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Chapter 2 Consumer Research

Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition Schiffman & Kanuk

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Chapter Outline
Introduction to Quantitative and Qualitative Research Overview of the Consumer Decision Process Quantitative Research Qualitative Research

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Quantitative Research
Descriptive in nature. Enables marketers to predict consumer behavior (positivism). Research methods include experiments, survey techniques, and observation. Findings are descriptive, empirical, and can be generalized to larger populations.
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Qualitative Research
Consists of depth interviews, focus groups, metaphor analysis, collage research, and projective techniques. Administered by highly trained interviewer-analysts. Findings tend to be subjective. Small sample sizes.

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Table 2-1
Qualitative Research Study Purpose Quantitative Research Provide insights Describe target about ideas market Exploratory research Results for before quantitative strategic study marketing decisions

Types of Questions
Data Collection Methods

Open-ended Unstructured Projective techniques Depth interviews Focus groups

Close-ended Attitude scales Observation Experimentation Questionnaires


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Table 2-1 (continued)


Qualitative Research Sampling Methods Small Nonprobability samples Quantitative Research Large Probability samples

Data Analysis

Analyzed by Coded, tabulated, researchers who and entered into collected data database Look for key words Use of statistical methods Subjective
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Developing Research Objectives


Defining purposes and objectives helps ensure an appropriate research design. A statement of objectives helps to define the type and level of information needed.

Subaru Video
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Secondary Data
Data that has been collected for reasons other than the specific research project at hand Includes internal and external data

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Types of Secondary Data


Internal Data
Data generated inhouse May include analysis of customer files Useful for calculating customer lifetime value

External Data
Data collected by an outside organization Includes federal government, periodicals, newspapers, books, search engines Commercial data is also available from market research firms
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Designing Primary Research


Quantitative Research Designs
Include research design, data collection methods, instruments to be used, and the sample design

Qualitative Research Designs


Include depth interviews, focus groups, projective techniques, and metaphor analysis

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Data Collection Methods Observational Research


Helps marketers gain an in-depth understanding of the relationship between people and products by watching them buying and using products Helps researchers gain a better understanding of what the product symbolizes

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Observational research is often used to design products to meet needs.

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Data Collection Methods Mechanical Observational Research


Uses mechanical or electronic device to record consumer behavior or response Consumers increased use of highly convenient technologies will create more records for marketers Product audits which monitor sales are heavily used by companies
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Foxwoods Casino Uses Mechanical Observational Research - Figure 2-2

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Arbitron Mechanical Observation

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Data Collection Methods Experimentation


Can be used to test the relative sales appeal of many types of variables An experiment is usually controlled with only some variables manipulated at a time while the others are constant Can be conducted in laboratories or in the field

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Surveys Data Collection Methods


Personal Interview Mail

Telephone
Online

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Table 2.2 Comparative Advantages


MAIL Cost Speed Response rate Geographic flexibility Interviewer bias Interviewer supervision Quality of response Low Slow Low Excellent N/A N/A Limited TELEPHONE Moderate Immediate Moderate Good Moderate Easy Limited PERSONAL INTERVIEW High Slow High Difficult Problematic Difficult Excellent ONLINE Low Fast Selfselection Excellent N/A N/A Excellent

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Validity and Reliability


If a study has validity it collects the appropriate data for the study. A study has reliability if the same questions, asked of a similar sample, produce the same findings.

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Attitude Scales
Likert scales: easy for researchers to prepare and interpret, and simple for consumers to answer(strnglyagree.smwatgree.neither dis agree,opp opp) Semantic differential scales: relatively easy to construct and administer(competitiver ates,non competitive) Behavior intention scales: also easy to construct and administer Rank-order scales: subjects rank items in order of preference in terms of some criteria
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Qualitative Collection Method Depth Interview


Usually 30 minutes to 1 hour Nonstructured Interpreted by trained researcher Listen to words as well as body language

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Qualitative Collection Method Focus Group


8-10 participants Lasts about 2 hours Always taped or videotaped to assist analysis Often held in front of two-way mirrors

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Figure 2.4 Focus Group Discussion Guide


1. Why did you decide to use your current cellular company? 2. How long have you used your current cellular company? 3. Have you ever switched services? When? What caused the change? 4. What do you think of the overall quality of your current service? 5. What are the important criteria in selecting a cellular service? Examples of Probe questions: a. Tell me more about that . . . b. Share your thinking on this . . . c. Does anyone see it differently . . .

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Qualitative Collection Method Projective Techniques


Research procedures designed to identify consumers subconscious feelings and motivations Consist of a variety of disguised tests

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Qualitative Collection Method Metaphor Analysis


Based on belief that metaphors are the most basic method of thought and communication Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) combines collage research and metaphor analysis to bring to the surface the mental models and the major themes or constructs that drive consumer thinking and behavior.
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Customer Satisfaction Measurement


Customer Satisfaction Surveys Gap Analysis of Expectations versus Experience Mystery Shoppers Customer Complaint Analysis Analysis of Customer Defections

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Customer Satisfaction Survey

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Sampling and Data Collection


Samples are a subset of the population used to estimate characteristics of the entire population. A sampling plan addresses:
Whom to survey(sample unit eg youth) How many to survey(sample sie 2500) How to select them(focus group)

Researcher must choose probability or nonprobabililty sample.


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Table 2.4 Probability Sampling Designs


Simple random sample Systematic random sample Every member of the population has a known and equal chance of being selected. A member of the population is selected at random and then every nth person is selected.

Stratified random sample


Cluster (area) sample

The population is divided into mutually exclusive groups (such as age groups), and random samples are drawn from each group.
The population is divided into mutually exclusive groups (such as blocks), and the researcher draws a sample of the groups to interview.

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Data Analysis and Reporting Findings


Open-ended questions are coded and quantified. All responses are tabulated and analyzed. Final report includes executive summary, body, tables, and graphs.

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