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Equations of Change

By Amol Deshpande

Introduction

Shell momentum balance approach Tedious for most of the problems (e.g. nonrectilinear motion problems)

Generalized equations to deal with isothermal flow of a pure fluid.

General mass balance - Equation of continuity General momentum balance - Equation of motion

Introduction

Equation of continuity

Derivation in cartesian coordinates, Special cases

Equation of motion

Derivation for the most generalized form, Significance

Equation of change for mechanical energy

Another form of equation of motion

“Substantial derivative” Concept Use of equations of change to solve problems Dimensional analysis

Equation of Continuity

General mass balance - Rate of increase of mass = (Rate of mass in) (Rate of mass out)

Equation of Continuity • General mass balance - Rate of increase of mass = (Rate of
Equation of Continuity • General mass balance - Rate of increase of mass = (Rate of

Problem

Normal stress at fluid solid interface for incompressible newtonian fluids

Equation of Motion

General momentum balance

(Rate of increase in momentum)

= (Rate of momentum in) (Rate of momentum out) + (External force on the fluid)

Equation of Motion • General momentum balance – (Rate of increase in momentum) = (Rate of

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Transport Phenomena

Equation of Mechanical Energy

Another form of equation of motion Equation of change for kinetic energy

Equation of Mechanical Energy • Another form of equation of motion • Equation of change for

Equation of Change in terms of Substantial

Derivative

Substantial derivative/Material derivative

/hydrodynamic derivative

Equation of continuity

Tells how density changes as one moves along with the fluid

Compression density increases

Expansion density decreases

Equation of motion

Newton’s second law of motion

Equations of motion Special cases

Constant density and viscosity

Navier-Stokes Equation

Acceleration terms are neglected

Stokes flow equation / Creeping flow equation

Viscous forces are neglected

Euler Equation

Description of fluid flow

Description of the flow of a Newtonian fluid at

constant temperature

 

Equations

 

Equation of continuity

Equation of motion

Expression for shear/viscous stress

Equations of state

Equations of viscosities

Boundary/Initial conditions

Solution

 

Pressure, Velocity and Density profiles

Other quantities important for engineering applications (Max velocity, avg velocity, mass flow rate, etc)

Description of fluid flow

Flow of a fluid with constant density and viscosity

Equations

Equation of continuity (Eq 3.1-4, Table B.4) Navier-Stokes equation (Eq. 3.5-6, Table B.5, 6, 7)

Initial/Boundary conditions

Solution

Velocity and pressure profiles

Other quantities important for engineering applications (Max velocity, avg velocity, mass flow rate, etc)

Setting up a fluid flow problem

(Mathematical modeling)

Make suitable assumptions

Steady, isothermal, laminar flow, Newtonian fluid

Make postulates about pressure and velocity distributions Using equations of change (Table B.1, 4, 5, 6)

Simplify equation of continuity and equation of motion (Navier-Stokes) based on assumptions made

Modeling/Governing equations (Differential Eqs)

Use appropriate initial/boundary conditions

Governing Equations - Solving Techniques

Analytical solution

Gives exact solutions Can be obtained only for the simples flow regimes.

Numerical Solution

Gives approximate solution Need to be validated with experimental results.

CFD Tool used to obtain results by using numerical methods.

Example - Flow through a tube

Assumptions SS, Constants - T, density & viscosity, Postulates

v z =v z (r,z), v r =0, v θ =0

Equations of change (Appendix B)

Example - Flow through a tube • Assumptions – SS, Constants - T, density & viscosity,

Example - Flow through a tube

Pressure and Velocity Profiles

Example - Flow through a tube • Pressure and Velocity Profiles • Boundary Conditions 25/08/2011 Transport

Boundary Conditions

Example - Flow through a tube • Pressure and Velocity Profiles • Boundary Conditions 25/08/2011 Transport
Example - Flow through a tube • Pressure and Velocity Profiles • Boundary Conditions 25/08/2011 Transport

Example - Flow of a Falling Film

Assumptions Postulates

v z = v z (x,z)

Equations of change in Cartesian coordinates

Continuity (B.4)

Motion (B.5)

Example - Flow of a Falling Film • Assumptions • Postulates – v = v (x,z)
Example - Flow of a Falling Film • Assumptions • Postulates – v = v (x,z)

Example Couette Viscometer

Determination of viscosity

By measuring the torque required to turn solid object in contact with the fluid.

Assumptions Postulates

v r =v z =0;

v θ = v θ (r) p = p (r,z)

Example – Couette Viscometer • Determination of viscosity – By measuring the torque required to turn

Example Couette Viscometer

Continuity Equation All terms are zero Equation of motion

Example – Couette Viscometer • Continuity Equation – All terms are zero • Equation of motion
Example – Couette Viscometer • Continuity Equation – All terms are zero • Equation of motion

Velocity Profile Boundary Conditions

Example – Couette Viscometer • Continuity Equation – All terms are zero • Equation of motion
Example – Couette Viscometer • Continuity Equation – All terms are zero • Equation of motion

Example Couette Viscometer

Momentum Flux

Example – Couette Viscometer • Momentum Flux • Torque • Reynolds No 25/08/2011 Transport Phenomena

Torque

Example – Couette Viscometer • Momentum Flux • Torque • Reynolds No 25/08/2011 Transport Phenomena

Reynolds No

Example – Couette Viscometer • Momentum Flux • Torque • Reynolds No 25/08/2011 Transport Phenomena

Example Surface of Rotating Liquid

Liquid of constant density and viscosity in a cylindrical container rotating with some angular velocity

Postulates v r =v z =0; v θ = v θ (r)

p = p (r,z) Boundary Conditions r = R, v θ =RΩ r = 0, v θ =finite r = 0 & z = z 0 , p = p atm

Example – Surface of Rotating Liquid • • • Liquid of constant density and viscosity in

Shape of the liquid- air interface (Obtained from pressure profile)

Example – Surface of Rotating Liquid • • • Liquid of constant density and viscosity in

Example Flow around a rotating sphere

Creeping Flow Spherical Co-ordinates Assumption/Postulates

Example – Flow around a rotating sphere • Creeping Flow • Spherical Co-ordinates • Assumption/Postulates •
Example – Flow around a rotating sphere • Creeping Flow • Spherical Co-ordinates • Assumption/Postulates •

Equations of Change

Example – Flow around a rotating sphere • Creeping Flow • Spherical Co-ordinates • Assumption/Postulates •

Continuity Motion

0 = 0

Example – Flow around a rotating sphere • Creeping Flow • Spherical Co-ordinates • Assumption/Postulates •

Example Flow around a rotating sphere

Boundary Conditions

Example – Flow around a rotating sphere • Boundary Conditions • Solution – Need to guess

Solution

Need to guess velocity function Need to assume some trial solutions

Dimensional Analysis Equations of Change

Need Similitude Scaling Up /Down Experimental model

Geometric Similarity Dynamic Similarity Kinematic Similarity

Scale Factors

Characteristic length Characteristic velocity Characteristic pressure

Dimensional Analysis Equations of Change

Equations of Change (Constant density & viscosity)

Dimensional Analysis – Equations of Change • Equations of Change (Constant density & viscosity) • Dimensionless

Dimensionless variables

Dimensional Analysis – Equations of Change • Equations of Change (Constant density & viscosity) • Dimensionless

Dimensionless operators

Dimensional Analysis – Equations of Change • Equations of Change (Constant density & viscosity) • Dimensionless

Dimensional Analysis Equations of Change

Equations of change in terms of dimensionless quantities

OR

Dimensional Analysis – Equations of Change • Equations of change in terms of dimensionless quantities OR

Limiting cases

Re Infinity Re0;

Euler equation Creeping flow equation

Example Transverse Flow around a Circular Cylinder

Flow of an incompressible fluid past a circular cylinder (experimental study)

Need to find out effect of various parameters on flow patterns and pressure distributions with minimum no

of experiments

Equation of continuity and motion (N-S) Initial condition Boundary conditions

Example – Transverse Flow around a Circular Cylinder • Flow of an incompressible fluid past a
Example – Transverse Flow around a Circular Cylinder • Flow of an incompressible fluid past a

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Transport Phenomena

Example - Flow past a cylinder

Dimensionless Equations

Example - Flow past a cylinder • Dimensionless Equations • Initial/Boundary conditions • Solution form 30/08/2011

Initial/Boundary conditions

Example - Flow past a cylinder • Dimensionless Equations • Initial/Boundary conditions • Solution form 30/08/2011

Solution form

Example - Flow past a cylinder • Dimensionless Equations • Initial/Boundary conditions • Solution form 30/08/2011

30/08/2011

Transport Phenomena

Example Flow past a cylinder

Analysis

Velocity and pressure depends only on Re, and L/D ratio (dimensionless parameters) Investigating the effects of L, D, velocity, density, viscosity are not required Saves lot of time and expense For scaling -up

30/08/2011

Transport Phenomena

Problems

Flow between two co-axial cylinders

Incompressible Fluid Inner cylinder - rotating with angular velocity i Outer cylinder rotating with angular velocity o

Flow between two co-axial spheres

Incompressible Fluid Inner sphere - rotating with angular velocity i Outer sphererotating with angular velocity o

30/08/2011

Transport Phenomena