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Possible simulation techniques in metal forming

Upper/Lower Bound Methods Finite Difference Methods Finite Element Methods Boundary Element Methods Finite Volume Methods
Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Element Free Galerkin Method

Satic Implicit
Static Explicit Dynamic Explicit

Meshless Methods

Moving Least Square Method Approximation


Reproducing Kernel Particle Method

Modular Structure of Forming Processes

reference: K. Lange, Stuttgart

Product and process design for net shape manufacturing


FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS PART GEOMETRY (ASSEMBLY READY)

PART DESIGN FOR PROCESS EXPERIENCE BASED PRELIMINARY DIE DESIGN EXPERIENCE BASED

MODIFY DIE/PART DESIGN

SELECT PROCESS/MACHINE VARIABLES

FEM PROGRAM FOR METAL

VERIFY DIE DESIGN & PROCESS VARIABLES

NO

DIE DESIGN AND PROCESS VARIABLES ACCEPTABLE

DATABASE WITH DIE/MATERIAL PROPERTIES

YES ANALYZE DIE DESIGN FOR STRESSES SHRINKAGE AND PROCESS CONDITIONS

PREPARE DRAWINGS AND MACHINE DIES

INSTALL DIES AND SELECT MACHINES PARAMETERS START FORMING PROCESS

Commercially available FE programs for forming process simulation


Name ABAQUS MARC NIKE 3D LARSTRAN INDEED ITAS3D DYNA3D PAM-STAMP Optris MSCDYTRAN ABAQUS-explicit AUTOFORM Autoforge DEFORM FORGE 2/3 ICEM STAMP ISO PUNCH AUTOFORM One step FASTFORM SIMEX 2 Manufacturer, country HKS, USA MARC, USA/NL. D LSTC, USA LASSO, D INPRO, D Prof. Nakamachi, J LSTC, USA/ ESI, F/D Dynamic Software, F MacNeal-Schwendler HKS, USA AUTOFORM, CH MARC, USA/NL, D Batelle, USA, D CEMEF, F Control Data, D Sollac, F AUTOFORM, CH FTI, Canada SimTech, F Type implicit implicit implicit implicit implicit explicit, static explicit, dynamic explicit dynamic explicit dynamic explicit dynamic explicit dynamic Spec. formulation implicit elastic viscoplastic rigid viscoplastic rigid viscoplastic one step method one - step method one step method one step method one step method Application generally, non-linear generally non-linear generally non-linear generally non-linear sheet metal forming sheet metal forming crash, bulk, sheet metal sheet metal forming sheet metal forming sheet metal forming crash, bulk, sheet metal sheet metal forming bulk, forging bulk, forging forging sheet metal forming sheet metal forming sheet metal forming sheet metal forming sheet metal forming

Topics

Why Forging Simulation?

Conventional Product Development


Customer Specs

Design & Tool Dev.

Prototype Testing

Pilot Stage

Mass Production

Expensive Fixes: visible defects press capacity exceeded underfilling (drop forging) high localized die loads More Expensive Fixes: invisible defects unacceptable tolerances

Most Expensive Fixes: short die life unstable process conditions

Reduce s, improve time to market !

Simulation-Aided Product Development


simulation Customer Specs Design & Tool Dev. Prototype Prototype Testing Testing Pilot Pilot Pilot Stage Stage Stage MassMass Mass Production Production Production

Shorter Development Time: less trial and error less blocking of production line optimized for available press less visible defects Less Fine Tuning: improved quality less invisible defects

shortertime to market time to market

Be First to Market with Better and Cheaper Products !

Additional Benefits of Simulation


simulation Customer Specs Design & Tool Dev. Prototype Testing Pilot Stage Mass Production

Optimization during product life time: extend die life minimize material scrap optimize process conditions optimize press capacity utilization Other benefits: reduce number of mfg stages more insight into mfg process less machining operations expand state of the art more successful bids

Reduce Costs during Mass Production !

Why Simulation
Reduce Time to Market Reduce Cost of Tool Development Predict Influence of Process Parameters Reduce Productions Cost Improve Product Quality Better Understanding of Material Behavior Reduce Material Waste

Manufacturing Results

Accurately predict the material flow Determine degree of filling of the swage or die Accurate assessment of net shape Predict if laps or other defects exist Determine the stresses, temperatures, and residual stresses in the work piece. Determine optimal shape of preform

Material Behavior

Determine material properties such as grain size Determine local hardness Predict material damage Predict phase changes and composition Simulate the influence of material selection

Tool Results

Determine the forming loads Determine the stresses in the tools Evaluate tool wear or fatigue Simulate the influence of lubrication Optimize multi-tool process

Simulation allows you to capture behavior that can not be readily measured providing deeper insight into your manufacturing processes

Damage Prediction - Chevroning


Multi-stage Hydraulic Press with Annealing

Transfer Press

Possible forming of laps and its prediction through simulation technique

Kinematics
Placing the workpiece Closing the tools Forming process Removal of the tools Extraction of the workpiece
Including spring-back

Subsequent cool-down

Flexible Tool Definition


Rigid Tools
Deformable Direct CAD NURB Description

Material Models

Elastic Plastic Rigid Plastic Material Database Isotropic hardening Cowper-Symonds

Power Laws Johnson-Cook Kumar Grain Size Prediction Phase Changes

Effects of Elasticity

Elasticity of Tools Prestressed Dies Residual Stresses Behavior of part during ejection or removal Determination of tolerances

Friction
Friction Influences:
load and energy requirements metal flow pressure distribution die wear

Friction Models
Coulomb friction plastic shear friction combination

User-extendable Database

Visualization

Tracking of Material Particles Flow Line Images Time History of Tool Forces Deformation of Workpiece Contour Plots of all Quantities

Material Cost Savings

The cost of NOT doing it right the first time?

Thank You!