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Object-Oriented Software Engineering

Practical Software Development using UML and Java

Chapter 11: Managing the Software Process

The most likely way for the world to be destroyed, most experts agree, is by accident. That's where we come in; we're computer professionals. We cause accidents."
Timing: 90 minutes

A lot of computer science people think: I dont want to code for the rest of my life. Maybe I would enjoy managing the project. What do you think are some of the tasks you would be doing if you were a project manager? Would you still code? Would you miss coding ? Is it important the project manager be able to code?

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11.1 What is Project Management?


Project management encompasses all the activities needed to plan and execute a project: Deciding what needs to be done Estimating costs Ensuring there are suitable people to undertake the project Defining responsibilities Scheduling Making arrangements for the work continued ...

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What is Project Management?


Directing Being a technical leader Reviewing and approving decisions made by others Building morale and supporting staff Monitoring and controlling Co-ordinating the work with managers of other projects Reporting Continually striving to improve the process

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Can you think of any Canadian software projects that have gone horribly wrong?
Gun Registry In Canada
http://www.cbc.ca/news/story/2004/02/13/gunregistry_rdi040213.html

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11.2 Software Process Models


Software process models are general approaches for organizing a project into activities. Help the project manager and his or her team to decide: What work should be done; In what sequence to perform the work. The models should be seen as aids to thinking, not rigid prescriptions of the way to do things. Each project ends up with its own unique plan.

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The opportunistic approach

First Prototype

Modify Until Satisf ied

Thin k of Idea f or Improvement

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The opportunistic approach


is what occurs when an organization does not follow good engineering practices. It does not acknowledge the importance of working out the requirements and the design before implementing a system. The design of software deteriorates faster if it is not well designed. Since there are no plans, there is nothing to aim towards. There is no explicit recognition of the need for systematic testing and other forms of quality assurance. The above problems make the cost of developing and maintaining software very high.

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The waterfall model

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The waterfall model


The classic way of looking at S.E. that accounts for the importance of requirements, design and quality assurance. The model suggests that software engineers should work in a series of stages. Before completing each stage, they should perform quality assurance (verification and validation). The waterfall model also recognizes, to a limited extent, that you sometimes have to step back to earlier stages.

QUESTION: What is wrong with getting all the requirements completed upfront (like I have done for you with our project)?
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Limitations of the waterfall model


The model implies that you should attempt to complete a given stage before moving on to the next stage Does not account for the fact that requirements constantly change. It also means that customers can not use anything until the entire system is complete. The model makes no allowances for prototyping. It implies that you can get the requirements right by simply writing them down and reviewing them. The model implies that once the product is finished, everything else is maintenance.
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The phased-release model

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The phased-release model


It introduces the notion of incremental development. After requirements gathering and planning, the project should be broken into separate subprojects, or phases. Each phase can be released to customers when ready. Parts of the system will be available earlier than when using a strict waterfall approach. However, it continues to suggest that all requirements be finalized at the start of development.

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The spiral model

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The spiral model


It explicitly embraces prototyping and an iterative approach to software development. Start by developing a small prototype. Followed by a mini-waterfall process, primarily to gather requirements. Then, the first prototype is reviewed. In subsequent loops, the project team performs further requirements, design, implementation and review. The first thing to do before embarking on each new loop is risk analysis. Maintenance is simply a type of on-going development.
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The evolutionary model

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The evolutionary model


It shows software development as a series of hills, each representing a separate loop of the spiral. Shows that loops, or releases, tend to overlap each other. Makes it clear that development work tends to reach a peak, at around the time of the deadline for completion. Shows that each prototype or release can take different amounts of time to deliver; differing amounts of effort.

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The concurrent engineering model

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The concurrent engineering model


It explicitly accounts for the divide and conquer principle. Each team works on its own component, typically following a spiral or evolutionary approach. There has to be some initial planning, and periodic integration.

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Choosing a process model


From the waterfall model: Incorporate the notion of stages. From the phased-release model: Incorporate the notion of doing some initial high-level analysis, and then dividing the project into releases. From the spiral model: Incorporate prototyping and risk analysis. From the evolutionary model: Incorporate the notion of varying amounts of time and work, with overlapping releases. From the concurrent engineering: Incorporate the notion of breaking the system down into components and developing them in parallel.
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AGILE Method and XP (Extreme Programming)


Question: Has anyone heard of the Agile methodology? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agile_software_development

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Reengineering
Periodically project managers should set aside some time to re-engineer part or all of the system The extent of this work can vary considerably: Cleaning up the code to make it more readable. Completely replacing a layer. Re-factoring part of the design. In general, the objective of a re-engineering activity is to increase maintainability.

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11.3 Cost estimation


To estimate how much software-engineering time will be required to do some work. Elapsed time The difference in time from the start date to the end date of a task or project. Development effort The amount of labour used in person-months or person-days. To convert an estimate of development effort to an amount of money:
You multiply it by the weighted average cost (burdened cost) of employing a software engineer for a month (or a day).
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Question
Assume that I gave your group the task of figuring out how much time you needed to code your project because you were going sell it online. What are some techniques/ideas/concerns/thoughts you have for estimating the timing of a large project?

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Principles of effective cost estimation


Principle 1: Divide and conquer. To make a better estimate, you should divide the project up into individual subsystems. Then divide each subsystem further into the activities that will be required to develop it. Next, you make a series of detailed estimates for each individual activity. And sum the results to arrive at the grand total estimate for the project.

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Principles of effective cost estimation


Principle 2: Include all activities when making estimates. The time required for all development activities must be taken into account. Including:
Prototyping Design Inspecting Testing Debugging Writing user documentation Deployment.
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Principles of effective cost estimation


Principle 3: Base your estimates on past experience combined with knowledge of the current project. If you are developing a project that has many similarities with a past project: You can expect it to take a similar amount of work. Base your estimates on the personal judgement of your experts or Use algorithmic models developed in the software industry as a whole by analyzing a wide range of projects. They take into account various aspects of a projects size and complexity, and provide formulas to compute anticipated cost.
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Algorithmic models
Allow you to systematically estimate development effort. Based on an estimate of some other factor that you can measure, or that is easier to estimate: The number of use cases The number of distinct requirements The number of classes in the domain model The number of widgets in the prototype user interface An estimate of the number of lines of code

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Algorithmic models
A typical algorithmic model uses a formula like the following: COCOMO: E = a + bNc

Functions Points:
S = W1F1 + W2F2 +W3F3 +

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Principles of effective cost estimation


Principle 4: Be sure to account for differences when extrapolating from other projects. Different software developers Different development processes and maturity levels Different types of customers and users Different schedule demands Different technology Different technical complexity of the requirements Different domains Different levels of requirement stability

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Principles of effective cost estimation


Principle 5: Anticipate the worst case and plan for contingencies. Develop the most critical use cases first If the project runs into difficulty, then the critical features are more likely to have been completed Make three estimates: Optimistic (O)
- Imagining a everything going perfectly

Likely (L)
- Allowing for typical things going wrong

Pessimistic
- Accounting for everything that could go wrong
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Principles of effective cost estimation


Principle 6: Combine multiple independent estimates. Use several different techniques and compare the results. If there are discrepancies, analyze your calculations to discover what factors causing the differences. Use the Delphi technique. Several individuals initially make cost estimates in private. They then share their estimates to discover the discrepancies. Each individual repeatedly adjusts his or her estimates until a consensus is reached.

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Principles of effective cost estimation


Principle 7: Revise and refine estimates as work progresses As you add detail. As the requirements change. As the risk management process uncovers problems.

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11.4 Building Software Engineering Teams


Software engineering is a human process. Choosing appropriate people for a team, and assigning roles and responsibilities to the team members, is therefore an important project management skill Software engineering teams can be organized in many different ways

a) Egol ess

b) Chi ef p ro grammer

c) Stri ct hi erarchy

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Software engineering teams


Egoless team: In such a team everybody is equal, and the team works together to achieve a common goal. Decisions are made by consensus. Most suited to difficult projects with many technical challenges.

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Software engineering teams


Hierarchical manager-subordinate structure: Each individual reports to a manager and is responsible for performing the tasks delegated by that manager. Suitable for large projects with a strict schedule where everybody is well-trained and has a well-defined role. However, since everybody is only responsible for their own work, problems may go unnoticed.

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Software engineering teams


Chief programmer team: Midway between egoless and hierarchical. The chief programmer leads and guides the project. He or she consults with, and relies on, individual specialists.

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Choosing an effective size for a team


For a given estimated development effort, in person months, there is an optimal team size. Doubling the size of a team will not halve the development time. Subsystems and teams should be sized such that the total amount of required knowledge and exchange of information is reduced. For a given project or project iteration, the number of people on a team will not be constant. You can not generally add people if you get behind schedule, in the hope of catching up.
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Skills needed on a team


Architect Project manager Configuration management and build specialist User interface specialist Technology specialist Hardware and third-party software specialist User documentation specialist Tester

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11.5 Project Scheduling and Tracking


Scheduling is the process of deciding: In what sequence a set of activities will be performed. When they should start and be completed. Tracking is the process of determining how well you are sticking to the cost estimate and schedule.

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Some Basic Project Management Terminology


Deliverable: some concrete thing which is to be delivered, to the client or internally to the development team; e.g.
Specifications reports Executable program Source code

Task/Activity: something we have to do during the project; e.g.


Defining user requirements Coding a module Doing system testing

Each task or activity will take some length of time


Referred to as duration of task Sometimes measured in days, weeks, etc. Sometimes measured in person-days, person-weeks, etc. Person-day = number of people X number of days Example: 12 person days for writing all code could mean 1 person 12 days or 4 people 3 days Note: not always true that a task that takes 1 programmer 12 days would take 12 programmers 1 day
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Dependencies and Milestones


For a given task or activity, may be impossible to start it without some other task(s) or activity(ies) having been completed; e.g. Cannot start coding without completing design Cannot start system testing without completing code integration and test plan If task B cannot start without A being completed, we say B depends on A There is a dependency between A and B Milestone: some achievement which must be made during the project; e.g. Delivering some deliverable Completing some task Note, delivering a deliverable may be a milestone, but not all milestones are associated with deliverables

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Setting and Making Deadlines


Deadline time by which milestone has to be met Some deadlines are set by the client Others are set by us on project to make sure project stays on track To set a deadline for completing task T, we must consider how long it will take to: Complete the tasks that task T depends on Complete task T itself If we miss a deadline, we say (euphemistically) the deadline has slipped This is virtually inevitable Important tasks for project managers Monitor whether past deadlines have slipped Monitor whether future deadlines are going to slip Allocate or reallocate resources to help make deadlines PERT chart and Gantt charts help project managers do these things (among others)
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PERT Charts
PERT = Project Evaluation and Review Technique PERT chart = graphical representation of the scheduling of events in a project 6 Sample PERT Chart: 3

0 0

A 4

4 4

B 2 C 3 4

10

E 3

A PERT chart is a graph Edges are tasks/activities that need to be done Nodes are the events or milestones Task edge T from event node E1 to event node E2 signifies: Until event E1 happens, task T cannot be started Until task T finishes, event E2 cannot happen Events often simply represent completion of tasks associated with arrows entering it
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D 3

10 5 10

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PERT Chart Task Edges


Parts of a task/activity edge Task letter D 5

Task duration Task letter: Often keyed to a legend to tell which task it represents Task duration = how long (e.g. days, hours) task will take

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PERT Chart Event Nodes

Event Number:
Sequence number assigned Only task edges indicate dependencies 5 Earliest Completion Time (ECT): 9

19

Earliest time this event can be achieved, given durations and dependencies

Latest Completion Time (LCT):


Latest time that this event could be safely achieved
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Building a PERT Chart


Steps:
1. 2.
3. 4. 5. 6.

Make a list of all project tasks (and events if possible). Find interrelated task dependencies (what task has to be completed before other tasks) Draw initial PERT without durations, ECTs or LCTs Estimate duration of each task Fill in durations Calculate ECTs and LCTs

We will do this for an example system: Generic software system with 3 modules
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Example: Generic Software Project


TASK ID A B C D E F G H I J Task Description Specification High Level Design Detailed Design Code/Test Main module Code/Test DB module Code/Test UI module Write test plan Integrate/System Test Write User Manual Typeset User Manual

To start PERT chart: identify dependencies between tasks


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Dummy Tasks
Sometimes it is necessary to use dummy tasks:

Shows the dependency between 2 events where no activity is performed


Example:

Events 3, 4 signify the compilation of separate modules. Create an event 5 to signify all modules compiled together.
Denote dummy tasks using dash lines

9 10 5 9

T 3

12

4
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Example: Tasks with Dependencies


To start the PERT, identify the dependencies amongst tasks
TASK ID A B C D E F G Task Description Specification High Level Design Detailed Design Code/Test Main Code/Test DB Code/Test UI Write test plan Dummy Task Dummy Task Dummy Task Integrate/System Test Write User Manual Typeset User Manual Preceed ID 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 5 6 7 8 8 10 Succ. ID 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 8 8 9 10 9
50

H I J
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Software Example: Skeleton PERT Chart


D 1 A 2 B 3 C 4 E 6 5 H

F
7 G

I
1

Note: dummy tasks connecting events 5, 6 and 7 to 8


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Estimating Durations
Suggestions for estimating durations of tasks:

Dont just make up a number Look at previous similar tasks from other projects and use those as guidelines Try to identify factors such as difficulty, skill level

Each weighting factor will help you make a better estimate


Factors to consider:

Difficulty of task Size of team Experience of team Number, attitude and availability of end users Management commitment Other projects in progress

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Estimating Durations contd


Technique to estimate duration methodically: Estimate minimum amount of time required to do task

This is called optimistic time (OT) OT assumes no illnesses or interruptions will occur This is called pessimistic time (PT) PT assumes anything that can go wrong will go wrong (everything!)

Estimate maximum amount of time required

Estimate most likely time (MLT) Calculate expected duration (ED) as: ED = (OT +(4*MLT) +PT) /6 What will be the estimated duration of task E with the following information:

OT = 4 days (optimistic time to complete task E) PT = 14 days (pessimistic time to complete task E) MLT = 6 days (most likely time to complete task E) What will be the estimated duration of Task E? Answer: __________

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PERT Chart With Durations


D 5 7 H 5 9 2I J 1

A 2 3

B
2

C 4 2

E 6 6
F 3

7
G 2

Say we have estimated durations of all tasks (in days)

New PERT chart, with durations filled in:


Note, dummy tasks (dashed lines) always have a duration of zero
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Calculating ECTs

ECT = earliest time event can be completed To calculate: For an event not depending on others: ECT = 0 Usually this is the first event For an event E depending on one or more others: Calculate ECTs of event(s) that E depends on Add duration(s) of task(s) leading to E If E depends on more than one event, take MAX Proceed left to right ( ) through the chart Exercise: calculate the ECT for our example.

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Calculating LCT
LCT = latest time event can be completed, while still finishing last ask at indicated time To calculate: For an event which no other events depend on: LCT = ECT Generally there will only be one such event For an event E which one or more others depend on: Calculate LCTs of event(s) that depend on E Subtract duration(s) of task(s) leading from E If more than one event depends on E, take MINIMUM Proceed right to left ( ) through PERT chart Exercise: calculate LCT for our example

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Critical Path

Red line is the critical path What does it represent?

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Uses of PERT Charts

We can use PERT charts for: Determining the estimated time to complete a project Deriving actual project dates Allocating resources Identifying potential and current problems (is one task behind schedule?, can we shuffle people?) Critical Path: Path through chart such that if any deadline slips, the final deadline slips (where all events have ECT = LCT (usually there is only one) In software example: Task I is not on the critical path: even if we dont finish it until time 18, were still okay Task D is on the critical path: if we dont finish it until for example, time 16, then: We cant start task H (duration 3) until time 16 So we cant complete task H until time 21 We can use PERT charts for Identifying the critical path Reallocating resources, e.g. from non-critical to critical tasks.
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PERT Chart Exercise


Task
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
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Prec Tasks Description


none A A C D D E F H, G B J, I K K L M decide on date for party book bouncy castle send invitations receive replies buy toys and balloons buy food blow up balloons make food decorate get bouncy castle have party clean up send back bouncy castle send thank you letters donate unwanted gifts
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Time(hrs)
1 1 4 7 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 4 1 3 3
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PERT Chart Exercise


Draw the PERT chart for the preceding slide and identify the critical path

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Gantt Charts
Graphical Representation of a schedule Helps to plan, coordinate and track specific tasks in a project Named after Henry Gantt who invented them in 1917 Depicts some of the same information as on a PERT chart Also depicts new information

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Example Gantt Chart


TASKS A Study current email system B Define end-user requirements C Design Class diagram D Acquire computer technology E Plan & code email modules F Acceptance test new system G Deliver new system

Questions: From the above, can you guess:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Today

Which, if any, tasks should have been completed by today and arent even started? ______ Which, if any, tasks have been completed? ______ Which, if any, tasks have been completed ahead of schedule:? ______ Which, if any, tasks are on or ahead of schedule? _________ Which, if any, tasks are behind schedule? ________
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Building and Using a Gantt Chart


Steps for building a Gantt Chart

1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

Identify the tasks to be scheduled Determine the durations of each task List each task down the vertical axis of chart 1. In general, list tasks to be performed first at the top and then move downward as the tasks will happen Use horizontal axis for the dates Determine start and finish dates for activities 1. Consider which tasks must be completed or partially completed before the next task If the task has been completed, completely shade in the bar corresponding to the task If the task has been partially completed, shade in the percentage of the bar that represents the percentage of the task that has been completed Unshaded bars represents tasks that have not been started.
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To use the Gantt chart to report progress:

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Gantt Chart: Exercise


Task
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
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none A A C D D E F H, G B J, I K K L M decide on date for party book bouncy castle send invitations receive replies buy toys and balloons buy food blow up balloons make food decorate get bouncy castle have party clean up send back bouncy castle send thank you letters donate unwanted gifts
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Time(hrs)
1 1 4 7 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 4 1 3 3
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Gantt Chart: Exercise


Draw the Gantt chart using the following criteria: label hours 0 to 30 across the horizontal axis Mark a review stage at hour 14 to monitor the progress Assume and illustrate that tasks A, B, C and D have been completed at hour 14 State which tasks are ahead and which tasks are behind schedule NOTE: if you are using MS Project and want a different unit of time, just type 2 hours (instead of 2 days). ALSO, if you want to have a milestone, like Handing in Group Assignment 1, then give it a ZERO duration.

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Your Gantt chart:

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PERT vs. Gantt


PERT chart

All us to show dependencies explicitly Allow us to calculate critical path Can tell us how one task falling behind affects other tasks
Gantt charts

Allow us to record progress of project Allow us to see what tasks are falling behind Allow us to represent overlapping tasks
Project Management Tools, e.g. MS Project

Allow us to specify tasks, dependencies, etc Allow us to specify progress on tasks, etc Can generate either PERT or Gantt charts (whichever we want) from data entered
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Bouncy Castle PERT Example using MS Project

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Bouncy Castle Gantt Example using MS Project

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11.7 Difficulties and Risks in Project Management


Accurately estimating costs is a constant challenge Follow the cost estimation guidelines. It is very difficult to measure progress and meet deadlines Improve your cost estimation skills so as to account for the kinds of problems that may occur. Develop a closer relationship with other members of the team. Be realistic in initial requirements gathering, and follow an iterative approach. Use earned value charts to monitor progress.

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Difficulties and Risks in Project Management


It is difficult to deal with lack of human resources or technology needed to successfully run a project When determining the requirements and the project plan, take into consideration the resources available. If you cannot find skilled people or suitable technology then you must limit the scope of your project.

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Difficulties and Risks in Project Management


Communicating effectively in a large project is hard Take courses in communication, both written and oral. Learn how to run effective meetings. Review what information everybody should have, and make sure they have it. Make sure that project information is readily available. Use groupware technology to help people exchange the information they need to know

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Difficulties and Risks in Project Management


It is hard to obtain agreement and commitment from others Take courses in negotiating skills and leadership. Ensure that everybody understands
- The position of everybody else. - The costs and benefits of each alternative. - The rationale behind any compromises.

Ensure that everybodys proposed responsibility is clearly expressed. Listen to everybodys opinion, but take assertive action, when needed, to ensure progress occurs.
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Review
Draw a PERT Chart for the following activities: Activity A B C D Description Drive home Wash Clothes Pack Go to bank Predecessor None A B A Estimated Time 0.5 4.0 0.5 1.0

E
F G

Pay bill
Pack car Drive to bus

D
C,E F

0.5
0.5 0.5

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