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2

The Cartesian Coordinate System The Cartesian Coordinate System


and Straight lines and Straight lines

Equations of Lines Equations of Lines

Functions and Their Graphs Functions and Their Graphs

The Algebra of Functions The Algebra of Functions

Linear Functions Linear Functions

Quadratic Functions Quadratic Functions

Functions and Mathematical Models Functions and Mathematical Models


Functions and Their Graphs

2.1
2.1
The Cartesian Coordinate System
The Cartesian Coordinate System
and Straight lines
and Straight lines
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6
(2, 5) (2, 5)
y y
x x
L L
y y = = 4 4
x x = 3 = 3
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
(5, 1) (5, 1)

4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4

We can represent real numbers We can represent real numbers geometrically geometrically by points on by points on
a a real number real number, or , or coordinate coordinate, , line line: :
The Cartesian Coordinate System
The Cartesian Coordinate System

The Cartesian Coordinate System
The Cartesian Coordinate System

The The Cartesian coordinate system Cartesian coordinate system extends this concept to a extends this concept to a
plane plane (two dimensional space) (two dimensional space) by adding a by adding a vertical axis vertical axis. .
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4

The Cartesian Coordinate System

The horizontal line is called the x-axis, and the vertical line is
called the y-axis.
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
x
y

The Cartesian Coordinate System
The Cartesian Coordinate System

The point where these two lines The point where these two lines intersect intersect is called the is called the origin origin. .
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
x x
y y
Origin Origin

The Cartesian Coordinate System
The Cartesian Coordinate System

In the In the x x-axis -axis, , positive numbers positive numbers are to the are to the right right and negative and negative
numbers numbers are to the are to the left left of the origin. of the origin.
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
x x
y y
Positive Positive Direction Direction Negative Negative Direction Direction

The Cartesian Coordinate System
The Cartesian Coordinate System

In the In the y y-axis -axis, , positive numbers positive numbers are are above above and and negative negative
numbers numbers are are below below the origin. the origin.
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
x x
y y
P
o
s
i
t
i
v
e
P
o
s
i
t
i
v
e

D
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n

D
i
r
e
c
t
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o
n
N
e
g
a
t
i
v
e
N
e
g
a
t
i
v
e

D
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t
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o
n

D
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c
t
i
o
n

( (

2, 4) 2, 4)
(1, (1,

2) 2)
(4, 3) (4, 3)
The Cartesian Coordinate System
The Cartesian Coordinate System

A A point point in the in the plane plane can now be represented uniquely in this can now be represented uniquely in this
coordinate system by an coordinate system by an ordered pair of numbers ordered pair of numbers ( (x x, , y y) ). .
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
x x
y y
(3, 1) (3, 1)

The Cartesian Coordinate System
The Cartesian Coordinate System

The axes divide the plane into The axes divide the plane into four quadrants four quadrants as shown below. as shown below.
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
x x
y y
Quadrant I Quadrant I
(+, +) (+, +)
Quadrant II Quadrant II
(, +) (, +)
Quadrant IV Quadrant IV
(+, ) (+, )
Quadrant III Quadrant III
(, ) (, )

Slope of a Vertical Line
Slope of a Vertical Line

Let Let L L denote the unique straight line that passes through denote the unique straight line that passes through
the two distinct points the two distinct points ( (x x
1 1
, , y y
1 1
) ) and and ( (x x
2 2
, , y y
2 2
) ). .

If If x x
1 1
= = x x
2 2
, then , then L L is a is a vertical line vertical line, and the , and the slope slope is is
undefined undefined. .
( (x x
1 1
, , y y
1 1
) )
( (x x
2 2
, , y y
2 2
) )
y y
x x
L L

Slope of a Nonvertical Line
Slope of a Nonvertical Line

If If ( (x x
1 1
, , y y
1 1
) ) and and ( (x x
2 2
, , y y
2 2
) ) are two distinct points on a are two distinct points on a
nonvertical line nonvertical line L L, then the , then the slope slope m m of of L L is given by is given by
( (x x
1 1
, , y y
1 1
) )
( (x x
2 2
, , y y
2 2
) )
y y
x x
2 1
2 1
y y y
m
x x x



L L
y y
2 2
y y
1 1
= = y y
x x
2 2
x x
1 1
= = x x

Slope of a Nonvertical Line
Slope of a Nonvertical Line

If If m m > 0 > 0, the line , the line slants slants upward upward from from left to right left to right. .
x x
L L
y y = 1 = 1
x x = 1 = 1
m m = 1 = 1
y y

Slope of a Nonvertical Line
Slope of a Nonvertical Line

If If m m > 0 > 0, the line , the line slants slants upward upward from from left to right left to right. .
y y
x x
L L
y y = 2 = 2
x x = 1 = 1
m m = 2 = 2

m m = 1 = 1
Slope of a Nonvertical Line
Slope of a Nonvertical Line

If If m m < 0 < 0, the line , the line slants slants downward downward from from left to right left to right. .
x x
L L
y y = 1 = 1
x x = 1 = 1
y y

m m = 2 = 2
Slope of a Nonvertical Line
Slope of a Nonvertical Line

If If m m < 0 < 0, the line , the line slants slants downward downward from from left to right left to right. .
y y
x x
L L
y y = 2 = 2
x x = 1 = 1

1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6
(2, 5) (2, 5)
Examples
Examples

Sketch the straight line that passes through the point Sketch the straight line that passes through the point
(2, 5) (2, 5) and has slope and has slope 4/3 4/3. .
Solution
1. Plot the point (2, 5).
2. A slope of 4/3 means
that if x increases by 3, y
decreases by 4.
3. Plot the resulting point
(5, 1).
4. Draw a line through the
two points.
y y
x x
L L
y y = = 4 4
x x = 3 = 3
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
(5, 1) (5, 1)

Examples
Examples

Find the Find the slope slope m m of the line that goes through the of the line that goes through the points points
(1, 1) (1, 1) and and (5, 3) (5, 3). .
Solution Solution

Choose Choose ( (x x
1 1
, , y y
1 1
) ) to be to be (1, 1) (1, 1) and and ( (x x
2 2
, , y y
2 2
) ) to be to be (5, 3) (5, 3). .

With With x x
1 1
= = 1 1, , y y
1 1
= 1 = 1, , x x
2 2
= = 5 5, , y y
2 2
= = 3 3, we find , we find
2 1
2 1
3 1 2 1
5 ( 1) 6 3
y y
m
x x




Examples
Examples

Find the Find the slope slope m m of the line that goes through the of the line that goes through the points points
(2, 5) (2, 5) and and (3, 5) (3, 5). .
Solution Solution

Choose Choose ( (x x
1 1
, , y y
1 1
) ) to be to be (2, 5) (2, 5) and and ( (x x
2 2
, , y y
2 2
) ) to be to be (3, 5) (3, 5). .

With With x x
1 1
= = 2 2, , y y
1 1
= 5 = 5, , x x
2 2
= = 3 3, , y y
2 2
= = 5 5, we find , we find
2 1
2 1
5 5 0
0
3 ( 2) 5
y y
m
x x




2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
Examples
Examples

Find the Find the slope slope m m of the line that goes through the of the line that goes through the points points
(2, 5) (2, 5) and and (3, 5) (3, 5). .
Solution Solution

The slope of a The slope of a horizontal line horizontal line is is zero zero: :
y y
x x
L L
6 6
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
(2, 5) (2, 5) (3, 5) (3, 5)
m m = 0 = 0

Parallel Lines
Parallel Lines

Two distinct lines are Two distinct lines are parallel parallel if and only if their if and only if their
slopes are equal slopes are equal or their or their slopes are undefined slopes are undefined. .

Example
Example

Let Let L L
1 1
be a line that passes through the points be a line that passes through the points (2, 9) (2, 9) and and
(1, 3) (1, 3), and let , and let L L
2 2
be the line that passes through the points be the line that passes through the points
( (

4, 10) 4, 10) and and (3, (3,

4) 4). .

Determine whether Determine whether L L


1 1
and and L L
2 2
are parallel. are parallel.
Solution Solution

The The slope slope m m


1 1
of of L L
1 1
is given by is given by

The The slope slope m m


2 2
of of L L
2 2
is given by is given by

Since Since m m
1 1
= = m m
2 2
, the lines , the lines L L
1 1
and and L L
2 2
are in fact are in fact parallel parallel. .
1
3 9
2
1 ( 2)
m



2
4 10
2
3 ( 4)
m




2.2
2.2
Equations of Lines
Equations of Lines
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6
(0, (0, 3) 3)
y y
x x
L L
1 1
1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
(4, 0) (4, 0)

Equations of Lines
Equations of Lines

Let Let L L be a be a straight line straight line


parallel parallel to the to the y y-axis -axis. .

Then Then L L crosses crosses the the x x-axis -axis at at


some some point point ( (a a, 0) , 0) , with the , with the
x x-coordinate -coordinate given by given by x = a x = a, ,
where where a a is a real number. is a real number.

Any other point on Any other point on L L has has


the form the form ( (a a, , ) ), where , where
is an appropriate number. is an appropriate number.

The The vertical line vertical line L L can can


therefore be described as therefore be described as
x = a x = a
( (a a, , ) )
y y
x x
L L
( (a a, 0) , 0)
y y
y

Equations of Lines
Equations of Lines

Let Let L L be a be a nonvertical line nonvertical line with a slope with a slope m m. .

Let Let ( (x x
1 1
, , y y
1 1
) ) be a be a fixed point fixed point lying on lying on L L, and let , and let ( (x x, , y y) ) be a be a
variable point on variable point on L L distinct from distinct from ( (x x
1 1
, , y y
1 1
) ). .

Using the slope formula by letting Using the slope formula by letting ( (x x, , y y) = ) = ( (x x
2 2
, , y y
2 2
) ), we get , we get

Multiplying both sides by Multiplying both sides by x x x x


1 1
we get we get
1
1
y y
m
x x

1 1
( ) y y m x x

Point-Slope Form
Point-Slope Form
1 1
( ) y y m x x

An equation of the line that has slope m and passes


through point (x
1
, y
1
) is given by

Examples
Examples

Find an equation of the line that passes through the point Find an equation of the line that passes through the point
(1, 3) (1, 3) and has slope and has slope 2 2. .
Solution Solution

Use the Use the point-slope form point-slope form

Substituting for Substituting for point point (1, 3) (1, 3) and and slope slope m m = 2 = 2, we obtain , we obtain

Simplifying Simplifying we get we get


1 1
( ) y y m x x
3 2( 1) y x
2 1 0 x y +

Examples
Examples

Find an equation of the line that passes through the points Find an equation of the line that passes through the points
(3, 2) (3, 2) and and (4, 1) (4, 1). .
Solution Solution

The slope is given by The slope is given by

Substituting in the Substituting in the point-slope form point-slope form for point for point (4, 1) (4, 1) and and
slope slope m m = 3/7 = 3/7, we obtain , we obtain
3
1 ( 4)
7
y x +
3 7 5 0 x y +
2 1
2 1
1 2 3
4 ( 3) 7
y y
m
x x



7 7 3 12 y x + +

Perpendicular Lines
Perpendicular Lines

If If L L
1 1
and and L L
2 2
are two distinct nonvertical lines that are two distinct nonvertical lines that
have slopes have slopes m m
1 1
and and m m
2 2
, respectively, then , respectively, then L L
1 1
is is
perpendicular perpendicular to to L L
2 2
(written (written L L
1 1

L L
2 2
) if and only if ) if and only if
1
2
1
m
m


Example
Example

Find the equation of the line Find the equation of the line L L
1 1
that passes through the that passes through the
point point (3, 1) (3, 1) and is perpendicular to the line and is perpendicular to the line L L
2 2
described by described by
Solution Solution

L L
2 2
is described in is described in point-slope form point-slope form, so its , so its slope slope is is m m
2 2
= 2 = 2. .

Since the lines are Since the lines are perpendicular perpendicular, the , the slope slope of of L L
1 1
must be must be
m m
1 1
= 1/2 = 1/2

Using the Using the point-slope form point-slope form of the equation for of the equation for L L
1 1
we obtain we obtain
3 2( 1) y x
1
1 ( 3)
2
2 2 3
2 5 0
y x
y x
x y

+
+

( (a a, 0) , 0)
(0, (0, b b) )
Crossing the Axis
Crossing the Axis

A straight line A straight line L L that is that is neither horizontal nor vertical neither horizontal nor vertical
cuts the cuts the x- x-axis axis and the and the y- y-axis axis at, say, points at, say, points ( (a a, 0) , 0) and and
(0, (0, b b) ), respectively. , respectively.

The numbers The numbers a a and and b b are called the are called the x x- -intercept intercept and and
y y- -intercept intercept, respectively, of , respectively, of L L. .
y y
x x
L L
y y-intercept -intercept
x x-intercept -intercept

Slope-Intercept Form
Slope-Intercept Form

An equation of the line that has An equation of the line that has slope slope m m and and
intersects intersects the the y y-axis -axis at the at the point point (0, (0, b b) ) is given by is given by
y y = = mx mx + + b b

Examples
Examples

Find the equation of the line that has Find the equation of the line that has slope slope 3 3 and and
y y- -intercept intercept of of 4 4. .
Solution Solution

We substitute We substitute m m = 3 = 3 and and b b = = 4 4 into into y y = = mx mx + + b b and get and get
y y = 3 = 3x x 4 4

Examples
Examples

Determine the Determine the slope slope and and y y-intercept -intercept of the line whose of the line whose
equation is equation is 3 3x x 4 4y y = 8 = 8. .
Solution Solution

Rewrite the given equation in the Rewrite the given equation in the slope-intercept form slope-intercept form. .

Comparing to Comparing to y y = = mx mx + + b b, we find that , we find that m m = = and and b b = =



2 2. .

So, the So, the slope slope is is and the and the y y-intercept -intercept is is

2 2. .
3 4 8
4 8 3
3
2
4
x y
y x
y x




Applied Example
Applied Example

Suppose an art object Suppose an art object purchased purchased for for $50,000 $50,000 is expected to is expected to
appreciate in value appreciate in value at a at a constant rate constant rate of of $5000 $5000 per year for per year for
the next the next 5 5 years. years.

Write an Write an equation equation predicting the value of the art object for predicting the value of the art object for
any given year. any given year.

What will be its What will be its value value 3 3 years after the purchase? years after the purchase?
Solution Solution

Let Let x x = = time (in years) since the object was purchased time (in years) since the object was purchased
y y = = value of object (in dollars) value of object (in dollars)

Then, Then, y y = 50,000 = 50,000 when when x x = 0 = 0, so the , so the y y-intercept -intercept is is b b = = 50,000 50,000. .

Every year the value rises by Every year the value rises by 5000 5000, so the , so the slope slope is is m m = 5000 = 5000. .

Thus, the equation must be Thus, the equation must be y y = 5000 = 5000x x + 50,000 + 50,000. .

After After 3 3 years the years the value of the object value of the object will be will be $65,000 $65,000: :
y y = 5000(3) + 50,000 = 65,000 = 5000(3) + 50,000 = 65,000

General Form of a Linear Equation
General Form of a Linear Equation

The equation The equation


Ax Ax + + By By + + C C = 0 = 0
where where A A, , B B, and , and C C are are constants constants and and A A and and B B
are not both zero, is called the are not both zero, is called the general form general form
of a linear equation of a linear equation in the in the variables variables x x and and y y. .

General Form of a Linear Equation
General Form of a Linear Equation

An equation of a An equation of a straight line straight line is a is a linear linear


equation equation; conversely, every ; conversely, every linear equation linear equation
represents a represents a straight line straight line. .

Example
Example

Sketch the straight line represented by the equation Sketch the straight line represented by the equation
3 3x x 4 4y y 12 = 0 12 = 0
Solution Solution

Since every straight line is Since every straight line is uniquely determined uniquely determined by by two two
distinct points distinct points, we need find only two such points through , we need find only two such points through
which the line passes in order to sketch it. which the line passes in order to sketch it.

For convenience, lets compute the For convenience, lets compute the x x- - and and y y-intercepts -intercepts: :

Setting Setting y y = 0 = 0, we find , we find x x = 4 = 4; so the ; so the x x-intercept -intercept is is 4 4. .

Setting Setting x x = 0 = 0, we find , we find y y = 3 = 3; so the ; so the y y-intercept -intercept is is 3 3. .

Thus, Thus, the line goes through the points the line goes through the points (4, 0) (4, 0) and and (0, 3) (0, 3). .

Example
Example

Sketch the straight line represented by the equation Sketch the straight line represented by the equation
3 3x x 4 4y y 12 = 0 12 = 0
Solution Solution

Graph the line going through the points Graph the line going through the points (4, 0) (4, 0) and and (0, 3) (0, 3). .
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6
(0, (0, 3) 3)
y y
x x
L L
1 1
1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
(4, 0) (4, 0)

Equations of Straight Lines
Equations of Straight Lines
Vertical line: Vertical line: x x = = a a
Horizontal line: Horizontal line: y y = = b b
Point-slope form: Point-slope form: y y y y
1 1
= = m m( (x x x x
1 1
) )
Slope-intercept form: Slope-intercept form: y y = = mx mx + b + b
General Form: General Form: Ax Ax + + By By + + C C = 0 = 0

2.3
2.3
Functions and Their Graphs
Functions and Their Graphs
( ) f x x ( )
f x x
( )
f x x ( ) f x x
3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3
3 3
2 2
1 1
x x
y y

Functions
Functions

A function A function f f is a is a rule rule that assigns to each element in a that assigns to each element in a
set set A A one and only one element in a one and only one element in a set set B B. .

The The set set A A is called the is called the domain domain of the function. of the function.

It is customary to denote a function by a letter of the It is customary to denote a function by a letter of the
alphabet, such as the letter alphabet, such as the letter f f. .

If If x x is an is an element element in the in the domain domain of a function of a function f f, then the , then the
element element in in B B that that f f associates with associates with x x is written is written f f( (x x) ) (read (read
f f of of x x) and is called the ) and is called the value value of of f f at at x x. .

The The set set B B comprising all the values assumed by comprising all the values assumed by y = y = f f( (x x) )
as as x x takes on all possible values in its domain is called takes on all possible values in its domain is called
the the range range of the function of the function f f. .

Example
Example

Let the function Let the function f f be defined by the rule be defined by the rule

Find: Find: f f(1) (1)


Solution: Solution:
( )
2
2 1 f x x x +
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 f + +

Example
Example

Let the function Let the function f f be defined by the rule be defined by the rule

Find: Find: f f( ( 2) 2)
Solution: Solution:
( )
2
2 1 f x x x +
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2 1 8 2 1 11 f + + +

Example
Example

Let the function Let the function f f be defined by the rule be defined by the rule

Find: Find: f f( (a) )


Solution: Solution:
( )
2
2 1 f x x x +
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2 1 2 1 f a a a a a + +

Example
Example

Let the function Let the function f f be defined by the rule be defined by the rule

Find: Find: f f( (a + h) )
Solution: Solution:
( )
2
2 1 f x x x +
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2
2 1 2 4 2 1 f a h a h a h a ah h a h + + + + + + +

Applied Example
Applied Example

ThermoMaster manufactures an indoor-outdoor ThermoMaster manufactures an indoor-outdoor


thermometer at its Mexican subsidiary. thermometer at its Mexican subsidiary.

Management estimates that the Management estimates that the profit profit (in dollars) (in dollars)
realizable by ThermoMaster in the manufacture and realizable by ThermoMaster in the manufacture and sale sale
of of x x thermometers per week is thermometers per week is

Find ThermoMasters weekly Find ThermoMasters weekly profit profit if its if its level of level of
production production is: is:
a. a. 1000 1000 thermometers per week. thermometers per week.
b. b. 2000 2000 thermometers per week. thermometers per week.
( )
2
0.001 8 5000 P x x x +

Applied Example
Applied Example
Solution Solution

We have We have
a. a. The weekly The weekly profit profit by by producing producing 1000 1000 thermometers is thermometers is
or or $2,000 $2,000. .
b. b. The weekly The weekly profit profit by by producing producing 2000 2000 thermometers is thermometers is
or or $7,000 $7,000. .
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1000 0.001 1000 8 1000 5000 2000 P + =
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2000 0.001 2000 8 2000 5000 7000 P + =
( )
2
0.001 8 5000 P x x x +

Determining the Domain of a Function
Determining the Domain of a Function

Suppose we are given the function Suppose we are given the function y y = = f f( (x x) ). .

Then, the variable Then, the variable x x is called the is called the independent variable independent variable. .

The variable The variable y y, whose value depends on , whose value depends on x x, is called the , is called the
dependent variable dependent variable. .

To determine the To determine the domain domain of a function, we need to find of a function, we need to find
what what restrictions restrictions, if any, are to be placed on the , if any, are to be placed on the
independent variable independent variable x x. .

In many practical problems, the domain of a function is In many practical problems, the domain of a function is
dictated by the dictated by the nature of the problem nature of the problem. .

x x
16 2 16 2x x
Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Packaging
Packaging

An open box is to be made from a rectangular piece of An open box is to be made from a rectangular piece of
cardboard cardboard 16 16 inches wide by cutting away identical inches wide by cutting away identical
squares ( squares (x x inches by inches by x x inches) from each corner and inches) from each corner and
folding up the resulting flaps. folding up the resulting flaps.
10 10 2 10 10 2x x
16 16
x x
x x x x

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Packaging
Packaging

An open box is to be made from a rectangular piece of An open box is to be made from a rectangular piece of
cardboard cardboard 16 16 inches wide by cutting away identical inches wide by cutting away identical
squares ( squares (x x inches by inches by x x inches) from each corner and inches) from each corner and
folding up the resulting flaps. folding up the resulting flaps.
a. a. Find the expression that gives the Find the expression that gives the volume volume V V of the box as of the box as
a function of a function of x x. .
b. b. What is the What is the domain domain of the function? of the function?

The dimensions of the


resulting box are:
x x
16 2 16 2x x
10 2 10 2x x

x x
16 2 16 2x x
Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Packaging
Packaging
Solution Solution
a. a. The The volume volume of the box is given by of the box is given by multiplying its multiplying its
dimensions dimensions (length (length width width height) height), so: , so:
10 2 10 2x x
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
3 2
16 2 10 2
160 52 4
4 52 160
V f x x x x
x x x
x x x

+
+

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Packaging
Packaging
Solution Solution
b. b. Since the Since the length length of each of each side side of the box must be of the box must be greater greater
than or than or equal equal to to zero zero, we see that , we see that
must be satisfied simultaneously. Simplified: must be satisfied simultaneously. Simplified:
All three are satisfied simultaneously provided that: All three are satisfied simultaneously provided that:
Thus, the Thus, the domain domain of the function of the function f f is the interval is the interval [0, 5] [0, 5]. .
8 5 0 x x x =
16 2 0 10 2 0 0 x x x
0 5 x

More Examples
More Examples

Find the domain of the function: Find the domain of the function:
Solution Solution

Since the square root of a negative number is Since the square root of a negative number is undefined undefined, it , it
is necessary that is necessary that x x 1 1

0 0. .

Thus the Thus the domain domain of the function is of the function is [1, [1,

) ). .
( )
1 f x x

More Examples
More Examples

Find the domain of the function: Find the domain of the function:
Solution Solution

Our only constraint is that you Our only constraint is that you cannot divide by zero cannot divide by zero, so , so

Which means that Which means that

Or more specifically Or more specifically x x 2 2 and and x x 2 2. .

Thus the Thus the domain domain of of f f consists of the intervals consists of the intervals ( (

, 2) , 2), ,
(2, 2) (2, 2), , (2, (2,

) ). .
2
4 0 x
( )
2
1
4
f x
x

( ) ( )
2
4 2 2 0 x x x +

More Examples
More Examples

Find the domain of the function: Find the domain of the function:
Solution Solution

Here, any real number satisfies the equation, so the Here, any real number satisfies the equation, so the
domain domain of of f f is the set of is the set of all real numbers all real numbers. .
( )
2
3 f x x +

Graphs of Functions
Graphs of Functions

If If f f is a function with domain is a function with domain A A, then corresponding to , then corresponding to
each real number each real number x x in in A A there is there is precisely one precisely one real real
number number f f( (x x) ). .

Thus, a function Thus, a function f f with domain with domain A A can also be defined as can also be defined as
the set of all the set of all ordered pairs ordered pairs ( (x, f x, f( (x x)) )) where where x x belongs to belongs to A A. .

The The graph of a function graph of a function f f is the set of all points is the set of all points ( (x x, , y y) ) in in
the the xy xy-plane such that -plane such that x x is in the domain of is in the domain of f f and and y = f y = f( (x x) ). .

Example
Example

The graph of a function The graph of a function f f is shown below: is shown below:
x
y
Domain
Range
x
y
(x, y)

Example
Example

The graph of a function The graph of a function f f is shown below: is shown below:

What is the value of What is the value of f f(2) (2)? ?


x
y
4
3
2
1
1
2
(2, 2)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Example
Example

The graph of a function The graph of a function f f is shown below: is shown below:

What is the value of What is the value of f f(5) (5)? ?


x
y
(5, 3)
4
3
2
1
1
2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Example
Example

The graph of a function The graph of a function f f is shown below: is shown below:

What is the What is the domain domain of of f f( (x x) )? ?


x
y
4
3
2
1
1
2
Domain: [1,8]
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Example
Example

The graph of a function The graph of a function f f is shown below: is shown below:

What is the What is the range range of of f f( (x x) )? ?


x
y
4
3
2
1
1
2
Range:
[2,4]
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Example:
Example:
Sketching a Graph
Sketching a Graph

Sketch the graph of the function defined by the equation Sketch the graph of the function defined by the equation
y y = = x x
2 2
+ 1 + 1
Solution Solution

The The domain domain of the function is the set of of the function is the set of all real numbers all real numbers. .

Assign several values Assign several values to the variable to the variable x x and and compute the compute the
corresponding values corresponding values for for y y: :
x y
3 10
2 5
1 2
0 1
1 2
2 5
3 10

3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3
10 10
8 8
6 6
4 4
2 2
Example:
Example:
Sketching a Graph
Sketching a Graph

Sketch the graph of the function defined by the equation Sketch the graph of the function defined by the equation
y y = = x x
2 2
+ 1 + 1
Solution Solution

The The domain domain of the function is the set of of the function is the set of all real numbers all real numbers. .

Then Then plot plot these values in a these values in a graph graph: :
x x
y y
x y
3 10
2 5
1 2
0 1
1 2
2 5
3 10

3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3
10 10
8 8
6 6
4 4
2 2
Example:
Example:
Sketching a Graph
Sketching a Graph

Sketch the graph of the function defined by the equation Sketch the graph of the function defined by the equation
y y = = x x
2 2
+ 1 + 1
Solution Solution

The The domain domain of the function is the set of of the function is the set of all real numbers all real numbers. .

And finally, And finally, connect the dots connect the dots: :
x x
y y
x y
3 10
2 5
1 2
0 1
1 2
2 5
3 10

Example:
Example:
Sketching a Graph
Sketching a Graph

Sketch the graph of the function defined by the equation Sketch the graph of the function defined by the equation
Solution Solution

The function The function f f is defined in a piecewise fashion on the set is defined in a piecewise fashion on the set
of of all real numbers all real numbers. .

In the In the subdomain subdomain ( (

, 0) , 0), the , the rule rule for for f f is given by is given by



In the In the subdomain subdomain [0, [0,

) ), the , the rule rule for for f f is given by is given by


( )
if 0
if 0
x x
f x
x x
<

'

( )
f x x
( )
f x x

Example:
Example:
Sketching a Graph
Sketching a Graph

Sketch the graph of the function defined by the equation Sketch the graph of the function defined by the equation
Solution Solution

Substituting Substituting negative values negative values for for x x into , while into , while
substituting substituting zero and positive values zero and positive values into into we get: we get:
( )
if 0
if 0
x x
f x
x x
<

'

( )
f x x
( )
f x x
x y
3 3
2 2
1 1
0 0
1 1
2 1.41
3 1.73

Example:
Example:
Sketching a Graph
Sketching a Graph

Sketch the graph of the function defined by the equation Sketch the graph of the function defined by the equation
Solution Solution

Plotting Plotting these data and these data and graphing graphing we get: we get:
( )
if 0
if 0
x x
f x
x x
<

'

( ) f x x
( )
f x x
3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3
3 3
2 2
1 1
x x
y y
x y
3 3
2 2
1 1
0 0
1 1
2 1.41
3 1.73

The Vertical Line Test
The Vertical Line Test

A curve in the A curve in the xy xy-plane -plane is the graph of a is the graph of a function function
y y = = f f( (x x) ) if and only if if and only if each vertical line intersects it each vertical line intersects it
in in at most at most one point one point. .

Examples
Examples

Determine if the curve in the graph is a Determine if the curve in the graph is a function function of of x x: :
Solution Solution

The curve The curve is indeed a function is indeed a function of of x x, because there is , because there is one one
and only one and only one value of value of y y for any given value of for any given value of x x. .
x x
y y

Examples
Examples

Determine if the curve in the graph is a Determine if the curve in the graph is a function function of of x x: :
Solution Solution

The curve The curve is is not not a function a function of of x x, because there is , because there is more more
than one than one value of value of y y for some values of for some values of x x. .
x x
y y

Examples
Examples

Determine if the curve in the graph is a Determine if the curve in the graph is a function function of of x x: :
Solution Solution

The curve The curve is indeed a function is indeed a function of of x x, because there is , because there is one one
and only one and only one value of value of y y for any given value of for any given value of x x. .
x x
y y

2.4
2.4
The Algebra of Functions
The Algebra of Functions
1990 1990 1992 1992 1994 1994 1996 1996 1998 1998 2000 2000
2000 2000
1800 1800
1600 1600
1400 1400
1200 1200
1000 1000
t t
y y
B
i
l
l
i
o
n
s

o
f

D
o
l
l
a
r
s
B
i
l
l
i
o
n
s

o
f

D
o
l
l
a
r
s
Year Year
y y = = S S( (t t) )
y y = = R R( (t t) )
t t
R R( (t t) )
S S( (t t) )

The Sum, Difference, Product and Quotient
The Sum, Difference, Product and Quotient
of Functions
of Functions

Consider the graph below: Consider the graph below:

R(t) R(t) denotes the federal government denotes the federal government revenue revenue at any time at any time t t. .

S(t) S(t) denotes the federal government denotes the federal government spending spending at any time at any time t t. .
1990 1990 1992 1992 1994 1994 1996 1996 1998 1998 2000 2000
2000 2000
1800 1800
1600 1600
1400 1400
1200 1200
1000 1000
t t
y y
B
i
l
l
i
o
n
s

o
f

D
o
l
l
a
r
s
B
i
l
l
i
o
n
s

o
f

D
o
l
l
a
r
s
Year Year
y y = = S S( (t t) )
y y = = R R( (t t) )
t t
R R( (t t) )
S S( (t t) )

D D( (t t) = ) = R R( (t t) ) S S( (t t) )
The Sum, Difference, Product and Quotient
The Sum, Difference, Product and Quotient
of Functions
of Functions

Consider the graph below: Consider the graph below:

The difference The difference R R( (t t) ) S S( (t t) ) gives the gives the budget deficit budget deficit (if negative) (if negative)
or or surplus surplus (if positive) (if positive) in billions of dollars at any time in billions of dollars at any time t t. .
1990 1990 1992 1992 1994 1994 1996 1996 1998 1998 2000 2000
2000 2000
1800 1800
1600 1600
1400 1400
1200 1200
1000 1000
t t
y y
B
i
l
l
i
o
n
s

o
f

D
o
l
l
a
r
s
B
i
l
l
i
o
n
s

o
f

D
o
l
l
a
r
s
Year Year
y y = = S S( (t t) )
y y = = R R( (t t) )
t t
R R( (t t) )
S S( (t t) )

The Sum, Difference, Product and Quotient
The Sum, Difference, Product and Quotient
of Functions
of Functions

The budget balance The budget balance D D( (t t) ) is shown below: is shown below:

D D( (t t) ) is also a is also a function function that denotes the federal government that denotes the federal government
deficit (surplus) deficit (surplus) at any time at any time t t. .

This function is the This function is the difference difference of the two functions of the two functions R R and and S S. .

D D( (t t) ) has the has the same domain same domain as as R R( (t t) ) and and S S( (t t) ). .
1992 1992 1994 1994 1996 1996 1998 1998 2000 2000
400 400
200 200
0 0
200 200
400 400
t t
y y
B
i
l
l
i
o
n
s

o
f

D
o
l
l
a
r
s
B
i
l
l
i
o
n
s

o
f

D
o
l
l
a
r
s
Year Year
t t
D D( (t t) )
y y = = D D( (t t) )

The Sum, Difference, Product and Quotient
The Sum, Difference, Product and Quotient
of Functions
of Functions

Most functions are built up from other, generally Most functions are built up from other, generally
simpler functions. simpler functions.

For example, we may view the function For example, we may view the function f f( (x x) = 2 ) = 2x x + 4 + 4
as the as the sum sum of the two functions of the two functions g g( (x x) = 2 ) = 2x x and and h h( (x x) = 4 ) = 4. .

( )
( )
( )
f f x
x
g g x
_


,
The Sum, Difference, Product and Quotient of Functions
The Sum, Difference, Product and Quotient of Functions

Let Let f f and and g g be functions with domains be functions with domains A A and and B B, respectively. , respectively.

The The sum sum f + g f + g, the , the difference difference f g f g, and the , and the product product fg fg of of f f
and and g g are are functions functions with domain with domain A A B B and rule given by and rule given by
( (f f + + g g)( )(x x) = ) = f f( (x x) + ) + g g( (x x) ) Sum Sum
( (f f g g)( )(x x) = ) = f f( (x x) ) g g( (x x) ) Difference Difference
( (fg fg)( )(x x) = ) = f f( (x x) )g g( (x x) ) Product Product

The The quotient quotient f f/ /g g of of f f and and g g has domain has domain A A B B excluding all excluding all
numbers numbers x x such that such that g g( (x x) ) = 0 = 0 and rule given by and rule given by

Quotient Quotient

Example
Example

Let Let and and g g( (x x) = 2 ) = 2x x + 1 + 1. .

Find the Find the sum sum s s, the , the difference difference d d, the , the product product p p, and the , and the
quotient quotient q q of the functions of the functions f f and and g g. .
Solution Solution

Since the domain of Since the domain of f f is is A A = [1, = [1,

) ) and the domain of and the domain of g g


is is B B = ( = (

, ,

) ), we see that the , we see that the domain domain of of s s, , d d, and , and p p is is
A A B B = [1, = [1,

) ). .

The rules are as follows: The rules are as follows:


( ) 1 f x x +
( )
( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) 1 2 1
( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) 1 2 1
( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) 2 1 1
s x f g x f x g x x x
d x f g x f x g x x x
p x fg x f x g x x x
+ + + + +
+
+ +

Example
Example

Let Let and and g g( (x x) = 2 ) = 2x x + 1 + 1. .

Find the Find the sum sum s s, the , the difference difference d d, the , the product product p p, and the , and the
quotient quotient q q of the functions of the functions f f and and g g. .
Solution Solution

The The domain domain of the of the quotient quotient function is function is [1, [1,

) ) together together
with the restriction with the restriction x x

. .

Thus, the domain is Thus, the domain is [1, [1,



) ) ( (

, ,

) ). .

The rule is as follows: The rule is as follows:


( ) 1 f x x +
( ) 1
( ) ( )
( ) 2 1
f f x x
q x x
g g x x
_ +


+
,

Applied Example
Applied Example
: Cost Functions
: Cost Functions

Suppose Puritron, a manufacturer of water filters, has a Suppose Puritron, a manufacturer of water filters, has a
monthly monthly fixed cost fixed cost of of $10,000 $10,000 and a variable cost of and a variable cost of


0.0001 0.0001x x
2 2
+ 10 + 10x x (0 (0 x x 40,000) 40,000)
dollars, where dollars, where x x denotes the number of denotes the number of filters filters
manufactured manufactured per month. per month.

Find a function Find a function C C that gives the that gives the total monthly cost total monthly cost
incurred by Puritron in the manufacture of incurred by Puritron in the manufacture of x x filters. filters.

Applied Example
Applied Example
: Cost Functions
: Cost Functions
Solution Solution

Puritrons monthly Puritrons monthly fixed cost fixed cost is always is always $10,000 $10,000, so it can , so it can
be described by the constant function: be described by the constant function:
F F( (x x) ) = 10,000 = 10,000

The The variable cost variable cost can be described by the function: can be described by the function:
V V( (x x) ) = =

0.0001 0.0001x x
2 2
+ 10 + 10x x

The The total cost total cost is the is the sum sum of the fixed cost of the fixed cost F F and the and the
variable cost variable cost V V: :
C C( (x x) ) = = V V( (x x) + ) + F F( (x x) )
= =

0.0001 0.0001x x
2 2
+ 10 + 10x x + 10,000 + 10,000 (0 (0 x x 40,000) 40,000)

Applied Example
Applied Example
: Cost Functions
: Cost Functions
Lets now consider Lets now consider profits profits

Suppose that the Suppose that the total revenue total revenue R R realized by Puritron realized by Puritron
from the sale of from the sale of x x water filters is given by water filters is given by
R R( (x x) ) = =

0.0005 0.0005x x
2 2
+ 20 + 20x x (0 (0 x x 40,000) 40,000)

Find Find
a. a. The total profit function for Puritron. The total profit function for Puritron.
b. b. The total profit when Puritron produces The total profit when Puritron produces 10,000 10,000 filters per filters per
month. month.

Applied Example
Applied Example
: Cost Functions
: Cost Functions
Solution Solution
a. a. The The total total profit profit P P realized by the firm is the difference realized by the firm is the difference
between the between the total revenue total revenue R R and the and the total cost total cost C C: :
P P( (x x) ) = = R R( (x x) ) C C( (x x) )
= ( = (

0.0005 0.0005x x
2 2
+ 20 + 20x x) ) ( (

0.0001 0.0001x x
2 2
+ 10 + 10x x + 10,000) + 10,000)
= =

0.0004 0.0004x x
2 2
+ 10 + 10x x 10,000 10,000
b. b. The The total total profit profit realized by Puritron when realized by Puritron when producing producing 10,000 10,000
filters per month is filters per month is
P P( (x x) ) = =

0.0004(10,000) 0.0004(10,000)
2 2
+ 10(10,000) + 10(10,000) 10,000 10,000
= 50,000 = 50,000
or or $50,000 $50,000 per month. per month.

The Composition of Two Functions
The Composition of Two Functions

Another way to Another way to build a function build a function from other functions is from other functions is
through a process known as the composition of functions. through a process known as the composition of functions.

Consider the functions Consider the functions f f and and g g: :

Evaluating the function Evaluating the function g g at the point at the point f f( (x x) ), we find that: , we find that:

This is an entirely This is an entirely new function new function, which we could call , which we could call h h: :
2
( ) 1 f x x ( ) g x x
( )
2
( ) ( ) 1 g f x f x x
2
( ) 1 h x x

The Composition of Two Functions
The Composition of Two Functions

Let Let f f and and g g be functions. be functions.

Then the Then the composition composition of of g g and and f f is the function is the function
g g f f (read (read g g circle circle f f ) ) defined by defined by
( (g g f f )( )(x x) = ) = g g( (f f( (x x)) ))

The The domain domain of of g g f f


is the set of all is the set of all x x in the in the
domain of domain of f f such that such that f f( (x x) ) lies in the domain of lies in the domain of g g. .

Example
Example

Let Let

Find: Find:
a. a. The rule for the composite function The rule for the composite function g g f f. .
b. b. The rule for the composite function The rule for the composite function f f g g. .
Solution Solution

To find To find g g f f, evaluate the function , evaluate the function g g at at f f( (x x) ): :

To find To find f f g g, evaluate the function , evaluate the function f f at at g g( (x x) ): :


2
( ) 1 ( ) 1 an d . f x x g x x +
2
( )( ) ( ( )) ( ) 1 1 1 g f x g f x f x x + + o
2 2
( )( ) ( ( )) ( ( )) 1 ( 1) 1
2 1 1 2
f g x f g x g x x
x x x x
+
+ + +
o

Applied Example
Applied Example
: Automobile Pollution
: Automobile Pollution

An environmental impact study conducted for the city of An environmental impact study conducted for the city of
Oxnard indicates that, under existing environmental Oxnard indicates that, under existing environmental
protection laws, protection laws, the level of carbon monoxide the level of carbon monoxide (CO) (CO)
present in the air due to pollution from automobile present in the air due to pollution from automobile
exhaust will be exhaust will be 0.01 0.01x x
2/3 2/3
parts per million when the parts per million when the
number of number of motor vehicles motor vehicles is is x x thousand. thousand.

A separate study conducted by a state government A separate study conducted by a state government
agency estimates that agency estimates that t t years from now the years from now the number of number of
motor vehicles motor vehicles in Oxnard will be in Oxnard will be 0.2 0.2t t
2 2
+ 4 + 4t t + 64 + 64 thousand. thousand.

Find: Find:
a. a. An expression for the concentration of CO in the air due An expression for the concentration of CO in the air due
to automobile exhaust to automobile exhaust t t years from now. years from now.
b. b. The level of concentration The level of concentration 5 5 years from now. years from now.

Applied Example
Applied Example
: Automobile Pollution
: Automobile Pollution
Solution Solution

Part Part (a) (a): :

The level of CO is described by the function The level of CO is described by the function
g g( (x x) = ) = 0.01 0.01x x
2/3 2/3
where where x x is the number (in thousands) of motor vehicles. is the number (in thousands) of motor vehicles.

In turn, the number (in thousands) of motor vehicles is In turn, the number (in thousands) of motor vehicles is
described by the function described by the function
f f( (t t) = 0.2 ) = 0.2t t
2 2
+ 4 + 4t t + 64 + 64
where where t t is the number of years from now. is the number of years from now.

Therefore, the concentration of CO due to automobile Therefore, the concentration of CO due to automobile
exhaust exhaust t t years from now is given by years from now is given by
( (g g f f )( )(t t) = ) = g g( (f f( (t t)) = 0.01(0.2 )) = 0.01(0.2t t
2 2
+ 4 + 4t t + 64) + 64)
2/3 2/3

Applied Example
Applied Example
: Automobile Pollution
: Automobile Pollution
Solution Solution

Part Part (b) (b): :

The level of CO The level of CO five years five years from now is: from now is:
( (g g f f )(5) )(5) = = g g( (f f(5)) = 0.01[0.2(5) (5)) = 0.01[0.2(5)
2 2
+ 4(5) + 64] + 4(5) + 64]
2/3 2/3
= (0.01)89 = (0.01)89
2/3 2/3
0.20 0.20
or approximately or approximately 0.20 0.20 parts per million. parts per million.

2.5
2.5
Linear Functions
Linear Functions
1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
y y
x x
(1, 2) (1, 2)
L L
1 1
L L
2 2

Linear Function
Linear Function

The function The function f f defined by defined by


where where m m and and b b are are constants constants, is called a , is called a linear linear
function function. .
( ) f x mx b +

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Linear Depreciation
Linear Depreciation

A Web server has an original value of A Web server has an original value of $10,000 $10,000 and is to and is to
be be depreciated depreciated linearly linearly over over 5 5 years with a years with a $3000 $3000 scrap scrap
value. value.

Find an Find an expression expression giving the giving the book value book value at the end of at the end of
year year t t. .

What will be the What will be the book value book value of the server at the end of of the server at the end of
the the second year second year? ?

What is the What is the rate of depreciation rate of depreciation of the server? of the server?

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Linear Depreciation
Linear Depreciation
Solution Solution

Let Let V V( (t t) ) denote the Web servers denote the Web servers book value book value at the end of at the end of
the the t tth th year. year. V V is a linear function of is a linear function of t t. .

To find an To find an equation equation of the of the straight line straight line that represents the that represents the
depreciation depreciation, observe that , observe that V V = 10,000 = 10,000 when when t t = 0 = 0; this tells ; this tells
us that the line us that the line passes through passes through the point the point (0, 10,000) (0, 10,000). .

Similarly, the condition that Similarly, the condition that V V = 3000 = 3000 when when t t = 5 = 5 says that says that
the line also the line also passes through passes through the point the point (5, 3000) (5, 3000). .

Thus, the Thus, the slope slope of the line is given by of the line is given by
10, 000 3000 7000
1400
0 5 5
m


Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Linear Depreciation
Linear Depreciation
Solution Solution

Using the Using the point-slope form point-slope form of the equation of a line with of the equation of a line with
point point (0, 10,000) (0, 10,000) and and slope slope m m = 1400 = 1400, we obtain the , we obtain the
required expression required expression

The The book value book value at the end of the at the end of the second year second year is given by is given by
or or $7200 $7200. .

The The rate of depreciation rate of depreciation of the server is given by the of the server is given by the
negative negative slope slope of the depreciation line of the depreciation line m m = 1400 = 1400, so the , so the
rate of depreciation is rate of depreciation is $1400 $1400 per year. per year.
10, 000 1400( 0)
1400 10, 000
V t
V t

+
(2) 1400(2) 10, 000 7200 V +

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Linear Depreciation
Linear Depreciation
Solution Solution

The graph of The graph of V V is: is:


1400 10, 000 V t +
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6
(0, 10,000) (0, 10,000)
V V
t t
(5, 3000) (5, 3000)
10,000 10,000
3000 3000

Cost, Revenue, and Profit Functions
Cost, Revenue, and Profit Functions

Let Let x x denote the number of denote the number of units of a product units of a product
manufactured or sold. manufactured or sold.

Then, the Then, the total cost function total cost function is is
C C( (x x) ) = = Total cost of Total cost of
manufacturing manufacturing x x units of the units of the
product product

The The revenue function revenue function is is


R R( (x x) ) = = Total revenue realized Total revenue realized
from the sale of from the sale of x x units of the units of the
product product

The The profit function profit function is is


P P( (x x) ) = = Total profit realized Total profit realized
from manufacturing and selling from manufacturing and selling x x
units of the product units of the product

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Profit Function
Profit Function

Puritron, a manufacturer of water filters, has a monthly Puritron, a manufacturer of water filters, has a monthly
fixed cost fixed cost of of $20,000 $20,000, a , a production cost production cost of of $20 $20 per unit, per unit,
and a and a selling price selling price of of $30 $30 per unit. per unit.

Find the Find the cost function cost function, the , the revenue function revenue function, and the , and the
profit function profit function for Puritron. for Puritron.
Solution Solution

Let Let x x denote the number of denote the number of units produced and sold units produced and sold. .

Then, Then,
( ) 20 20, 000 C x x +
( ) 30 R x x
( ) ( ) ( )
30 (20 20, 000)
10 20, 000
P x R x C x
x x
x

+


Finding the Point of Intersection
Finding the Point of Intersection

Suppose we are given Suppose we are given two straight lines two straight lines L L
1 1
and and L L
2 2
with with
equations equations
y y = = m m
1 1
x x + + b b
1 1
and and y y = = m m
2 2
x x + + b b
2 2

(where (where m m
1 1
, , b b
1 1
, , m m
2 2
, and , and b b
2 2
are are constants constants) that ) that intersect intersect at the at the
point point P P( (x x
0 0
, , y y
0 0
) ). .

The point The point P P( (x x


0 0
, , y y
0 0
) ) lies on the line lies on the line L L
1 1
and so and so satisfies the satisfies the
equation equation y y = = m m
1 1
x x + + b b
1 1
. .

The point The point P P( (x x


0 0
, , y y
0 0
) ) also lies on the line also lies on the line L L
2 2
and so and so satisfies satisfies
y y = = m m
2 2
x x + + b b
2 2
as well. as well.

Therefore, to find the Therefore, to find the point of intersection point of intersection P P( (x x
0 0
, , y y
0 0
) ) of the of the
lines lines L L
1 1
and and L L
2 2
, we , we solve solve for for x x and and y y the the system system composed of composed of
the the two equations two equations
y y = = m m
1 1
x x + + b b
1 1
and and y y = = m m
2 2
x x + + b b
2 2


Example
Example

Find the Find the point of intersection point of intersection of the of the straight lines straight lines that have that have
equations equations
y y = = x x + 1 + 1 and and y y = =

2 2x x + 4 + 4
Solution Solution

Substituting Substituting the value the value y y as given in the as given in the first equation first equation into into
the the second equation second equation, we obtain , we obtain

Substituting Substituting this value of this value of x x into into either one either one of the given of the given
equations equations yields yields y y = 2 = 2. .

Therefore, the required Therefore, the required point of intersection point of intersection is is (1, 2) (1, 2). .
1 2 4 x x + +
3 3 x
1 x



1 1 1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4 5 5
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
Example
Example

Find the Find the point of intersection point of intersection of the of the straight lines straight lines that have that have
equations equations
y y = = x x + 1 + 1 and and y y = =

2 2x x + 4 + 4
Solution Solution

The graph shows the The graph shows the point of intersection point of intersection (1, 2) (1, 2) of the two of the two
lines: lines:
y y
x x
(1, 2) (1, 2)
L L
1 1
L L
2 2

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Break-Even Level
Break-Even Level

Prescott manufactures its products at a Prescott manufactures its products at a cost cost of of $4 $4 per unit per unit
and and sells sells them for them for $10 $10 per unit. per unit.

If the firms If the firms fixed cost fixed cost is is $12,000 $12,000 per month, determine the per month, determine the
firms firms break-even point break-even point. .
Solution Solution

The The revenue function revenue function R R and the and the cost function cost function C C are given are given
respectively by respectively by

Setting Setting R R( (x x) = ) = C C( (x x) ), we obtain , we obtain


( ) 10 ( ) 4 12, 000 d an . R x x C x x +
10 4 12, 000 x x +
6 12, 000 x
2000 x

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Break-Even Level
Break-Even Level

Prescott manufactures its products at a Prescott manufactures its products at a cost cost of of $4 $4 per unit per unit
and and sells sells them for them for $10 $10 per unit. per unit.

If the firms If the firms fixed cost fixed cost is is $12,000 $12,000 per month, determine the per month, determine the
firms firms break-even point break-even point. .
Solution Solution

Substituting Substituting x x = 2000 = 2000 into into R R( (x x) = ) = 10 10x x gives gives

So, Prescotts So, Prescotts break-even point break-even point is is 2000 2000 units of the product, units of the product,
resulting in a resulting in a break-even revenue break-even revenue of of $20,000 $20,000 per month. per month.
(2000) 10(2000) 20, 000 R

2.6
2.6
Quadratic Functions
Quadratic Functions
1 1 1 1 2 2
1 1
1 1
2 2
x x
y y
2
( ) 2 5 2 f x x x +
2
( ) 2 5 2 f x x x +
Vertex Vertex
x x- -intercepts intercepts
1
2
1
2
5 9
,
4 8
_

,
5 9
,
4 8
_

,
y y- -intercept intercept

Quadratic Functions
Quadratic Functions

A A quadratic function quadratic function is one of the form is one of the form
where where a a, , b b, and , and c c are are constants constants and and a a 0 0. .

For example, the function For example, the function


is is quadratic quadratic, with , with a a = 2 = 2, , b b = =

4 4, and , and c c = 3 = 3. .
2
( ) f x ax bx c + +
2
( ) 2 4 3 f x x x +

Quadratic Functions
Quadratic Functions

Below is the Below is the graph graph of the of the quadratic function quadratic function

The The graph graph of a quadratic function is a curve called a of a quadratic function is a curve called a
parabola parabola that opens upward or downward. that opens upward or downward.
2
( ) 2 4 3 f x x x +


2 2

1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
10 10
8 8
6 6
4 4
2 2
x x
y y
2
( ) 2 4 3 f x x x +
Parabola Parabola

Quadratic Functions
Quadratic Functions

The parabola is The parabola is symmetric symmetric with respect to a with respect to a vertical vertical
line line called the called the axis of symmetry axis of symmetry. .

The The axis of symmetry axis of symmetry also passes through the also passes through the lowest lowest or or
highest highest point point of the parabola, which is called the of the parabola, which is called the vertex vertex
of the parabola. of the parabola.


2 2

1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
10 10
8 8
6 6
4 4
2 2
x x
y y
Axis of Axis of
symmetry symmetry
Vertex Vertex (1, 1) (1, 1)
2
( ) 2 4 3 f x x x +
Parabola Parabola

Quadratic Functions
Quadratic Functions

We can We can use these properties use these properties to help us to help us sketch the graph sketch the graph
of a of a quadratic function quadratic function. .

Suppose we want to sketch the graph of Suppose we want to sketch the graph of

If we If we complete the square complete the square in in x x, we obtain , we obtain

Note that Note that ( (x x 1) 1)


2 2
is is nonnegative nonnegative: it equals to zero when : it equals to zero when x x = = 1 1
and is greater than zero if and is greater than zero if x x 1 1. .

Thus, we see that Thus, we see that f f( (x x) )




2 2 for all values of for all values of x x. .

This tells us the This tells us the vertex vertex of the parabola is the point of the parabola is the point (1, (1,

2) 2). .
2
( ) 3 6 1 f x x x +
2
2 2
2
( ) 3( 2 ) 1
3[ 2 ( 1) ] 1 3
3( 1) 2
f x x x
x x
x
+
+ +


Quadratic Functions
Quadratic Functions

We know the We know the vertex vertex of the parabola is the point of the parabola is the point (1, (1,

2) 2) and and
that it is the that it is the minimum minimum point of the graph, since point of the graph, since f f( (x x) )


2 2 for for
all values of all values of x x. .

Thus, the graph of Thus, the graph of f f( (x x) = 3 ) = 3x x


2 2
6 6x x +1 +1 looks as follows: looks as follows:


2 2 2 2 4 4
4 4
2 2


2 2
x x
y y
2
( ) 3 6 1 f x x x +
Vertex Vertex (1, 2) (1, 2)

Properties of Quadratic Functions
Properties of Quadratic Functions
Given f(x) = ax
2
+ bx +c (a 0)
1. The domain of f is the set of all real numbers.
2. If a > 0, the parabola opens upward, and if a < 0, it
opens downward.
3. The vertex of the parabola is
4. The axis of symmetry of the parabola is
5. The x-intercepts (if any) are found by solving
f(x) = 0. The y-intercept is f(0) = c.
,
2 2
b b
f
a a
_
_



,
,
.
2
b
x
a
.

Example
Example

Given the quadratic function Given the quadratic function f f( (x x) = ) =



2 2x x
2 2
+ 5 + 5x x 2 2
a. a. Find the Find the vertex vertex of the parabola. of the parabola.
b. b. Find the Find the x x-intercepts -intercepts (if any) of the parabola. (if any) of the parabola.
c. c. Sketch Sketch the parabola. the parabola.
Solution Solution
a. a. Here Here a a = =

2 2, , b b = 5 = 5, and , and c c = =

2 2. therefore, the . therefore, the x x-coordinate -coordinate
of the of the vertex vertex of the parabola is of the parabola is
The The y y-coordinate -coordinate of the of the vertex vertex is therefore given by is therefore given by
Thus, the Thus, the vertex vertex of the parabola is the of the parabola is the point point
5 5
2 2( 2) 4
b
a

2
5 5 5 9
2 5 2
4 4 4 8
f
_ _ _
+

, , ,
5 9
,
4 8
_

,
.

Example
Example

Given the quadratic function Given the quadratic function f f( (x x) = ) =



2 2x x
2 2
+ 5 + 5x x 2 2
a. a. Find the Find the vertex vertex of the parabola. of the parabola.
b. b. Find the Find the x x-intercepts -intercepts (if any) of the parabola. (if any) of the parabola.
c. c. Sketch Sketch the parabola. the parabola.
Solution Solution
b. b. For the For the x x-intercepts -intercepts of the parabola, we solve the equation of the parabola, we solve the equation
using the using the quadratic formula quadratic formula with with a a = =

2 2, , b b = 5 = 5, and , and c c = =

2 2. .
We find We find
Thus, the Thus, the x x-intercepts -intercepts of the parabola are of the parabola are 1/2 1/2 and and 2 2. .
2
2 5 2 0 x x +
2
5 25 4( 2)( 2) 4 5 3
2 2( 2) 4
b b ac
x
a
t t t



Example
Example

Given the quadratic function Given the quadratic function f f( (x x) = ) =



2 2x x
2 2
+ 5 + 5x x 2 2
a. a. Find the Find the vertex vertex of the parabola. of the parabola.
b. b. Find the Find the x x-intercepts -intercepts (if any) of the parabola. (if any) of the parabola.
c. c. Sketch Sketch the parabola. the parabola.
Solution Solution
c. c. The The sketch sketch: :


1 1 1 1 2 2
1 1
1 1


2 2
x x
y y
2
( ) 2 5 2 f x x x +
Vertex Vertex
x x-intercepts -intercepts
1
2
5 9
,
4 8
_

,
y y-intercept -intercept

Some Economic Models
Some Economic Models

Peoples decision on how much to Peoples decision on how much to demand demand or purchase of a or purchase of a
given product depends on the given product depends on the price price of the product: of the product:

The The higher higher the the price price the the less less they want to they want to buy buy of it. of it.

A A demand function demand function p p = = d d( (x x) ) can be used to describe this. can be used to describe this.

Some Economic Models
Some Economic Models

Similarly, firms decision on how much to Similarly, firms decision on how much to supply supply or or
produce of a product depends on the produce of a product depends on the price price of the product: of the product:

The The higher higher the the price price, the , the more more they want to they want to produce produce of it. of it.

A A supply function supply function p p = = s s( (x x) ) can be used to describe this. can be used to describe this.

Some Economic Models
Some Economic Models

The interaction between demand and supply will ensure The interaction between demand and supply will ensure
the market settles to a the market settles to a market equilibrium market equilibrium: :

This is the situation at which This is the situation at which quantity demanded quantity demanded equals equals
quantity supplied quantity supplied. .

Graphically, this situation occurs when the Graphically, this situation occurs when the demand demand
curve curve and the and the supply curve supply curve intersect intersect: where : where d d( (x x) ) = = s s( (x x) ). .

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Supply and Demand
Supply and Demand

The The demand demand function function for a certain brand of bluetooth for a certain brand of bluetooth
wireless headset is given by wireless headset is given by

The corresponding The corresponding supply function supply function is given by is given by
where where p p is the expressed in is the expressed in dollars dollars and and x x is measured in is measured in
units of a units of a thousand thousand. .

Find the equilibrium quantity and price. Find the equilibrium quantity and price.
2
( ) 0.025 0.5 60 p d x x x +
2
( ) 0.02 0.6 20 p s x x x + +

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Supply and Demand
Supply and Demand
Solution Solution

We solve the following We solve the following system of equations system of equations: :

Substituting Substituting the the second second equation into the equation into the first first yields: yields:

Thus, either Thus, either x x = = 400/9 400/9 (but this is (but this is not possible not possible), or ), or x x = 20 = 20. .

So, the So, the equilibrium quantity equilibrium quantity must be must be 20,000 20,000 headsets. headsets.
2
2
0.025 0.5 60
0.02 0.6 20
p x x
p x x
+
+ +
( ) ( )
2 2
2
2
2
0.02 0.6 20 0.025 0.5 60
0.045 1.1 40 0
45 1100 40, 000 0
9 220 8, 000 0
9 400 20 0
x x x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
+ + +
+
+
+
+

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Supply and Demand
Supply and Demand
Solution Solution

The The equilibrium price equilibrium price is given by: is given by:
or or $40 $40 per headset. per headset.
( ) ( )
2
0.02 20 0.6 20 20 40 p + +

2.7
Functions and Mathematical Models
5 5 10 10 15 15 20 20 25 25 30 30
6 6
4 4
2 2
t t (years) (years)
y y ($trillion) ($trillion)

Mathematical Models
Mathematical Models

As we have seen, mathematics can be used to As we have seen, mathematics can be used to
solve real-world problems. solve real-world problems.

We will now discuss a few more examples of We will now discuss a few more examples of
real-world phenomena, such as: real-world phenomena, such as:

The solvency of the U.S. Social Security The solvency of the U.S. Social Security
trust fund trust fund

Global warming Global warming



Mathematical Modeling
Mathematical Modeling

Regardless of the field from which the real-world problem Regardless of the field from which the real-world problem
is drawn, the problem is analyzed using a process called is drawn, the problem is analyzed using a process called
mathematical modeling mathematical modeling. .

The The four steps four steps in this process are: in this process are:
Real-world problem Real-world problem
Mathematical Mathematical
model model
Solution of real- Solution of real-
world problem world problem
Solution of Solution of
mathematical model mathematical model
Formulate Formulate
Interpret Interpret
Solve Solve
Test Test

Modeling With Polynomial Functions
Modeling With Polynomial Functions

A A polynomial function polynomial function of degree of degree n n is a function of the form is a function of the form
where where n n is a is a nonnegative integer nonnegative integer and the numbers and the numbers

a
a
0 0
,
,
a
a
1 1
, .
, .
a
a
n n
are are constants constants called the called the coefficients coefficients of of
the polynomial function. the polynomial function.

Examples: Examples:

The function below is polynomial function of The function below is polynomial function of degree 5 degree 5: :
5 4 3 2
1
2
( ) 2 3 2 6 f x x x x x + +
1 2
1 2 1 0
( ) ( 0)
n n
n n n
f x a x a x a x a x a a

+ + + + +

Modeling With Polynomial Functions
Modeling With Polynomial Functions

A A polynomial function polynomial function of degree of degree n n is a function of the form is a function of the form
where where n n is a is a nonnegative integer nonnegative integer and the numbers and the numbers

a
a
0 0
,
,
a
a
1 1
, .
, .
a
a
n n
are are constants constants called the called the coefficients coefficients of of
the polynomial function. the polynomial function.

Examples: Examples:

The function below is polynomial function of The function below is polynomial function of degree 3 degree 3: :
3 2
( ) 0.001 0.2 10 200 g x x x x + +
1 2
1 2 1 0
( ) ( 0)
n n
n n n
f x a x a x a x a x a a

+ + + + +

Applied Example
Applied Example
:
:
Global Warming
Global Warming

The increase in The increase in carbon dioxide (CO carbon dioxide (CO
2 2
) ) in the atmosphere is in the atmosphere is
a major cause of global warming. a major cause of global warming.

Below is a table showing the Below is a table showing the average amount of CO average amount of CO
2 2
, ,
measured in measured in parts per million volume (ppmv) parts per million volume (ppmv) for various for various
years from years from 1958 1958 through through 2007 2007: :
Year 1958 1970 1974 1978 1985 1991 1998 2003 2007
Amount 315 325 330 335 345 355 365 375 380

Applied Example
Applied Example
:
:
Global Warming
Global Warming

Below is a Below is a scatter plot scatter plot associated with these data: associated with these data:
Year 1958 1970 1974 1978 1985 1991 1998 2003 2007
Amount 315 325 330 335 345 355 365 375 380
10 10 20 20 30 30 40 40 50 50
380 380
360 360
340 340
320 320
t t (years) (years)
y y (ppmv) (ppmv)

Applied Example
Applied Example
:
:
Global Warming
Global Warming

A A mathematical model mathematical model giving the approximate amount of giving the approximate amount of
CO CO
2 2
is given by: is given by:
Year 1958 1970 1974 1978 1985 1991 1998 2003 2007
Amount 315 325 330 335 345 355 365 375 380
10 10 20 20 30 30 40 40 50 50
380 380
360 360
340 340
320 320
t t (years) (years)
y y (ppmv) (ppmv)
2
( ) 0.01076 0.8212 313.4 A t t t + +

Applied Example
Applied Example
:
:
Global Warming
Global Warming
a. a. Use the model to Use the model to estimate estimate the average amount of atmospheric the average amount of atmospheric
CO CO
2 2
in in 1980 1980 ( (t t = 23 = 23) ). .
b. b. Assume that the trend continued and use the model to Assume that the trend continued and use the model to predict predict
the average amount of atmospheric CO the average amount of atmospheric CO
2 2
in in 2010 2010. .
Year 1958 1970 1974 1978 1985 1991 1998 2003 2007
Amount 315 325 330 335 345 355 365 375 380
2
( ) 0.010716 0.8212 313.4 (1 50) A t t t t + +

Applied Example
Applied Example
:
:
Global Warming
Global Warming
Solution Solution
a. a. The average amount of atmospheric CO The average amount of atmospheric CO
2 2
in in 1980 1980 is given by is given by
or approximately 338 ppmv. or approximately 338 ppmv.
b. b. Assuming that the trend will continue, the average amount Assuming that the trend will continue, the average amount
of atmospheric CO of atmospheric CO
2 2
in in 2010 2010 will be will be
Year 1958 1970 1974 1978 1985 1991 1998 2003 2007
Amount 315 325 330 335 345 355 365 375 380
( ) ( )
2
(23) 0.010716 23 0.8212 23 313.4 337.96 A + +
( ) ( )
2
(53) 0.010716 53 0.8212 53 313.4 387.03 A + +
2
( ) 0.010716 0.8212 313.4 (1 50) A t t t t + +

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Social Security Trust Fund
Social Security Trust Fund

The The projected assets projected assets of the Social Security trust fund of the Social Security trust fund (in (in
trillions of dollars) trillions of dollars) from from 2008 2008 through through 2040 2040 are given by: are given by:

The scatter plot associated with these data is: The scatter plot associated with these data is:
Year 2008 2011 2014 2017 2020 2023 2026 2029 2032 2035 2038 2040
Assets 2.4 3.2 4.0 4.7 5.3 5.7 5.9 5.6 4.9 3.6 1.7 0
5 5 10 10 15 15 20 20 25 25 30 30
6 6
4 4
2 2
t t (years) (years)
y y ($trillion) ($trillion)

The The projected assets projected assets of the Social Security trust fund of the Social Security trust fund (in (in
trillions of dollars) trillions of dollars) from from 2008 2008 through through 2040 2040 are given by: are given by:

A A mathematical model mathematical model giving the approximate value of assets giving the approximate value of assets
in the trust fund (in trillions of dollars) is: in the trust fund (in trillions of dollars) is:
5 5 10 10 15 15 20 20 25 25 30 30
6 6
4 4
2 2
t t (years) (years)
y y ($trillion) ($trillion)
4 3 2
( ) 0.00000324 0.000326 0.00342 0.254 2.4 A t t t t t + + +
Year 2008 2011 2014 2017 2020 2023 2026 2029 2032 2035 2038 2040
Assets 2.4 3.2 4.0 4.7 5.3 5.7 5.9 5.6 4.9 3.6 1.7 0
Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Social Security Trust Fund
Social Security Trust Fund

a. a. The first baby boomers will turn The first baby boomers will turn 65 65 in in 2011 2011. What will be . What will be
the the assets assets of the Social Security trust fund of the Social Security trust fund at that time at that time? ?
b. b. The last of the baby boomers will turn The last of the baby boomers will turn 65 65 in in 2029 2029. What will . What will
the the assets assets of the trust fund be of the trust fund be at the time at the time? ?
c. c. Use the graph of function Use the graph of function A A( (t t) ) to to estimate estimate the year the year in which in which
the current Social Security system the current Social Security system will go broke will go broke. .
4 3 2
( ) 0.00000324 0.000326 0.00342 0.254 2.4 A t t t t t + + +
Year 2008 2011 2014 2017 2020 2023 2026 2029 2032 2035 2038 2040
Assets 2.4 3.2 4.0 4.7 5.3 5.7 5.9 5.6 4.9 3.6 1.7 0
Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Social Security Trust Fund
Social Security Trust Fund

Solution Solution
a. a. The assets of the Social Security fund in The assets of the Social Security fund in 2011 2011 ( (t t = 3 = 3) ) will be: will be:
or approximately or approximately $3.18 $3.18 trillion. trillion.
The assets of the Social Security fund in The assets of the Social Security fund in 2029 2029 ( (t t = 21 = 21) ) will be: will be:
or approximately or approximately $5.59 $5.59 trillion. trillion.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4 3 2
(3) 0.00000324 3 0.000326 3 0.00342 3 0.254 3 2.43.18 A + + +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4 3 2
(21) 0.00000324 21 0.000326 21 0.00342 21 0.254 21 2.4 5.59 A + + +
Year 2008 2011 2014 2017 2020 2023 2026 2029 2032 2035 2038 2040
Assets 2.4 3.2 4.0 4.7 5.3 5.7 5.9 5.6 4.9 3.6 1.7 0
4 3 2
( ) 0.00000324 0.000326 0.00342 0.254 2.4 A t t t t t + + +
Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Social Security Trust Fund
Social Security Trust Fund

Solution Solution
b. b. The graph shows that function The graph shows that function A A crosses the crosses the t t-axis -axis at about at about
t t = 32 = 32, suggesting the system will go broke by , suggesting the system will go broke by 2040 2040: :
5 5 10 10 15 15 20 20 25 25 30 30
6 6
4 4
2 2
y y ($trillion) ($trillion)
Trust runs
out of funds
Year 2008 2011 2014 2017 2020 2023 2026 2029 2032 2035 2038 2040
Assets 2.4 3.2 4.0 4.7 5.3 5.7 5.9 5.6 4.9 3.6 1.7 0
4 3 2
( ) 0.00000324 0.000326 0.00342 0.254 2.4 A t t t t t + + +
t t (years) (years)
Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Social Security Trust Fund
Social Security Trust Fund

Rational and Power Functions
Rational and Power Functions

A A rational function rational function is simply is simply the quotient of two the quotient of two
polynomials polynomials. .

In general, a rational function has the form In general, a rational function has the form
where where f f( (x x) ) and and g g( (x x) ) are are polynomial functions polynomial functions. .

Since the Since the division by zero is not allowed division by zero is not allowed, we conclude that , we conclude that
the the domain domain of a rational function is the set of all real of a rational function is the set of all real
numbers except the numbers except the zeros zeros of of g g (the (the roots roots of the equation of the equation
g g( (x x) ) = 0 = 0) )
( )
( )
( )
f x
R x
g x


Rational and Power Functions
Rational and Power Functions

Examples Examples of rational functions: of rational functions:


3 2
3 1
( )
2
x x x
F x
x
+ +

2
2
1
( )
1
x
G x
x
+


Rational and Power Functions
Rational and Power Functions

Functions of the form Functions of the form


where where r r is is any real number any real number, are called , are called power functions power functions. .

We encountered examples of power functions earlier in We encountered examples of power functions earlier in
our work. our work.

Examples Examples of power functions: of power functions:


1/2 2
2
1
( ) ( ) and f x x x g x x
x


( )
r
f x x

Rational and Power Functions
Rational and Power Functions

Many functions involve Many functions involve combinations combinations of of rational rational and and
power functions power functions. .

Examples: Examples:
2
2
2
1/2
2 3/2
1
( )
1
( ) 3 4
1
( ) (1 2 )
( 2)
x
f x
x
g x x x
h x x
x

+
+
+ +
+

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Driving Costs
Driving Costs

A study of driving costs based on a A study of driving costs based on a 2007 2007 medium-sized medium-sized
sedan found the following average costs (car payments, sedan found the following average costs (car payments,
gas, insurance, upkeep, and depreciation), measured in gas, insurance, upkeep, and depreciation), measured in
cents per mile: cents per mile:

A A mathematical model mathematical model giving the average cost in cents per giving the average cost in cents per
mile is: mile is:
where where x x (in thousands) (in thousands) denotes the number of miles the denotes the number of miles the
car is driven in car is driven in 1 1 year. year.
Miles/year, x 5000 10,000 15,000 20,000
Cost/mile, y () 83.8 62.9 52.2 47.1
0.42
164.8
( ) C x
x


Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Driving Costs
Driving Costs

Below is the scatter plot associated with this data: Below is the scatter plot associated with this data:
0.42
164.8
( ) C x
x

5 5 10 10 15 15 20 20 25 25
140 140
120 120
100 100
80 80
60 60
40 40
20 20
x x ( (1000 miles/ 1000 miles/year) year)
y y ( ( ) )
C C( (x x) )
Miles/year, x 5000 10,000 15,000 20,000
Cost/mile, y () 83.8 62.9 52.2 47.1

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Driving Costs
Driving Costs

Using this model, estimate the Using this model, estimate the average cost average cost of driving a of driving a
2007 2007 medium-sized sedan medium-sized sedan 8,000 8,000 miles per year and miles per year and 18,000 18,000
miles per year. miles per year.
Solution Solution

The The average cost average cost for driving a car for driving a car 8,000 8,000 miles per year is miles per year is
or approximately or approximately 68.8 68.8/mile /mile. .
0.42
164.8
( ) C x
x

( )
0.42
164.8
(8) 68.81
8
C
Miles/year, x 5000 10,000 15,000 20,000
Cost/mile, y () 83.8 62.9 52.2 47.1

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Driving Costs
Driving Costs

Using this model, estimate the Using this model, estimate the average cost average cost of driving a of driving a
2007 2007 medium-sized sedan medium-sized sedan 8,000 8,000 miles per year and miles per year and 18,000 18,000
miles per year. miles per year.
Solution Solution

The The average cost average cost for driving a car for driving a car 18,000 18,000 miles per year is miles per year is
or approximately or approximately 48.95 48.95/mile /mile. .
0.42
164.8
( ) C x
x

( )
0.42
164.8
(18) 48.95
18
C
Miles/year, x 5000 10,000 15,000 20,000
Cost/mile, y () 83.8 62.9 52.2 47.1

Constructing Mathematical Models
Constructing Mathematical Models

Some mathematical models can be constructed using Some mathematical models can be constructed using
elementary geometric elementary geometric and and algebraic arguments algebraic arguments. .
Guidelines Guidelines for constructing mathematical models: for constructing mathematical models:
1. 1. Assign a letter to each variable Assign a letter to each variable mentioned in the mentioned in the
problem. If appropriate, problem. If appropriate, draw and label draw and label a figure. a figure.
2. 2. Find an expression Find an expression for the quantity sought. for the quantity sought.
3. 3. Use the Use the conditions conditions given in the problem to given in the problem to write write
the quantity sought as a function the quantity sought as a function f f of one variable. of one variable.
Note any Note any restrictions restrictions to be placed on the to be placed on the domain domain
of of f f by the nature of the problem. by the nature of the problem.

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Enclosing an Area
Enclosing an Area

The owner of the Rancho Los Feliz has The owner of the Rancho Los Feliz has 3000 3000 yards of yards of
fencing fencing with which to with which to enclose a rectangular piece enclose a rectangular piece of of
grazing land along the straight portion of a river. grazing land along the straight portion of a river.

Fencing is Fencing is not required not required along the along the river river. .

Letting Letting x x denote the denote the width width of the rectangle, find a of the rectangle, find a function function
f f in the in the variable variable x x giving the giving the area area of the grazing land if she of the grazing land if she
uses all uses all of the fencing. of the fencing.

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Enclosing an Area
Enclosing an Area
Solution Solution

This information was This information was given given: :

The The area area of the rectangular grazing land is of the rectangular grazing land is A A = = xy xy. .

The amount of The amount of fencing fencing is is 2 2x x + + y y which must equal which must equal 3000 3000
(to use all the fencing), so: (to use all the fencing), so:
2 2x x + + y y = 3000 = 3000

Solving for Solving for y y we get: we get:


y y = 3000 2 = 3000 2x x

Substituting Substituting this value of this value of y y into the expression for into the expression for A A gives: gives:
A A = = x x(3000 2 (3000 2x x) = 3000 ) = 3000x x 2 2x x
2 2

Finally, Finally, x x and and y y represent represent distances distances, so they must be , so they must be
nonnegative nonnegative, so , so x x
0 0 and and y y = 3000 2 = 3000 2x x
0 0 (or (or x x
1500 1500). ).

Thus, the Thus, the required function required function is: is:
f f( (x x) = ) = 3000 3000x x 2 2x x
2 2
(0 (0

x x
1500) 1500)

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Charter-Flight Revenue
Charter-Flight Revenue

If exactly If exactly 200 200 people sign up for a people sign up for a charter flight charter flight, Leisure , Leisure
World Travel Agency charges World Travel Agency charges $300 $300 per person. per person.

However, if However, if more more than than 200 200 people sign up for the flight people sign up for the flight
(assume this is the case), then each fare is (assume this is the case), then each fare is reduced reduced by by $1 $1
for each additional person for each additional person. .

Letting Letting x x denote the denote the number of passengers above number of passengers above 200 200, find , find
a a function function giving the giving the revenue revenue realized by the company. realized by the company.

Applied Example:
Applied Example:
Charter-Flight Revenue
Charter-Flight Revenue
Solution Solution

This information was given. This information was given.

If there are If there are x x passengers above passengers above 200 200, then the number of , then the number of
passengers signing up passengers signing up for the flight is for the flight is 200 + 200 + x x. .

The The fare fare will be will be (300 (300 x x) ) dollars dollars per passenger per passenger. .

The The revenue revenue will be will be


R R = (200 + = (200 + x x)(300 )(300 x x) )
= =

x x
2 2
+ 100 + 100x x + 60,000 + 60,000

The quantities The quantities must be positive must be positive, so , so x x


0 0 and and 300 300 x x
0 0
(or (or x x
300 300). ).

So the So the required function required function is: is:


f f( (x x) = ) =

x x
2 2
+ 100 + 100x x + 60,000 (0 + 60,000 (0

x x
300) 300)

End of
End of
Chapter
Chapter