as to ensure countrywide uniformity not in enforcement procedure but also in the scope and coverage of legal control on weights and measures.

History: Measurements have been carried out by humans for as long as civilization has existed. From the primitive population who lived in caves to modern man, the need has always been there to measure and know. For example, the standard of length evolved from the foot of the "King", to the Egyptian cubit, to the metallic metre and finally to the monochromatic, highly stabilized light source.

metre (meter in the US)

The Metrebar served as standard until 1960 when the metre was redefined in terms of the wavelength of light emitted by the krypton-86 isotope. The metre was redefined yet again in 1983 in terms of the speed of light.
Metre is defined as the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum in 1/2999792458 seconds. This can be realised in practice through the use of an iodine-stabilised helium-neon laser Historical International Prototype Metrebar, made of an alloy of platinum and iridium, that was the standard from 1889 to 1960.

The increasing trend to sub-contract assembly or sub-systems means that each location needs to have the same measurement system; otherwise the various parts would not fit together. And today the requirements of law enforcement, fraud, forensics and environmental sciences also need accurate and traceable measurements to be able to function properly.

Need for inspection


1.To ensure that the part, material or a component conforms to the established standard. 2.To meet the interchangeability of manufacture 3.To maintain customer relation by ensuring that no faulty product reaches the customers 4.Provide the means of finding out shortcomings in manufacture and reduce scrap 5.It also helps to purchase good quality of raw materials, tools, equipment which governs the quality of finished products 6.It also helps to co-ordinate the functions of quality control, production, purchasing and other departments of the organization. 7.To take decision on the defective parts i.e to judge the possibility of making some of these parts acceptable after minor repairs.
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Process of measurement: 1.Measurand 2.Reference 3.Comparator 1.Measurand: Measurand is the physical quantity or property like length, angle, diameter, thickness etc. to be measured. 2.Reference: It is the physical quantity or property to which quantitative comparisons are made 3.Comparator: It is the means of comparing measurand with some reference

Ex: Fitter has to measure MS flat with steel rule


1.Aligns the zero end of steel rule with one end of MS 2.Compares the length of flat with the graduations on the rule by his eyes Here, length of MS plate is measurand, steel rule is reference and eye is comparator 11

Study of metrology is important- say bearings, shaft in the bush is of improper dimensions which results insufficient thin film will form and hence friction, wear, lubrication aspects etc.

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ACCIDENT OF ALASKA AIRLINES FLIGHT 261

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The most serious process error resulted in the loss of Alaska Airlines on January 31,2000 with 83 passengers.
Excessive thread wear on the jackscrew assembly resulted in loss of the horizontal stabilizer. The mechanic work card stated that thread wear was "within allowable limits" . In fact, the threads on the jackscrew nut were almost completely worn away. The process (fixtures) used by the mechanic were not what Boeing specified and therefore the measurement results were different and 83 people+crew lost their lives!

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Recovered jackscrew - the spiral 'wire' wound around the threaded portion is the remains of the acme nut internal screw thread that has been stripped from the nut, which, freeing the jackscrew.

Random procedures produce random results.


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Basic definitions: 1.Nominal size(Basic size): It is the size on which the limits of size are based and which is assigned to a part in accordance with function 2. True size: It is the theoretical size of a dimension, which is free from any errors of measurement 3.Actual size: It is the value of size obtained through measurement with the permissible measuring error

4.Exact size: It is the value of size obtained with the highest metrological accuracy attainable in practice
5.Appriximate size: It is the value of size obtained with an error exceeding the permissible error of measurement and requiring refinement

6.Error of measurement: It is the difference between the true value of the size being measured and the value found by 16 measurement

7.Sensitivity: The smallest change in a measurement that an instrument is capable of detecting. Sensitivity refers to the ability of measuring device to detect small differences in a quantity being measured. Sensitivity may be defined as the rate of displacement of the indicating device of an instrument , with respect to the measured quantity. Sensitivity= scale spacing/scale division value Ex: In dial indicator , scale spacing is 1.0mm and scale division value is 0.01mm Sensitivity= 1/0.01=100= Amplification factor =gearing ratio
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Which is more sensitive?


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8.Calibration: The comparison of a device with unknown accuracy to a device with a known, accurate standard to eliminate any variation in the device being checked. It is carried out by making adjustments such that the read out device produces zero output for zero measured input. Calibration is a premeasurement process, generally carried out by manufacturers. The accuracy of an instrument depends on the calibration. Constant use of instruments affect their accuracy. If the accuracy is to be maintained, the instruments must be checked and recalibrated if necessary.

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9.Hysteresis: The delay between the action and reaction of a measuring instrument.
The phenomenon of hysteresis is due to the presence of dry friction as well as the properties of elastic elements. It results in the loading and unloading curves of the instrument being separated by a difference called hysteresis error.

It also results in the pointer not returning completely to zero when the load is removed. Hysteresis is particularly noted in instruments having elastic elements. The phenomenon of hysteresis in materials is due mainly to the presence of internal stresses. It can be reduced considerably by proper heat treatment.
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10.Repeatability: It is the ability of the measuring instrument to repeat the same results for the measurements for the same quantity, when the measurements are carried out -by the same observer -with the same instrument -under the same conditions -without any change in location -without change in the method of measurement -and the measurements are carried out in short intervals of time.
It may be expressed quantitatively in terms of dispersion of the results

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11.Reproducability: is the consistency of pattern of variation in measurement i.e., closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same quantity, when individual measurements are carried out -by different observers, -different methods, -different instruments -under different conditions, locations, times etc. It may also be expressed quantitatively in terms of the dispersion of the results.
12.Precision & Accuracy Precision and accuracy are used in connection with the performance of the instrument. Precision is defined as the repeatability of the measuring process, while the accuracy is the agreement of the result of a measurement with the true value of the measured quantity.
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In most measurements, it is the precision which is of great importance. If the instrument is not precise, it will give different results for the same dimension when measured again and again. The set of observations will scatter about the mean. The scatter of these measurements is designated as sigma() the standard deviation. It is used as index of precision. The less the scattering more precise is the instrument. Thus ,lower the value of , the more precise the instrument. Standard deviation (root mean square deviation):shows how much variation or dispersion" exists from the average (mean, or expected value). A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean, whereas high standard deviation indicates that the data points are spread out over a large range of values.
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13.Accuracy: Accuracy is the degree to which the measured value of the quality characteristic agrees with the true value. The difference between the true value and the measured value is know as error of measurement.

It is practically difficult to measure exactly the true value and therefore a set of observations is made whose mean value is taken as the true value of the quality measured.
Ex: Several measurements are made on a component by different types of instruments and results are plotted
Dimension

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Excessive accuracy is a sign of poor breeding - Socrates.


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Interchangeability & Selective assembly 1.Complete interchangeability or random assembly: Any component assembles with any other component-costly 2.Selective assembly: Parts are graded according size and only matched grades of mating parts are assembled

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Desired mean value of hole

Desired mean value of shaft

Process capability of hole making machine

Process capability of shaft making machine

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No of groups= process capability/ tolerance desired


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Errors in measurement It is never possible to measure the true value of a dimension, there is always some error. Error in measurement = Measured value true value Error in measurement may be expressed or evaluated as an absolute error or as a relative error.

Absolute error: It is the algebraic difference between the measured value and the true value of the measured dimension. Ex: When a meter stick is used to measure a given distance. Let the error is 1mm. This is the absolute error of the measurement.
That is, absolute error = x =1mm
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Relative error: It is the quotient of the absolute error and the value of comparison used for calculation of that error relative error = absolute error/value of thing measured(true value) = x/x = 0.001 Types of errors: During measurement

Parallax error Reading errors 1.Static errors Characteristic errors Loading errors Calibration error Interpolation error

Environmental errors

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Calibration errors Ambient conditions Systematic or controllable errors Stylus pressure Avoidable errors Random errors Random errors

2.Dynamic errors

The accuracy of measurement, and hence the error depends upon so many factors, such as Calibration standard, work piece, instrument, person and environment. To minimize the error, usually a number of observations are made and their average is taken as the value of that measurement.
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Types of process errors: 1.Location error: Measuring at a different location. Measurements occur at finite points on an infinite surface. 2.Condition error: Measuring under different conditions. The weight of an aircraft depends on the local gravity constant. 3.Instrument error: Using an incorrect instrument. 4.Operator Error: That human influence can be corrupted by the goals of the interrogation (when the objective is achieved and not achieved).
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More Abbe error

Less Abbe error

Abbe error: Measurement errors are increased as the item being measured is moved away from the axis of the measurement device. Dial calipers are more accurate (have less bias) if you place the work piece close to the scale. This reduces the Abbe error. The Abbe error on this caliper is .002 inch. By placing the work piece closer to the center axis of the caliper, the bending force is reduced and more accurate measurements are taken. 35

No measurement can be absolutely correct; and there is always some error, the amount of which depends upon the accuracy and design of the measuring equipment employed and the skill of the operator using it.
While estimating sub-divisions, skill of the operator is also responsible for accuracy, parallax is also very common and can be taken care by installing a mirror below the pointer An instrument should read the next decimal place beyond that required in the measurement system should be used. If a measurement is desired to an accuracy of 0.01 mm, then instrument with accuracy of 0.001 mm should be used for this purpose.
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Six inch thick granite surface plate provides a basic reference surface. Accurate measurements and descriptions of geometric form must begin with an established relationship to some known position; the surface plate is that reference position.

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Checking the accuracy of a dial caliper with a length standard

The uncertainty due to the limit of resolution is 1/8 inch.

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Caliper Master used to check calipers. Periodic checks between calibration assures quality measurements

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Fit: It is the relation between dimensions of two mating parts before their assembly. 44

For hole, Lower deviation is fundamental deviation and for shaft, upper deviation is fundamental deviation.
*
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Deviation: The algebraic difference between a size(actual) and the corresponding basic size. a.Upper deviation: Algebraic difference between the max. limit of size (of either hole or shaft) and the corresponding basic size) Designated by ES for hole , es for shaft This is +ve when max. limit of size is greater than the basic size This is ve when max. limit of size is less than the basic size b. Lower deviation: Algebraic difference between the max. limit of size and the corresponding basic size. Designated by EI for hole and ei for shaft This is +ve when the min. limit of size is greater than the basic size This is ve when the min limit of size is less than the basic size
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Fundamental deviation: is one of the two deviations which is conventionally chosen to define the position of the tolerance zone in relation to the zero line. This may be upper or lower deviation which is closest to the zero line. It fixes the zero line.
es: Error from zero line (Basic Size) to superior size of shaft. ei: Error from zero line (Basic Size) to inferior size of shaft. ES: Error from zero line (Basic Size) to superior size of hole. EI: Error from zero line (Basic Size) to inferior size of hole.

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TYPES OF TOLERANCE

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Unilateral Tolerance

Bilateral tolerance

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Standard Limit System:3 deciding factors 1.Functional requirement(What it is required to do) 2.Interchangeability(Ease of replacement in the event of failure) 3.Economics(Minimisation of production time and cost) A compromise among the 3, is the degree of tolerance. To assist the designer in the choice of limits & fits and to encourage uniformity through out, some standard on limit and fit is established. In order to have universal interchangeability it is essential to follow a uniform standard throughout the world. a. British Standard BS-4500-1969 b. The International Standard ISO:286-1988 c. Indian Standard IS-919
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All these standards basically make use of the following to give innumerable fits 1.Standard tolerance (Fundamental tolerance) 2.Fundamental deviation
Grade of Tolerance: It is an indication of the level of accuracy. There are 18 grades of tolerances IT01, IT0, IT1 to IT16 IT01 to IT4 - For production of gauges, plug gauges, measuring instruments IT5 to IT7 - For fits in precision engineering applications IT8 to IT11 For General Engineering IT12 to IT14 For Sheet metal working or press working IT15 to IT16 For processes like casting, general cutting work
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Standard Tolerance: Various grades of tolerances are defined using the standard tolerance unit, (i) in m, which is a function of basic size For D<500 mm i= 0.004D + 2.1 for D>500 mm

where, D (mm) is the geometric mean of the lower and upper diameters of a particular diameter step within which the chosen the diameter D lies. Diameter steps in I.S.I are: (a-b, where a is above and b is up to)
1-3, 3-6, 6-10, 10-18, 18-30, 30-50, 50-80, 80-120, 120-180, 180250, 250-315, 315-400 and 400-500 mm
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Grades of tolerance Contd..

It is understood that tolerances have parabolic relationship with the size of the products. As the size increases, tolerance within which a part can be manufactured also increases
For IT01, Tolerance =0.3 + 0.08D For IT0, Tolerance=0.5+0.12D For IT1, Tolerance=0.8+0.02D IT2 to IT4 are regularly scaled approximately, geometrically between the values of IT1 and IT5 (IT1 is given above and IT5 given in table below) Where D is in millimeters
Grades

IT5
7i

IT6
10i

IT7
16i

IT8
25i

IT9
40i

IT10
64i

IT11
100i

IT12
160i

IT13
250i

IT14
400i

IT15
640i

IT16
1000i

Values

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INTERNATIONAL TOLERANCE GRADES Values In Microns Values For D In mm IT01 IT0 IT1 0.8+0.020D

0.3+0.008D 0.5+0.012D

INTERNATIONAL TOLERANCE GRADES

Values In IT5 Microns Values For D In mm

IT6

IT7

IT8

IT9

IT10

IT11

IT12

IT13

IT14

IT15

IT16

7i

10i

16i

25i

40i

64i

100i

160i

250i

400i

640i

1000i

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(+ve)

(For holes)
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(-ve)

(For shafts)
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Upper Deviation (es) Shaft In microns Designation (for D in mm) = -(265 + 1.3D) for D 120 a and = 3.52D for D > 120 (140 + 0.85D) for D 160 b = 1.82D for D > 160 = 52 D 0.2 for D 40 c = -(95 + 0.8D) for D > 40 d e f g = 16D
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Table :Formulae for Fundamental Deviations for Shafts for sizes upto 500 mm Lower Deviation (ei) Shaft Designation J5 to j8 k4 to k8 k for grade 3 and 4 m n p r =0

In microns (for D in mm) No formula = + 0.6 D1/3

= + (IT7-IT6) = + 5D0.34 = + IT7 + 0 to 5 = geometric mean of values el for p and s = IT8 + 1 to 4 for D 50 = + IT7 to + 0.4D for D > 50 = + IT7 + 0.63D = + IT7 + D = + IT7 + 1.25D = + IT7 + 1.6D = + IT7 + 2D = + IT7 + 2.5D = IT8 + 3 + 3.15D 58 = + IT9 + 4D = + IT10 + 5D

= -llD0.41 = -5.5D0.41 = -2.5D0.34

s t u v x y z za zb zc

=0

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TOLERANCES ON COMPONENTS

Symbolic representation for tolerances on shafts and holes

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APPLICATIONS IT Grade Range Measuring Instruments and IT01, IT0, IT1, IT2, IT3, IT4, Production of Gauges IT5, IT6 General Engineering/Industry and IT5, IT6, IT7, IT8, IT9, IT10, Precision Fit IT11, IT12 Semi Finished Product IT11, IT14, IT15, IT16 Structural Engineering IT16
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For shafts a to h the deviation is below zero line(-ve) and for shafts k to zc it is above the zero line(+ve) The deviation of the shaft from j to k is either +ve or ve For holes A to H, the lower deviation is above the zero line(+ve) and for K to ZC, it is below the zero line(-ve) The deviation of the hole from J to K either +ve or ve The other deviations(upper & lower) deviations may be derived directly using the absolute value of the tolerance IT by means of algebraic relationship. ei = es-IT
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Upper deviation of shafts from a to g are ve and for h it is zero and lower deviation of the remaining shafts is +ve.

For holes, lower deviation is +ve for holes A to G and for H it is zero and upper deviation of remaining holes is ve. Max. clearance= Max. size of hole - Min. size of shaft Min. clearance= Min. size of hole - Max. size of shat
If both are +ve, clearance fit If both are ve, interference fit If one is +ve and other is ve, transition fit.

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Standard tolerances 18 grades: IT01 ,IT0 and IT1-1T16

Fundamental deviations 25 types: A- ZC (For holes) a- zc (For shafts)

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FITS

The RELATION resulting from the difference between the sizes before assembly
Classification of Fits

Clearance Fit Max. size of shaft


smaller than

Min. size of hole 1.Sliding fit 2.Running fit

Transition Fit Min. size of shaft smaller than Max. size of hole or Max. size of shaft
larger than

Interference fit Min. size of shaft


larger than

Max. size of hole

Max. size of hole 1.Light keying fit 2.Push fit

1.Light press fit 2.Press fit/Driving fit 3.Heavy drive fit

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Fits: When two parts are to be assembled, the relation resulting from the difference between their sizes before assembly is called a fit. Depending on the actual limits of hole or shaft, the fit may be clearance fit, transition fit or an interference fit.
Clearance fit: The largest permitted shaft diameter is smaller than the diameter of the smallest hole, so that shaft can rotate or slide through with different degrees of freedom according to the purpose of the mating members

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Transition fit: The dia. of the largest allowable hole is greater than that of the smallest shaft, but the smallest hole is smaller than the largest shaft, so that a small +ve or ve clearance between thee shaft and hole members are employable Interference fit: The min. permitted dia. of the shaft is larger than the max. allowable dia. of the hole. Here the shaft and the hole members are intended to be attached permanently and used as a solid component but according to the application of this combination, this type of fit can be varied.

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FITS Contd..

Clearance Fit Maximum shaft dimension < Minimum hole dimension

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It may be noted that in a clearance fit, the tolerance zone of the hole is entirely above the tolerance zone of the shaft. Max. clearance=Max.size of hole - Min.size of shaft Min. clearance=Min. size of hole - Max. size of shaft
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Max. clearance=Max.size of hole - Min.size of shaft Min. clearance=Min. size of hole - Max. size of shaft
In this type of fit, the size limits for mating parts are so selected that clearance between them always occur. The clearance fits may be slide fit, easy sliding fit, running fit, slack running fit and loose running fit. Ex: Pully rotates on shaft, door hinges, wheel and axle

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Interference Fit

FITS Contd..

Maximum Hole size < Minimum Shaft size

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Max. Interference=Min. size of hole Max. size of shat Min. Interference=Max. size of hole Min size of shaft
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In this type of fit, the size limits for the mating parts are so selected that interference between them always occur.
It may be noted that in an interference fit, the tolerance zone of the hole is entirely below the tolerance zone of the shaft. The amount of interference determines the degree of force required to assemble or mate the shaft to the hole. The quality of surface finish of the mating parts, the size of the diameters, the metals from which they are made, all affect the quality of the fit obtained.

Ex: a small end in the connecting rod of an engine, cylinder liners

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Types of Interference fits: These are cheap and efficient method of joining together two components.
1. Light press fit(H7p6): its use is confined to the assembly of ferrous components which require removal for purposes of renewal or replacement at a lateral date. Ex: Drill bush in jig plate

http://engineeringhut.blogspot.in

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2.Press fit(medium press or light drive fit-H7/s6): Involves heating or refrigeration of one part, powerful forces are brought into play, resulting in a permanent joint between the two components. Ex: bearing bushes in alloy housings or castings, pump impeller shaft

3.Heavy drive fit: Ex: Cylinder liner in a cast iron block, producing a permanent or semi-permanent assembly between liner and block. large sizes require heating and shrinking to avoid the possibility of damage which exists if we attempt to assemble cold
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FITS Contd..

Transition Fit

Obtained by overlapping of tolerance zones of shaft and hole Does not guarantee neither clearance nor interference fit

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Ex: Hand wheel and indexing dial keyed to shaft(Lathe machine with lead screw)

In this type of fit, the size limits for the mating parts are so selected that either a clearance or interference may occur depending upon the actual size of the mating parts. It may be noted that in a transition fit, the tolerance zones of hole and shaft overlap. The transition fits may be force fit, tight fit and push fit. Interference is so light that hand pressure is sufficient to cause entry of the shaft.
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Basic hole system: A system of fits in which the design size of the hole is the basic size and the allowance, if any ,is applied to the shaft.

Preferred fit is a system in which the basic diameter is the minimum size.
For the generally preferred hole-basis system, the fundamental deviation is specified by the upper-case letter H. Basic shaft system: A system of fits in which the design size of the shaft is the basic size and the allowance, if any is applied to the hole. Preferred fit is a system in which the basic diameter is the maximum size of the shaft.

The fundamental deviation is given by the lowercase letter h.


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To obtain different types of fits, it is general practice to vary tolerance zone of one of the mating parts

HOLE BASED SYSTEMSize of hole is kept constant, shaft size is varied to get different fits.

SHAFT BASED SYSTEMSize of shaft is kept constant, hole size is varied to get different fits.

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A fit is indicated by the basic size common to both components, followed by symbol corresponding to each component, the hole being quoted first. E.g. 45 H8/g7
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Hole basis system

Shaft basis system

1.Size of hole whose lower deviation is Size of shaft whose upper deviation is zero(hzero(H-hole) is assumed as the basic size. shaft) is assumed as basic size

2.Limits on the hole are kept constant and Limits on the shaft are kept constant and those of shaft are varied to obtain desired those on the hole are varied to have type of fit. necessary fit
3.Hole basis system is prepared in mass production, because it is convenient and less costly to make a hole of correct size due to availability of standard drills and reamers This system is not suitable for mass production because it is convenient, time consuming and costly to make a shaft of correct size

4.It is much more easy to vary the shaft It is rather difficult to vary the hole sizes according to the fit required according to the fit required 5.It requires less amount of capital and It needs large amounts of capital and storage storage space for holes needed to produce space for large number of tools required to shafts of different sizes produce holes of different sizes 6.Gauging of shafts can be easily and Being internal measurement, gauging of conveniently done with adjustable gap holes cannot be easily and conveniently gauges. done.
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FITS Contd System of Fits

Hole basis system


- Basic hole is chosen & Different Fits are obtained by changing shaft size

Shaft basis system -Basic shaft is chosen


& Different Fits are obtained by chaning hole size

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FITS

Recommended Fits based on Manufacturing Processes and Application:

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A. Shaft varies in hole basis(shafts can be easily varied on lathe & grinders B. Hole varies in Shaft basis C. Unilateral & Bilateral Allowance= lower limit of hole - upper limit of shaft D. Clearance & interference 87 E. Description of dimensions

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where: d=D ... basic size //// ... hole tolerance zone \\\\ ... shaft tolerance zone
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Designation of Holes, Shafts and Fits


A hole or a shaft is completely described if the basic size, followed by the appropriate letter and the number of tolerance grade is given. 1. A 50 mm H-hole, with the tolerance grade of IT7, is written as 50 H7. 1. A 50 mm f-shaft with the tolerance grade IT8 is given by 50 f8 A fit is designated by the basic size common to both the hole and the shaft followed by symbols corresponding to each element, the hole is quoted first. Thus, if the basic size is 50mm, the hole is H7 and the shaft is f8, then the fit can be indicated as 50 H7f8

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Difference between Tolerance & Allowance


Tolerance Allowance

It is the permissible variation in the It is the prescribed difference between dimension of a part(either a hole or the dimensions of two mating shaft) parts(hole and shaft)
It is the difference between higher and It is the intentional difference between lower limits of a dimension of a part the lower limit of hole and higher limit of shaft The tolerance is provided on the Allowance is to be provided on the dimension of a part as it is not possible dimension of mating parts to obtain to make a part to exact specified desired type of fit dimension It has absolute value without sign Allowance may be positive(clearance fit) or negative(interference fit)
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TOLERANCES ON COMPONENTS

Tolerance is permissible variation in the dimension of the component.


Due to inherent inaccuracies in Manufacturing processes tolerances have to be provided.

Concepts of basic size, limits, deviations and tolerances - Shaft


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TOLERANCES ON COMPONENTS

Concepts of basic size, limits, deviations and tolerances - Hole

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TOLERANCES ON COMPONENTS

Basic Shaft:
Upper deviation (es) = Basic size Upper limit = 0

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TOLERANCES ON COMPONENTS

Basic Hole:
Lower deviation (EI) = Basic size Lower limit = 0

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TOLERANCES ON COMPONENTS

Fundamental Tolerance Grades:


Tolerance grade indicates accuracy of manufacturing process BIS specifies 18 standard tolerance grade from IT 01-IT 16. The values of tolerance in microns as a function of size of component and fundamental tolerance grade is shown.

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TOLERANCES ON COMPONENTS

Exercises: Some solutions to find out the limits of shafts and holes using tables

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TOLERANCES ON COMPONENTS

Tolerances obtainable from different manufacturing processes:

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FITS

The various types of clearance, transition and interference fits that result with a hole of 30H7 are shown below:

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Examples of clearances fits

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Tolerance on Components

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FITS APPLICATIONS

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Equivalent fits on the Hole-basis and shaft basis system

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The fit is interference. But it can become transition if you choose some value of FD for P shaft between IT7 + 1 to5 micrometers
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FITS AND TOLERANCES


The components of the toleranced dimension shall be indicated in the following order: a) the basic size, and b) the tolerance symbol. If, in addition to the symbols it is necessary to express the values of the deviations or the limits of size, the additional information shall be shown in brackets.

Permissible deviation

If a dimension needs to be limited in one direction only, this should be indicated by adding min or max to the dimension.

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The upper deviation or the upper limit of size shall be written in the upper position and the lower deviation or the lower limit of size in the lower position, irrespective of whether a hole or a shaft is toleranced. The tolerance symbol for the hole shall be placed before that for the shaft or above it, the symbols being preceded by the basic size indicated once only.

Indication of Tolerances on Angular Dimensions

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For shaft, ei(lower deviation)= es(upper deviation)- IT(International tolerance grade) or IT = es-ei For hole, EI=ES-IT or IT= ES-EI 123