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INTRODUCTION

2
Why do we need transformers?
Increase voltage of generators output
Transmit high power at low current
Reduce cost of transmission system
Adjust voltage to a usable level
Create electrical isolation
Match load impedance
Filters
3
220kV-750kV
15 kV- 25kV
208V- 416V
Transmission
Transformer
Distribution
Transformer
Service
Transformer
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Transmission Transformer
El-Sharkawi@University of Washington 5
Distribution Transformer
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Distribution Transformer
El-Sharkawi@University of Washington 7
Service Transformer
El-Sharkawi@University of Washington 8
Service Transformer bank
El-Sharkawi@University of Washington 9
Service Transformer bank
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Service Transformer
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Service Transformer
El-Sharkawi@University of Washington 12
Service Transformer
Introduction
A transformer is a static machines.
The word transformer comes form the word transform.
Transformer is not an energy conversion device
But is a device that changes AC electrical power at one voltage
level into AC electrical power at another voltage level through the
action of magnetic field, without a change in frequency.
Can raise or lower the voltage/current in ac circuit
Transformer Construction
Transformer can be either step-up or step-down transformer
If the output voltage of transformer is greater than the input
voltage step-up transformer
If the output voltage of a transformer is less than the input
voltage step-down transformer
By selecting appropriate numbers of turns, a transformer allows
an alternating voltage to be stepped up by making Ns more
than Np
Or stepped down by making Ns less than Np

Vs Ns
Vp Np
=
Transformer Construction
A transformer whose core is constructed of laminated sheets of
steel dissipates heat readily; thus it provides for the efficient
transfer of power.
The purpose of the laminations is to reduce certain losses
which will be discussed later in this part


Hollow-core construction
Transformer Construction
The most efficient transformer core is one that offers the best
path for the most lines of flux with the least loss in magnetic and
electrical energy
There are two main shapes of cores used in laminated-steel-
core transformers:
Core-type transformers
Shell-core transformers
Transformer Construction
Shell-core transformers:
The most popular and efficient transformer core
Each layer of the core consists of E- and I-shaped sections of
metal
These sections are butted together to form the laminations
The laminations are insulated from each other and then pressed
together to form the core.
Transformer Construction
Core - type construction:
so named because the core is shaped with a hollow square
through the center
the core is made up of many laminations of steel
Core Form

In the core form transformer, the windings surround the
laminated core .
Three-phase transformers are usually designed as three-
legged core. In cases of large capacity transformers, four or
five-legged cores could be preferable to reduce overall
physical dimensions of the transformer.
This type is better suited to higher voltages, which require
windings with many turns and heavy insulation.
However, the size of the windings does require much more
insulation.
The core form design utilizes a multiple leg magnetic core
that distributes flux more evenly which reduces the
harmonics in the transformer.
Also, this provides better distribution of induced currents
across the full circuit.

Shell Form


In the shell form transformer, the magnetic core surrounds the
windings.
The coils are typically disc or oblong-shaped and are stacked in the
form of pancakes to form the winding configuration.
The low voltage coils are normally located adjacent to the core iron to
minimize the amount of high voltage insulation required to ground.
In a shell form transformer the core leakage flux is reduced to a
minimum because the coil windings surround the inner core and the
outer core surrounds the coil.
This type is suited for transformers of moderate voltage, requiring few
turns and little insulation, large currents, and low frequency with
corresponding magnetic flux.
Use of the shell form may require a flux shield to be installed because
the core is external to the windings.
Transformer Construction
Typical schematic symbols for transformers:
The bars between the coils are used to indicate an iron core
Frequently, additional connections are made to the transformer
windings at points other than the ends of the windings
These additional connections are called TAPS
When a tap is connected to the center of the winding, it is called a
CENTER TAP
Transformer Construction
An ideal transformer is a transformer which has no loses, i.e. its
winding has no ohmic resistance, no magnetic leakage, and
therefore no I
2
R and core loses.
However, it is impossible to realize such a transformer in practice.
Yet, the approximate characteristic of ideal transformer will be used
in characterized the practical transformer.
V
1
V
2

N
1
: N
2

E
1
E
2

I
1
I
2

V
1
Primary Voltage
V
2
Secondary Voltage
E
1
Primary induced Voltage
E
2
secondary induced Voltage
N
1
:N
2
Transformer ratio
Transformer Construction
No-load condition:
is said to exist when a voltage is applied to the primary, but no load
is connected to the secondary
Because of the open switch, there is no current flowing in the
secondary winding.
With the switch open and an ac voltage applied to the primary,
there is, however, a very small amount of current called EXCITING
CURRENT flowing in the primary
Transformer Construction
With-load condition:
When a load device is connected across the secondary winding of a
transformer, current flows through the secondary and the load
The magnetic field produced by the current in the secondary
interacts with the magnetic field produced by the current in the
primary
This interaction results from the mutual inductance between the
primary and secondary windings.
Transformer Equation
Faradays Law states that,
If the flux passes through a coil of wire, a voltage will be induced in
the turns of wire. This voltage is directly proportional to the rate of
change in the flux with respect of time.




If we have N turns of wire,


dt
t d
Emf V
ind ind
) ( u
= =
dt
t d
N Emf V
ind ind
) ( u
= =
Lenzs Law
Transformer Equation
For an ac sources,
Let V(t) = V
m
sinet
i(t) = i
m
sinet
Since the flux is a sinusoidal function;
Then:

Therefore:


Thus:

t t
m
e sin ) ( u = u
t N
dt
t d
N Emf V
m
m
ind ind
e e
e
cos
sin
u =
u
= =
max m ind ind
fN N Emf V
u = u = = t e
2
(max)
max
m m
rms ind
fN
fN N
Emf
u =
u
=
u
=
44 . 4
2
2
2
) (
t e
m m
B x A u =
Transformer Equation
For an ideal transformer,



In the equilibrium condition, both the input power will be equaled to
the output power, and this condition is said to ideal condition of a
transformer.





From the ideal transformer circuit, note that,


Hence, substitute in (i)
1 1 2 2
V I V I =
1 2
2 1
V I
V I
=
(i)
2 2 1 1
V E and V E = =
max
max
fN E
fN E
u ==
u ==
2 2
1 1
44 . 4
44 . 4
Input power = output power
Transformer Equation


a
I
I
N
N
E
E
Therefore = = =
1
2
2
1
2
1
,
a = Voltage Transformation Ratio;
which will determine whether the transformer is going
to be step-up or step-down
E
2
> E
1
For a >1
For a <1 E
2
< E
1
Step-up
Step-down
Transformer Equation
Transformer rating is normally written in terms of
Apparent Power.
Apparent power is actually the product of its rated
current and rated voltage.
2 2 1 1
I V I V VA = =
Where,
I
1
and I
2
= rated current on primary and secondary
winding.
V
1
and V
2
= rated voltage on primary and secondary
winding.
** Rated currents are actually the full load currents in
transformer
Transformer Name plate information
Nameplate data provides important
information for:
Proper operation and maintenance of each
transformer.
Transformers are expected to operate within
their normal designed and operating
rating.
MVA Rating. The output that can be delivered by a
transformer at rated secondary voltage and rated
frequency without exceeding the specified temperature
rise.
Cooling Class. Type of insulating medium and the type of
cooling medium to dissipate the heat generation in the
transformer.
Winding Temperature Rise. The difference between the
average winding temperature or the hottest-spot winding
temperature and the ambient temperature.
Voltage. The primary and secondary voltage to transform
electrical energy from primary voltage to secondary
voltage.
Insulation Levels. Indicates the ability of the
transformer to withstand lightning strikes and other
system over-voltages.
Impedance. Expressed as a percentage and
interpreted as percentage voltage drop in the
transformer at full-load current.
Basic Impulse Level (BIL).The crest value of the
impulse voltage during factory testing that the
transformer is required to withstand without failure.
Polarity. The relative instantaneous direction of
the currents entering the primary terminals and
leaving the secondary terminals of the transformer.
The polarity is fixed by the lead connections inside
the transformer.
Equivalent Circuit of Practical
Transformer

Equivalent circuit:

Often given to explain the operation of a complicated or unfamiliar
device
If a circuit is truly an equivalent circuit, the original device can be
removed from a system & replaced with its equivalent circuit
without changing the behavior or performance of the system
For purposes of analysis the transformer may be represented by a 1:1
turns ratio equivalent circuit
This circuit is based on the following assumptions:
Primary and secondary turns are equal in number. One winding
is chosen as the reference winding; the other is the referred
winding.
Equivalent Circuit of Practical
Transformer

Core loss may be represented by a resistance across the terminals of
the reference winding.
Core flux reactance may be represented by a reactance across the
terminals of the reference winding.
Primary and secondary IR and IX voltage drops may be lumped
together; the voltage drops in the referred winding are multiplied
by a factor derived at the end of this section, to give them the
correct equivalent value.
Equivalent reactance and resistances are linear.
Equivalent Circuit of Practical Transformer
V
1
= primary supply voltage
V
2
= 2
nd
terminal (load) voltage
E
1
= primary winding voltage
E
2
= 2
nd
winding voltage
I
1
= primary supply current
I
2
= 2
nd
winding current
I
1

= primary winding current
I
o
= no load current
I
c
= core current
I
m
= magnetism current
R
1
= primary winding resistance
R
2
= 2
nd
winding resistance
X
1
= primary winding leakage reactance
X
2
= 2
nd
winding leakage reactance
R
c
= core resistance
X
m
= magnetism reactance
V
1

I
1

R
1

X
1

R
C

I
c
X
m

I
m

I
o

E
1

E
2

V
2

I
1

N
1
: N
2
R
2

X
2

Load
I
2

Equivalent Circuit of Practical
Transformer
Single Phase transformer (referred to Primary)
Actual Method
2
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
' ' R a R OR R
N
N
R =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
' ' X a X OR X
N
N
X =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
a
I
I
aV V OR V
N
N
V E
2
2
2 2 2
2
1
'
2 1
'
'
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
V
1

I
1
R
1
X
1

R
C

I
c
X
m

I
m

I
o

E
1

E
2

V
2

I
2
N
1
: N
2
R
2


X
2


Load
I
2

Equivalent Circuit of Practical
Transformer
Single Phase transformer (referred to Primary)
Approximate Method
V
1

I
1
R
1

X
1

R
C

I
c
X
m

I
m

I
o

E
1

E
2

V
2

I
2

N
1
: N
2
R
2

X
2


Load
I
2

2
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
' ' R a R OR R
N
N
R =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
' ' X a X OR X
N
N
X =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
a
I
I
aV V OR V
N
N
V E
2
2
2 2 2
2
1
'
2 1
'
'
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
Equivalent Circuit of Practical
Transformer
Single Phase transformer (referred to Primary)
Approximate Method
2
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
' ' R a R OR R
N
N
R =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
' ' X a X OR X
N
N
X =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
'
'
2 1 01
2 1 01
X X X
R R R
+ =
+ =
2 2 2
2
1
'
2
' aV V OR V
N
N
V =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
In some application, the excitation
branch has a small current compared
to load current, thus it may be
neglected without causing serious
error.
V
1

I
1

R
01
X
01
aV
2

Equivalent Circuit of Practical Transformer
Single Phase transformer (referred to Secondary)
Actual Method
2
1
1 1
2
1
2
1
' '
a
R
R OR R
N
N
R =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
a
V
V OR V
N
N
V
1
1 1
1
2
1
' ' =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
1 1
2
1
2
1
' '
a
X
X OR X
N
N
X =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
I
1

R
1

X
1

R
C

I
c

X
m

I
m

I
o

I
2

R
2

X
2

V
2

a
V
1
Equivalent Circuit of Practical
Transformer)
Single Phase transformer (referred to Secondary)
Approximate Method


2
1
1 1
2
1
2
1
' '
a
X
X OR X
N
N
X =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2 1 02
2 1 02
'
'
X X X
R R R
+ =
+ =
I
1

R
02
X
02
a
V
1
2
1
1 1
2
1
2
1
' '
a
R
R OR R
N
N
R =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
a
V
V OR V
N
N
V
1
1 1
1
2
1
' ' =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1 1
' aI I =
Neglect the excitation branch,
V
2

Transformer Losses
An ideal transformer would have no energy losses, and would be
100% efficient
In practical, transformer energy is dissipated in the windings,
core, and surrounding structures
Iron Losses
- occur in core parameters


Copper Losses
- occur in winding resistance




circuit open c c c iron
P R I P P = = =
2
) (
02
2
2 01
2
1
2
2
2 1
2
1
) ( ) ( ,
) ( ) (
R I R I P ref erred if or
P R I R I P P
cu
circuit short cu copper
= =
= + = =
**P
oc
and P
sc
will be discusses later in transformer test
Transformer Efficiency
To check the performance of the device, by comparing
the output with respect to the input
The higher the efficiency, the better the system
% 100
cos
cos
% 100
% 100 ,
2 2
2 2

+ +
=

+
=
=
cu c
losses out
out
P P I V
I V
P P
P
Power Input
Power Output
Ef f iciency
u
u
q
% 100
cos
cos
% 100
cos
cos
2
) (
) (

+ +
=

+ +
=
cu c
n load
cu c
load full
P n P nVA
nVA
P P VA
VA
u
u
q
u
u
q
Where, if load, hence n = ,
load, n= ,
90% of full load, n =0.9
Where P
cu
= P
sc
P
c
= P
oc
Measurement on Transformer
There are two test conducted on transformer.

Open Circuit Test (no load test)
Short Circuit test

The test is conducted to determine the parameter of the
transformer .
Open circuit test
is conducted to determine magnetism parameter,
Rc and Xm and core losses.
Also known as no-load test.

With the secondary open, the primary voltage was
increased from zero to rated voltage, where the rated
voltage is the name plate stamp.

A digital multimeter was used as an ammeter to measure
the open circuit current. A wattmeter was used to measure
the open circuit power. The power measured was the power
dissipated in R
m
, the core losses.

Pin(W) = core loss+ copper loss

Copper loss is neglected because of small no load current.

Wattmeter only shows the reading of core loss.
Open-Circuit Test
( )
2 2
1
,
, ,
sin
cos
,
cos
cos
m c oc
m
oc
m
c
oc
c
m c
oc oc m
oc oc c
oc oc
oc
oc
oc oc oc oc
I I I
I
V
X
I
V
R
X and R Then
I I
I I
Hence
I V
P
I V P
+ =
= =
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=

u
u
u
u
R
c

X
m

V
oc

I
c
I
m

V
oc

I
oc
cosu
oc
I
oc

V
oc

I
c

I
m

u
I
oc
sinu
oc
u
oc

Note:
If the question asked parameters referred to low
voltage side, the parameters (R
c
and X
m
) obtained
need to be referred to low voltage side
Short circuit test
is conducted to determine the copper parameter
depending where the test is performed. If
performed at primary, hence the parameters are
R
01
and X
01
and vice-versa.

With the secondary terminals shorted, the primary
voltage(applied voltage) was increased from zero until the
rated current was reached in the primary.

At this point the primary voltage was measured. It was
much less than rated voltage. Again, the power and current
were measured.

During test, applied voltage is very small compared to rated
voltage, the core loss is very small and it can be neglected.

The wattmeter reading is taken as full load Copper loss of
the transformer.
Short-Circuit Test
Normally, measurement at lower voltage side
If the given test parameters are taken on primary
side, R
01
and X
01
will be obtained & vice-versa.
X
01

R
01

For a case referred to
Primary side
2
01
2
01 01
01
1
01
2
,
cos
cos
X R Z
I
V
Z
Hence
I V
P
R I P
I V P
sc
sc
sc
sc sc
sc
sc
sc sc
sc sc sc sc
+ =
Z =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
=

u
u
u


Demands put upon the operation of transformers
connected in parallel, which must be fulfilled to
avoid wrong operation at no-load and on-load
conditions:
1. There must be no currents in the secondary
windings at no-load conditions,

2. The transformers must load themselves
accordingly to their rated powers at on-load
Operation.

3. The phase angles of the secondary line currents
of all in parallel connected transformers must
be the same.



EMPS_BEE2133_NJ

EMPS_BEE2133_NJ

EMPS_BEE2133_NJ
EMPS_BEE2133_NJ
STANDARD PHASE SHIFT
GROUP I TRANSFORMERS
Group 1 transformer
Group 1 transformer Contd
Group ii transformer
Group ii transformer contd
Group iii transformer
Group iii transformer

THANK YOU.