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Chapter 13

and Teamwork
Interpersonal Communication

The verbal and nonverbal

interactions that occur in both
one-on-one and small-group
Communication Climate

• Represents the quality of

relationships that exist within an
• Reflects workers’ perceptions of
whether the organization trusts,
values, and respects employees
• Determines success in business
Positive Relationships

• Are built over time

• Require ongoing maintenance
• Include trust and respect as key
Conversation Process

• Greeting
• Introduction
• Exchange
• Summary
• Closing
Communication Styles

• Passive – gives priority to the

rights of others
• Aggressive – risks disregarding
the rights and feelings of others
• Assertive – respects the rights
and feelings of others and stands
up for the sender’s rights
Keys to Successful Face-to-
Face Conversations

• Carefully choose the location.

• Minimize interruptions.
• Speak effectively.
• Choose appropriate language.
More Keys to Successful Face-
to-Face Conversations
• Send clear, appropriate
nonverbal cues.
• Ask questions.
• Accommodate diversity.
• Listen with your ears and

• Closed-ended question –
designed to produce a one- or
two-word answer
• Open-ended question – requires
a longer answer and promotes a
Keys for Successful Telephone

• Use equipment and system

• Be businesslike.
• Be considerate.
Keys for Successful Social
Business Conversations

• Practice basic social

conversation rules.
• Choose appropriate topics.
• Observe social business
Relationship Repair

• Apologize.
• Acknowledge playing a part in
the failure.
• Engage in positive actions.
• Let go of the problem.

Communication to a person or
team of people regarding the
effect of their behavior on
another person, the organization,
the customer, or the team
Positive Feedback

• Is specific
• Is well timed; give as closely to
the event as possible
• Is sometimes overlooked
• Fosters more of the appreciated
Constructive Feedback
• Is not criticism
• Helps people understand where
they are in relation to
• Should be delivered without fear
of negative response
• Should be accepted with an open
Giving Constructive Feedback

• Be sure you have the authority to

critique the receiver.
• Have clear expectations.
• Address one relevant concern at a time.
• Check your facts.
• Provide feedback privately and calmly,
preferably face-to-face.
• Be specific and helpful.
Giving Constructive Feedback
• Use the you-viewpoint.
• Ensure feedback in one area does
not cloud judgments of other areas.
• Accept partial responsibility, if
• Be aware of verbal and nonverbal
• Allow the receiver time to process
and respond.
Receiving Constructive

• Accept the feedback.

• Seek more information.

• Arises from differences in
– Personalities
– Goals or expectations
– Values or beliefs
– Circumstances
– Facts
• May be constructive or
Four Responses to Conflict

• Accommodate
• Compromise
• Overpower
• Collaborate
Techniques for Handling

• Act promptly.
• Schedule a meeting.
• Use active listening.
• Communicate honestly.
Techniques for Handling

• Focus on the problem, not the

• Brainstorm solutions.
• Formalize the solution.
• Implement the solution and set a
date for follow-up.
Types of Teams

• Self-managed
• Process-improvement
• Cross-functional
• Virtual
Conditions for Effective Teams

• Communication must be open

and honest.
• The team must be cohesive.
• Growth should be fostered.
• Accomplishments must be
Keys for Effective Small Group
Meeting Leadership
• Determine the purpose of the
• Determine the purpose of each
• Plan the meeting agenda.
• Select and prepare the meeting
Keys for Effective Small Group
Meeting Leadership

• Lead the group discussion.

• Encourage appropriate
• Be time conscious.
• Resolve group conflicts.
• Maintain appropriate records.
Meeting Minutes May Include:

• Committee or organization name

• Date, time, and location of meeting
• List of those who attended
• Reference to approval of last
meeting’s minutes
• Chronological record of the meeting
• Time of adjournment
• Signature of the secretary and/or
Keys for Meeting Participation

• Prepare to participate.
• Participate appropriately.
• Listen effectively.
• Take thorough notes.
• Be courteous.
Virtual Teams and Technology

• E-mail and groupware

• Audio conferencing
• Videoconferencing
• Web-assisted technologies
• Electronic meetings
The Team Writing Process

• Plan

• Draft

• Finalize