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Amity Business School

Characteristics of DBMS
Query processing and optimisation Transaction management Database recovery Database security and authorisation Distributed databases Data warehousing and data mining

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Database Approach
Advantages
Program-data independence Minimal data redundancy Improved data consistency Improved data sharing Increased productivity of application development Enforcement of standards Improved data quality Improved data accessibility and responsiveness Reduced program maintenance

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Program-Data Independence
The separation of data descriptions (metadata) from the application programs that use the data.
In the database approach data descriptions are stored in a central location called the data dictionary. This property allows an organisations data to change and evolve (within limits) without changing the application program that process the data.

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Minimal Data Redundancy


Data files are integrated into a single, logical structure. Each primary fact is recorded (ideally) in only one place in the database. E.g. Employee data not with the payroll and benefit files. Note: Data redundancy is not eliminated entirely. Some data items will appear in more than one place (e.g. employee no.) to represent the relationship with others.

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Improved Data Consistency


By eliminating (or controlling) data redundancy, we greatly reduce the opportunities for inconsistency. E.g. employee address is stored only once and hence we cannot have disagreement on the stored values. Also, updating data values is greatly simplified and have avoid the wasted storage space.

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Improved Data Sharing


A database is designed as a shared corporate resource. Authorised users are granted permission to use the database, and each user (or group of users) is provided one or more user views to facilitate this use. E.g. employee data common to payroll, benefit applications will be shared among different users.

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Increased Productivity of Application Development


A major advantage of the database approach is that it greatly reduces the cost and time for developing new business applications. Programmer could concentrate on the specific functions required for the new application, without having to worry about design or low-level implementation details; as related data have already been designed and implemented.

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Increased Productivity of Application Development contd.


DBMS provides a number of high-level productivity tools such as forms and report generations and high-level languages that automate some of the activities of database design and implementation.

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Enforcement of Standards
When the database approach is implemented with full management support, the database administration function should be granted single-point authority and responsibility for establishing and enforcing data standards. Standards include naming conventions, data quality standards and uniform procedures for accessing, updating and protecting data. Powerful set of tools for developing and enforcing these standards are available for some DBMS.

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Improved Data Quality


A number of tools and processes are available to improve data quality. Database designers can specify integrity constraints that are enforced by the DBMS. One of the objectives of a data warehouse environment is to clean up operational data before they are placed in the data warehouse. Constraint A rule that cannot be violated by database users.

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Improved Data Accessibility and Responsiveness


With relational database, end users without programming experience can often retrieve and display data, even when it crosses traditional departmental boundaries. English-like query language SQL and query tools such as Query-By-Example provide such facilities.

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Reduced Program Maintenance


Stored data are changed frequently for variety of reasons such as new data items types are added, and data formats change (e.g. date format from two-digit to four digit). Data independence allows to reduce the program maintenance time.

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Database Approach
Disadvantages DBMS are more vulnerable than file-based system because of the centralised nature of a large integrated database. If a failure occurs the recovery process is more complex and some times may results in lost transactions. Hardware, software and personnel cost are higher for DBMS.