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Engr. Jerny D. Catibayan,BSEE Instructor, EE Dept.

Technological Institute of the Philippines - Manila

Is virtually the heart of the dynamo. It is where the voltage is generated in the generator or; Torque is developed in the motor The armature coil (copper conductor) ends are soldered to the commutator, afterwhich the latter is turned down and undercut.

Lap winding the coil ends are connected to adjacent commutator segments Wave winding the coil ends are connected to commutator segment very nearly, but never exactly, equal to the distance between poles of the same polarity (alternate poles). pair of poles = 360 electrical degrees

The distance between the two sides of a coil must be equal to the distance between two adjacent poles. Coil span must be 180 electrical degrees, or approximately so.

Ys = S/P k
Where : Ys = coil pitch, in slots S = total number of armature slots P = number of poles k =any part of S/P that is subtracted to make Ys an integer5

Calculate the coil pitches (coil spans) and indicate the slots into which the first coils should be placed for the following armature windings: (a) 28 slots, four poles; (b) 39 slots, four poles; (c) 78 slots, six poles; (d) 121 slots, eight poles; (e) 258 slots, 14 poles

Designates the coil end connections to the commutator. equal to the plex or multiplicity(m) of la wound armature winding (e.g., simplex, duplex, triplex, etc.)

Equal to the highest common factor between the number of commutator segments and the plex of the winding.

Determine the commutator pitches Yc and the degrees of re-entrancy for the following windings: a. Simplex lap, 29 segments b. Duplex-lap, 29 segments c. Duplex-lap, 42 segments d. Triples-lap, 47 segments e. Triplex-lap, 48 segments f. Quadruplex-lap, 394 segments

When the current passes through any armature winding, it always divides into an even number of parallel paths.
Simplex lap winding > divided into P

paths(P=Number of Poles) Duplex-lap winding > divided into 2xP paths Thus, in general, there are mxP parallel armature winding paths in lap winding. represents


a six-pole duplex-lap winding has how many parallel paths? An eight-pole triples-lap has ___ parallel paths?



Segment s





Parallel paths


1 2 3 4 5 6

27 66 63 160 147 222

27 66 63 160 147 222

4 6 6 6 8 8


Only one difference this is simply the manner in which the coil ends of the two types are connected to the commutator.

Yc = (C 1)/(P/2)
Where: Yc = commutator pitch C = total number of commutator segments P= number of poles () = use either operation to have an integer commutator pitch.

Calculate the commutator pitches Yc for the following (simplex-wave wound) pole and commutator segment combinations: (a) six poles,34 segments; (b) eight poles, 63 segments: (c) 10 poles, 326 segments. In each case, trace the winding around the commutator once; start at segment 1 show that after one trip around the commutator, a segment is reached that is one behind or one ahead of the starting segment.



In simplex-lap winding there are as many parallel paths between positive and negative brushes as there are poles, while the number of parallel paths in simplex wave winding is two, regardless of the number of poles. The conductors in each of the P paths of a lap winding are distributed under two poles, a north and a south pole, whereas the conductors in each of the two paths of a wave winding are distributed under all the poles.

In simplex wave winding, after the winding traced once around the commutator, the last coil end arrives one segment behind or ahead o the starting point. A m-plex Yc to be chosen that after the winding is traced once around the commutator, the last coil end arrives m segments behind or ahead.

This condition can be fulfilled using the modified equation:

Yc = (Cm)/(P/2)

Determine the commutator pitch Yc for a four pole duplex-wave-wound armature having 120 commutator bars. Trace the winding around the commutator once, starting at segment 1, and show that after one trip around the commutator, a segment is reached that is two behind or ahead of the starting segment.

Number Segments Poles Winding Yc


2 3 4

90 124 213

6 8 10


REFERENCES: Electrical Technology by Theraja (chapter 26) Electrical Machines by Siskind (page 45.)