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# Bandpass Modulation

## Coherent and Non-coherent Detection

What is bandpass modulation?
Baseband modulation
The form of shaped pulses
Bandpass modulation
The shaped pulses modulate a sinusoid, called a carrier
wave or a carrier
Types
Phase shift keying
Frequency shift keying
Amplitude shift keying
Continuous phase modulation
Hybrid
Why using a carrier?
The carrier converts to an electromagnetic field for
propagation through antennas
The size of the antenna depends on the wavelength
Ex: Cellular telephone, antenna size /4
cm
MHz f
miles m
m
Hz f
s m c
f
c
8
4
10 900 / 10 0 . 3
be might size antenna The
, 900 carrier a With
15 10 5 . 2
4
be might size antenna The
10
3000
10 0 . 3
, 3000 signal Baseband
/ 10 0 . 3 , Wavelength
6 8
4
5
8
8
~

=
~ =
=

=
=
= =

Sinusoidal Waveforms
The general form of the carrier wave
) ( cos ) ( ) ( t t A t s u =
Time-varying amplitude Time-varying angle
| | ) ( cos ) ( ) (
0
t t t A t s | e + =
Phase
Coherent vs. non-coherent
With/without the knowledge of the carriers phase to detect the signals
Complexity vs. performance
Phase Shift Keying (PSK)
| |
M
i
t
M i T t t t
T
E
t s
i
i i
t
|
| e
2
) (
,... 2 , 1 , 0 , ) ( cos
2
) (
0
=
= s s + =
duration symbol : energy symbol : T E
Waveform Vector
s
2
s
1
M=2
T T T
Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
| | M i T t t
T
E
t s
i i
,... 2 , 1 , 0 , cos
2
) ( = s s + = | e
duration symbol : energy symbol : T E
Waveform Vector
s
2
s
1
M=3
s
3
T T T
Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
Orthogonal signals in FSK
Not all FSK signaling is orthogonal
Example: f1=10000Hz, f2=11000Hz, are they
orthogonal??
To meeting the criterion the spacing between
the tones [on page 202, example 4.3]
A frequency separation is a multiple of 1/T Hz
The minimum requirement spacing for noncoherent
detection is 1/T
The minimum requirement spacing for coherent
detection is 1/(2T)
( ) M i T t t
T
t E
t s
i
i
,... 2 , 1 , 0 , cos
) ( 2
) (
0
= s s + = | e
Waveform Vector
s
2
s
1
M=2
T T T
Hybrid -- Amplitude Phase Keying
( ) M i T t t t
T
t E
t s
i
i
i
,... 2 , 1 , 0 , ) ( cos
) ( 2
) (
0
= s s + = | e
Waveform Vector
T
T
T
M=8
Where are we?!
Format Pulse modulation Bandpass modulation
Format
Demodulation, sampling and detection
Coherent Detection
1. Coherent Detection of PSK
Coherent detection requires the phase information
A coherent detector operates by mixing the incoming data signal
with a locally generated carrier reference and selecting the
difference component from the mixer output

Multiplying r(t) by the receiver local oscillator (LO)
(say A cos(
c
t)) yields a signal with a baseband component
plus a component at 2f
c
The LPF eliminates the high frequency component
The output of the LPF is sampled once per bit period
The sampled value z(T) is applied to a decision rule
z(T) is called the decision statistic
M i T t t n t s t r
i
... 2 , 1 , 0 ) ( ) ( ) ( = s s + =

Step 1: reduce r(t) to a single random variable z(T) or a set
of RVs z
i
(T)

Step 2: a symbol decision is made
on the basis of comparing z(T) to a threshold or
choosing the max z
i
(T)
Frequency Down-
conversion
Receiving
filter
Sampling at T
Equalizing
filter
Detection
Coherent Detection Binary Case
Use a single correlator
Use two correlators
Fig:
signals {s
i
(t)},
signals signals {
j
(t)}
The detector shown
in Figure can be
used for the coherent
detection of any
digital waveforms.

Such a correlating
detector is often
referred to as a
maximum likelihood
detector.
Coherent
Detection of PSK
Coherent Detection Decision
0
2 1
2
0
2
0
2
2
0
1
0
1
2
) (
2
1
exp
2
1
) | (
2
1
exp
2
1
) | (

o
t o
o
t o
=
+
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
>
<
a a
T z
a z
s z p
a z
s z p
Conditional
probability functions
o
0
2
:

Noise variance
o
0
: standard deviation
Coherent Detection PSK
Review
The information is contained in the instantaneous
phase of the modulated carrier
For a binary PSK: 0 and 180 are used
In fact, PSK can be views as ASK signal with the
bipolar carrier amplitudes
The ideal detector requires perfect knowledge of
the un-modulated carrier phase at the receiver
Consider the following binary PSK (BPSK) example.
Let
Coherent Detection of PSK
and
Assuming for this antipodal case, only a single basis
function is needed.
Coherent Detection of PSK
Thus, we may express the transmitted signals s
i
(t) in
terms of
1
(t) and the coefficients a
i
(t) as follows:

Assume that s
i
(t) was transmitted. Then the expected
values of the product integrators in above Figure (b),
with reference signal
1
(t), are found as
Coherent Detection of PSK
Coherent Detection of PSK
Coherent Detection -Summary
Binary PSK (BPSK)
( )
( ) ( ) T t t
T
E
t
T
E
t s
T t t
T
E
t s
s s + = + + =
s s + =
0 , cos
2
cos
2
) (
0 , cos
2
) (
0 0 2
0 1
| e t | e
| e
( )
) ( ) ( ) ( & ) ( ) ( ) (
cos
2
) ( : function basis a Assuming
1 1 21 2 1 1 11 1
0 1
t E t a t s t E t a t s
t
T
t
+ = + = + = + =
= + e
( )
{ } { }
{ } { } E dt t t n t E E s z E
E dt t t n t E E s z E
t
T
t
T
T
= + + + =
= + + + =
= +
}
}
0
1
2
1 1 2
0
1
2
1 1 1
0 1
) ( ) ( ) ( |
) ( ) ( ) ( |
cos
2
) ( reference with the z(T) of value expected The e
Coherent Detection
Sampled Matched Filter
Coherent Detection
Sampled Matched Filter
o The basic function of a correlator is to product-integrate
the received noisy signal with each of the candidate
reference signals and determine the best match.
o The schematics in these figures imply the use of analog
hardware (multipliers and integrators) and continuous
signals.
o They do not reflect the way that the correlator or
matched filter (MF) can be implemented using digital
techniques and sampled waveforms.
o Figure (below) shows how an MF can be implemented
using digital hardware.

Coherent Detection
Sampled Matched Filter
o The input signal r(t) comprises a prototype signal s
i
(t),
plus noise n(t), and the bandwidth of the signal is
W=1/2T, where T is the symbol time.
o Thus, the minimum Nyquist sampling rate is
W=2W=1/T, and the sampling time T
s
needs to be equal
to or less than the symbol time.
o In other words, there must be at least one sample per
symbol. In real systems, such sampling is usually
performed at a rate that exceeds the Nyquist minimum by
a factor of 4 or more.
o The only cost is processor speed, not transmission
bandwidth.

Coherent Detection
Nyquist rate
Sampling time needs to
be equal to or less than the symbol time
Shift to the register
Fig (a): Sampled Matched Filter
| | ) 3 ( ) 1 ( ) ( n s n N s n c
i i i
= =
{ }

=
=
=
1
0
1
0
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
K
n
i i i
N
n
i i
n c n k s k z E
n c n k r k z
Fig (b):
Sampled Matched Filter Detection Example,
Neglecting Noise
Coherent Detection
Sampled Matched Filter
where the index i identifies a particular symbol out of
the M-ary set (binary in this example), and k is
sampling-time index
Coherent Detection
Sampled Matched Filter
Coherent Detection
Sampled Matched Filter
o The set of filters weights [c
i
(n)] constitutes the filter
impulse response; the weights are matched to signal
samples according to the discrete form of equation

as follows:

o By using the discrete form of the convolution integral,
the output at a time corresponding to the k
th
sample can
be expressed as

Coherent Detection
Sampled Matched Filter
o If we assume that the noise has a zero mean, so that the
expected value of a received sample is

o Thus, if s
i
(t) is transmitted, the expected matched filter
output is

Coherent Detection
Sampled Matched Filter
o Under the condition that s
1
noise is neglected, we combine Equations
and
and
o Since z
1
(k=3) is greater than z
2
(k=3), the detector
chooses s
1
(1) as the transmitted symbol.
Example 4.1:
Consider the waveform set s
1
(t)=At and s
2
(t)=-At,
t=[0,T] where k=0,1,2,3. Illustrate how a sampled
matched filter can be used to detect a received signal
from this sawtooth waveform set in the absence of
noise.
Coherent Detection
Difference between MF and Correlators
If the timing of the MF and correlators are aligned, their
outputs at the end of symbol time are identical
MF: A new output value is available in response to each
new input sample; Equated to several correlators
operating at different starting points of the input time
series
Correlators: Computes an output once per symbol time
performance

Coherent Detection
Figure (below) illustrates the signal space for a multiple
phase-shift keying (MPSK) signal set; the figure describes
a four-level (4-ary PSK or quadriphase shift keying
(QPSK) example (M=4).
Coherent Detection of Multiple Phase-Shift Keying
At the transmitter, binary
digits are collected two at
a time, and for each
symbol interval, the two
sequential digits instruct
the modulator as to which
of the four waveforms to
produce.

Coherent Detection
For typical coherent M-ary PSK (MPSK) system, s
i
(t) can
be expressed as
Coherent Detection of Multiple Phase-Shift Keying
and

we can choose a convenient set of axes, such as
Coherent Detection
For typical coherent M-ary PSK (MPSK) system, s
i
(t) can
be expressed as
Coherent Detection of Multiple Phase-Shift Keying
and

we can choose a convenient set of axes, such as
Coherent Detection
where the amplitude has been chosen to normalize the
expected output of the detector.
Coherent Detection of Multiple Phase-Shift Keying
and
Now s
1
(t) can be written in terms of these orthogonal
coordinates, giving
Coherent Detection
Coherent Detection of Multiple Phase-Shift Keying
Notice that above equation describes a set of M multiple
phase waveforms (intrinsically nonorthogonal) in terms
of only two orthogonal carrier-wave components.
The M=4 (QPSK) case is unique among MPSK signal
sets in the sense that the QPSK waveform set is
represented by a combination of antipodal and orthogonal
members.
The decision boundaries partition the signal space into
M=4 region; the construction is similar to the procedure
as for M=2.
Coherent Detection
Coherent Detection of Multiple Phase-Shift Keying
The decision rule for the detector (as shown in Figure) is
to decide that s
1
(t) was transmitted if the received signal
vector falls in region 2, and so on.
In other words, the decision rule is to choose the i
th

waveform if z
i
(T) is the largest of the correlator outputs.
Coherent Detection
Coherent Detection of Multiple Phase-Shift Keying
The form of the correlator (shown below) implies that there
are always M product correlators used for the demodulation
of MPSK signals.
The figure infers that for each of the M branches, a reference
signal with the appropriate phase shift is configured.
Coherent Detection
Coherent Detection of Multiple Phase-Shift Keying
In practice, the implementation of an MPSK demodulator
follows Figure (as below) requiring only N=2 product
integrators regardless of the size of the signal set M.
Coherent Detection
Coherent Detection of Multiple Phase-Shift Keying
The savings in implementation is possible because any
arbitrary integrable waveform set can be expressed as a
linear combination of orthogonal waveforms.
Figure (below) illustrates such a demodulator.
Coherent Detection
Coherent Detection of Multiple Phase-Shift Keying
And the lower correlator computes
Coherent Detection
Coherent Detection of Multiple Phase-Shift Keying
The received signal r(t) can be expressed by combining
equations
and
as
Coherent Detection
Coherent Detection of Multiple Phase-Shift Keying
Figure:
of a received signal vector r
Coherent Detection
Coherent Detection of Multiple Phase-Shift Keying
Coherent Detection
Multiple Phase-Shift Keying
|
.
|

\
|
=
M
i
t
T
E
t s
i
t
e
2
cos
2
) (
0
) (
2
sin ) (
2
cos
) ( ) ( ) (
sin
2
) ( & cos
2
) ( : Choose
2 1
2 2 1 1
0 2 0 1
t
M
i
E t
M
i
E
t a t a t s
t
T
t t
T
t
i i i
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ + + =
= + = +
t t
e e
Coherent Detection Multiple PSK
Inphase component
Noise estimate of the transmitted |
Probability of Bit Error
for Coherently Detected BPSK
Detection rule:
otherwise ) (
0
2
if ) (
2
2 1
0 1
t s
a a
z(T) t s =
+
= >
Two types of errors:
}
}

=
=
0
0
) | ( ) | (
) | ( ) | (
2 2
1 1
r
r
dz s z p s e P
dz s z p s e P
Probability of Bit Error
for Coherently Detected BPSK
) ( ) | ( ) ( ) | (
2 2 1 1
s P s e P s P s e P P
B
+ =
A priori probability (equally likely)
( )
( )
dz
a z
dz s z p s e P s e P P
a a r
a a r
B
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= = =
}
}

+ =

+ =
2
0
2
2 /
0
2 /
2 2 1
2
1
exp
2
1
) | ( ) | ( ) | (
2 1 0
2 1 0
o
t o
( ) |
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
}
=
=
0 0
2 1
2
2 /
0 2
2
2 2
exp
2
1
/ ) (
0 2 1
N
E
Q
a a
Q du
u
P
a z u Let
b
u
a a u
B
o
t
o
o
Q function: complementary error function/co-error function
The standard deviation of the noise
2 / variance noise the :
0
2
0
N o
Probability of Bit Error
for Binary Coherent Signals
In general, the BER becomes
vectors signal between angle the :
signals o between tw t coefficien n correlatio - cross time The cos
) 1 (
2
exp
2
1
0
/ ) 1 (
2
0
u
u

t

=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
}

N
E
Q du
u
P
b
N E
B
b
Binary PSK: 1 = = t u
Binary FSK: 0 2 / = = t u
OOK:
0 2 / = = t u
Example:
Find the expected number of bit errors made in one day for a
BPSK system with a bit rate of 5000 bps. The received
waveforms and are
coherently detected with a matched filter. The value
of A is 1mV. Assume that the single-sided noise
power spectral density is
and that signal power and energy per bit are
normalized relative to 1 ohm load.
t A t s
0 1
cos ) ( e = t A t s
0 2
cos ) ( e =
Hz w N / 10
11
0

=
Special Case Detection
Case 1: signal energy is different

Case 2: the decision threshold is not at the middle point
} }

+ =
0
0
) | (
2
1
) | (
2
1
2 1
r
r
B
dz s z p dz s z p P
Example
NonCoherent Detection
Differential PSK (DPSK)
The procedure of encoding the data differentially
No attempt is made to determine the actual value of the
phase of the incoming signal
| |
| | ) ( ) ( cos
2
) (
... 2 , 1 , 0 , ) ( cos
2
) (
t n t t
T
E
t r
M i T t t t
T
E
t s
i o
i o i
+ + + =
= s s + =
o u e
u e
Typically assumed as a random variable uniformly distributed between zero and 2t
NonCoherent Detection cont.
Detection of Differential PSK (DPSK)
Matched filters are not possible less efficient
The carrier phase of the previous signaling interval can be
used as a phase reference
The detector calculates the coordinate of the incoming
signal by correlating it with locally generated waveforms
The detector then measures the angle between the currently
vector

NonCoherent Detection Binary DPSK
) ( ) 1 ( ) (
) ( ) 1 ( ) (

=
=
k m k c k c
k m k c k c
0111011011
01110110111
NonCoherent Detection Binary DPSK
Optimal: requires a reference carrier in frequency
but not necessarily in phase with the received carrier
Complex envelope: inphase component and quadrature component of the carrier wave
| || | { }
t t y t t x
t j t t jy t x t s
e e
e e
sin ) ( cos ) (
) sin cos ) ( ) ( Re ) (
=
+ + =
Example
The bit stream 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 is to be transmitted
using DPSK modulation. Show the encoded message
(first bit is 1) and the detected message.
) ( ) 1 ( ) (
) ( ) 1 ( ) (

=
=
k m k c k c
k m k c k c
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1
1
1
0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0
1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Example
When cables are installed in a building, it is not
unusual for the engineers to get the connections of the
twisted pair reversed. How can a binary signaling
scheme be designed to cope with this eventuality and
maintain correct polarity data transfer?

Probability of Bit Error
for Binary DPSK
The decision is based on the phase difference
( )
( ) T t t
T
E
t x
T t t
T
E
t x
s s + =
s s + =
0 cos
2
) (
0 cos
2
) (
0 2
0 1
t | e
| e
T t x x or x x t s
T t x x or x x t s
2 0 ) , ( ) , ( ) (
2 0 ) , ( ) , ( ) (
1 2 2 1 2
2 2 1 1 1
s s =
s s =
Probability of Bit Error
for Binary DPSK
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0
exp
2
1
N
E
P
b
B
Example
A DPSK transmitter can generate an average power
of 1 nW at the input to a receiver which has a noise
power density of 0.5 10
-12
Watts/Hz. If the symbol
rate is 100 symbols per second, what is the BER
performance for a DPSK decoder in the receiver?
Let us work on bandwidth again
A binary PSK modem is designed to work within a
bandwidth of 8 kHz. What is the maximum data rate
that can be delivered if a raised cosine filter with
a = 1 is used?

FSK Generation
FSK
The information contained in the frequency of the carrier

Insensitive to amplitude fluctuations in the channel
Generating FSK signals
Switching between distinct frequency sources
Voltage Controlled Oscillator
| | M i T t t
T
E
t s
i i
,... 2 , 1 , 0 , cos
2
) ( = s s + = | e
FSK Generation
Switching between distinct frequency sources

FSK Generation
Voltage Controlled Oscillator
FSK Generation
Symbol 1: e
c
+ e

Symbol 1: e
c
- e

Summing appropriate amount of an in-phase and quadrature version of the carrier signal
t
c
e cos t
c
e sin
Coherent FSK Detection
Decision: if the output from the mark filter is larger than that from the space
filter, a decision is made that a mark signal was transmitted.

A matched filter demodulator is optimum because its filters are matched to
the transmitted signal so that their response to the desired signal is maximized
with respect to their noise response.
NonCoherent Detection of FSK
Pass the signal through two bandpass filters turned to the two signal frequencies

Data can be recovered using an envelope detector [diode + smoothing filter]

Detect which has the larger output averaged over a symbol period
NonCoherent Detection of FSK
Phase-locked loop:
A voltage controlled oscillator: output frequency is proportional to the input voltage
A phase detector: produce a voltage output proportional to the phase difference
A loop filter: control the dynamics of the feedback circuit
A constant envelope modulation insensitive to
amplitude variation in the channel compatible with non-
linear transceivers
Detection is based on relative frequency changes does
not require absolute frequency accuracy in the channel
Less bandwidth efficiency
BER performance is worth than of PSK
Probability of Error
Example
What is the bit error probability for non-coherent
binary FSK for an Eb/N0 value of 10 dB? What
approximate Eb/N0 is required to achieve the same
BER performance of coherent FSK and PSK?
Example: page 240, 4.17
Consider that a BFSK domodulator/detector has s
synchronization error consisting of a time bias pT, where p is a
fraction of the symbol time T. In other words, the detection of
a symbol starts early (late) and concludes early (late) by an
amount pT. Assume equally likely signaling and perfect
frequency and phase synchronization.
Find the general expression for bit-error probability as a function of p.
If the received SNR is 9.6 dB and p=0.2, compute the value of
degraded BER due to the timing bias.
If one did not compensate for the timing bias in this example, how
much additional SNR must be provided in order to restore the BER that
exists when p=0.
Amplitude Shift Keying [not from the textbook]
The information contained in the amplitude of the carrier

On-off Keying: the simplest form of bandpass data
modulation

| | M i T t t
T
E
t s
i
i
,... 2 , 1 , 0 , cos
2
) ( = s s + = | e
Linear modulator: an ASK signal can be realized
using a mixer to multiply the carrier with the
baseband symbol stream
Switch
Binary ASK: switch to gate the carrier on and off, driven by the data
signal.
M-ary signals: with differing amplitudes to represent the required
number of symbol states
Non-linear process
Bandpass filtering method
Filter is needed after modulation
A high frequency modulated data signal can be eliminated
Baseband filtering method
Using the mixer-based approach the baseband data stream
can be pre-filtered using a low pass (root raised cosine)
filter
Non-Coherent Detection
Envelope detection: the information is conveyed in
the amplitude or envelope of the modulated carrier
signal
A diode rectifier and smoothing filter

Coherent Detection
By mixing the incoming data signal with a locally
generated carrier reference and selecting the
difference component from the mixer output.
Coherent vs. Non-Coherent
Phase or vector representation diagram

Case study: off state with noise
Non-coherent: envelope detection N
Coherent: N/2
Carrier Recovery
Method 1: send a reference signal along with the
data signal
Method 2: recover the carrier from the modulated
data signal
Phase-locked loop (PLL)
By locking an oscillator to the phase of
the incoming carrier when a carrier-on
symbol is sent, and holding this
oscillator phase when the carrier is off,
it is possible to produce the required
coherent reference.
Matched Filter
Matched filter
Baseband transmission
For optimizing the signal to noise ratio at the output of a
Assumption: if the coherent detection is used

A matched filter pair such as the
root raised cosine filters can thus
be used to shape the source and
Timing Recovery
Early-late gate synchronizer
The optimized filters are used Matched filter for
instance
One with a slightly advanced timing
reference
One with a slightly retarded timing
reference
Comparator: periodically compared
to see which is the larger
The optimum timing signal is
passed to a third data detector.
Example
A coherent ASK demodulator has a 5
o
error in its
locally generated carrier reference. What will be the
degradation in noise power immunity compared with
an ideal demodulator?
M-ary Bandpass Modulation*
Common knowledge
In principle, we can use any number of symbols for
converting digital information.
A practical limit on the number of states to be used: the
ability of receiving equipment to accurately resolve the
individual states
A practical limit on the number of states to be used: the
levels of noise and distortion introduced by the cannel and
by the Tx and Rx units
Example: telephone modem 1024 symbol states vs. cellular
systems two or four states
M-ary Bandpass Modulation
M-ary signaling review
The processor considers k bits at a time
The modulator produce one of M=2
k
waveforms
Does M-ary signaling improve the system
performance?
Error performance
Bandwidth performance

Mixer at TX: to multiply the carrier with the baseband signal
Coherent detection
Mixer at RX: to multiply the received signal with a locally generated carrier reference
Filter: to select the DC value
Performance
No opportunity to exploit orthogonally BER
performance +
Sensitivity to amplitude change
Need for reasonable linearity

Constellation diagram*
A representation of a signal modulated by a digital
modulation scheme
To display the signal as a two-dimensional scatter
diagram in the complex
Represents the possible symbols that may be selected
by a given modulation

M-ary FSK
Increasing the noise immunity to achieve reliable
date transmission
Possibility of using both orthogonal symbols or non-
orthogonal symbols
Example: an orthogonal 8-ary FSK set with a symbol rate
of 1200 symbols/sec for coherent detection 1000Hz,
1600Hz, 2200Hz, 2800Hz, 3400Hz, 4000Hz, 4600Hz, and
5200Hz (same staring phase)
M-ary FSK
Performance
M | BER performance | [cost: bandwidth]
PSK modulation scheme with four phase states
0, 90, 180, and 270
Twice the speed of BPSK in the same bandwidth
Modulator
Half the rate of the input data

Shape the data pulses in each channel
Continue
Demodulator
BER performance
Theoretical identical to that for BPSK
Differential QPSK
Detection
t/4 QPSK
Widely used in the majority of digital radio modems
Two identical constellations which are rotated by
45 ( / 4 radians) with respect to one another
reduces the phase-shifts from a maximum of 180,
but only to a maximum of 135 the filtered
QPSK signal never passes through zero
Offset QPSK
Staggering the input data streams to the two
quadrature BPSK modulators by half of symbol
period

Symbol Error Performance
How about bit error probability? [Less]

Probability of Symbol Error
Equally-likely coherently detected M-ary PSK

Differentially coherent detection of M-ary DPSK
( ) symbol per energy : log
sin
2
2 ) (
2
0
M E E
M N
E
Q M P
b s
s
E
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
~
t
|
|
.
|

\
|
~
M
N
E
Q M P
s
E
2
sin
2
2 ) (
0
t
Probability of Symbol Error
Equally likely coherently detected M-ary orthogonal
FSK

Equally likely noncoherently detected M-ary
orthogonal FSK
|
|
.
|

\
|
s
0
) 1 ( ) (
N
E
Q M M P
s
E
|
|
.
|

\
|

<

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

=
0
0
2
0
2
exp
2
1
) (
)! ( !
!
exp ) 1 ( exp
1
) (
N
E M
M P
j M j
M
j
M
jN
E
j
M
N
E
M
M P
s
E
s
M
j
j s
E
Bit Error Rate vs. Symbol Error Rate
For orthogonal signals

For multiple phase signals

1
2 /
1 2
2
1

=

M
M
P
P
k
k
E
B
M
P
P
E
B
2
log
~
Example: page 240, 4.12
Consider a 16-ary PSK system with symbol error
probability 10
-5
. A Gray code (binary) is used for the
symbol to bit assignment. What is the approximate
bit error probability?
For a 16-ary orthogonal FSK system.
( )
6 5
4
3 1
6
5
10 3 . 5 10
1 2
2
1 2
2
10 5 . 2
4
10

=
= = ~
E
k
k
B
E
B
P P
k
P
P
Gray code
A binary numbering system
two successive values differ in only one digit
Example: 00 01 11 10
Example: 000 001 011 010 110 111 101 100
Applications
Sensor: angle detection
Digital communication: error detection