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Process Design

Design: To design refers to the process of originating and developing a plan for a product, service or process. Process: Is any part of an organization which takes a set of input resources which are then used to transform something into outputs of products or services.

Process Design Process design


Processes that Design Products and Services
Concept Generation Screening Preliminary Design Evaluation and Improvement Prototyping and final design Layout and Flow

Processes that Produce Products and Services


Supply Network Design

Process Technology

Job Design

Nature of the design activity:


1) Design is inevitable products, services and the processes which produce them all have to be designed. 2) Product design influences process design decisions taken during the design of a product or service will have an impact on the decisions taken during the design of the process which produces those products or services and vice versa.

Product & services design are interrelated to its process design


Designing the Product or Service Products and services should be designed in such a way that they can be created effectively Designing the Processes that Produce the Product or Service Processes should be designed so they can create all products and services which the operation is likely to introduce

Decisions taken during the design of the product or service will have an impact on the process that produces them and vice versa

Process Design and Product/Service Design are Interrelated To commit to the detailed design of a product or service consideration must be given to how it is to be produced. Design of process can constrain the design of products and services. The overlap is greater in the service industry: Service industry - it is impossible to separate service design and process design they are the same thing. Manufacturing industry - it is possible to separate product design and process design but it is beneficial to consider them together because the design of products has a major effect on the cost of making them.

Process and product/service design must satisfy customer Products/services designer customers satisfaction criteria Aesthetically pleasing Reliability Meets expectation Inexpensive Quality Easy to manufacture and deliver Speedy Process designer customers satisfaction achieved through: Layout Location Process technology Human skills

The design activity is itself a process


TRANSFORMED RESOURCES Technical information Market information Time information

Finished designs which are: High quality: Error-free designs which fulfil their purpose in an effective and creative way Speedily produced: Designs which have moved from concept to detailed specification in a short time Dependably delivered: Designs which are delivered when promised Produced flexibly: Designs which include the latest ideas to emerge during the process Low cost: Designs produced without consuming excessive resources

INPUTS

THE DESIGN OUTPUT ACTIVITY

Test and design equipment Design and technical staff TRANSFORMING RESOURCES

Designing processes
Process mapping Process mapping symbols Improving processes Process performance Throughput, cycle time & work in process

Process mapping
Used to identify different types of activities. Shows the flow of material, people or information. Critical analysis of process maps can improve the process.

Process performance
Process performance can be judge against the five key performance objective: Quality Speed Dependability Flexibility Cost

Throughput, work content, cycle time, and work in process


Throughput the time for a unit to move through the process Work content the total amount of work required to produce a unit of output (measured in time) Cycle time The average time between units of output emerging form the process Work in process (WIP) unfinished items in a production process waiting for further processing e. g. when customers join a queue in a process they become WIP

throughput = work in process x cycle time

Process Types

Project Processes
One-off, complex, large scale, high work content products Specially made, every one customized Defined start and finish: time, quality and cost objectives Many different skills have to be coordinated Fixed position layout

Project Process

Jobbing Processes
Very small quantities: one-offs, or only a few required Specially made. High variety, low repetition. Skill requirements are usually very broad Skilled jobber, or team of jobbers complete whole product Fixed position or process layout (routing decided by jobbers)

Jobbing Process

Batch Processes
Higher volumes and lower variety than for jobbing Standard products, repeating demand. But can make specials Specialized, narrower skills Set-ups (changeovers) at each stage of production Process or cellular layout

Batch Process

Mass (Line) Processes


Higher volumes than Batch Standard, repeat products Low and/or narrow skills No set-ups, or almost instantaneous ones Cell or product layout

Mass Process

Continuous Process
Extremely high volumes and low variety: often single product Standard, repeat products Highly capital-intensive and automated Few changeovers required Difficult and expensive to start and stop the process Product layout: usually flow along conveyors or pipes

Continuous Process