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Universal Kimberlite Exploration System

Geometry of Kimberlites by Igor Kryvoshlyk

World Supply and Demand for Rough Diamonds

Production and Demand for Rough Diamonds

$60bn Production $50bn Demand





2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 2019 2021 2023 2025

Source: WWW Forecasts Ltd

Rough and Polished Prices

240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100
WWW Overall Rough Index Polished Prices Overall Index

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

WWW Diamond Forecasts Limited

Part 1. Continents Part 2. Kimberlite provinces Part 3. Kimberlite clusters Part 4. Geochemistry of kimberlites Part 5. Mathematical calculations of

kimberlite diamond grade

Geometry of Kimberlites
Part 1:


Worldwide distribution of kimberlites is not random (equatorial projection)

Cratons are the best areas for exploration for diamonds. However, cratons are huge. How to find the next diamond mine? What is the law of distribution of diamond mines on the Earth?

Major kimberlite provinces of Northern Hemisphere

(polar projection)
White Sea NWT


North Pole

Major volcanic provinces of Northern Hemisphere

(polar projection)

North Pole

Alaska the northernmost point of the Pacific Rim

Symmetry is a law of geometry

Plane of symmetry North Pole

There is a clear pentagonal symmetry within Northern Hemisphere: all five occurrences located at the same distance from North Pole and at the Arctic Circle.
Arctic Circle Axis of symmetry

Pentagonal symmetry can be found in the alive nature only. Crystalography does not recognize pentagonal symmetry

Apple shows pentamerism


Tetragonal symmetry in Southern Hemisphere

South Pacific the southernmost point of Pacific Rim Brazil Tropic of Capricorn makes 90 deg. angle with Arctic Circle Plane of symmetry which connects North and South

Antarctica, South Pole


Southern Africa

Tetragonal symmetry can be found in both: in minerals and in alive nature

Alliaria Petiolata

Vesuvianite from Jeffrey Mine, Qubec, Canada

Kimberlite/volcanic provinces of the Earth

(Polar projection of both hemispheres on transparent globe)

Equatorial projection of both hemispheres

Arctic Circle (upper red line), Tropic of Capricorn (lower red line), plane of symmetry (red broken line) and major volcanic / kimberlite provinces of the Earth (stars).

Provinces and Sub-Provinces

Perfect octahedral diamond crystals from the central part of the Yakutian kimberlite province (Mir kimberlite, Russia), and opaque cubic diamonds from the Central African kimberlite sub-province (Mbuji Mayi, Zaire).

Diamonds from Mir pipe

Diamonds from Mbuji-Mayi

Geometry of Kimberlites
Part 2:

Kimberlite Provinces

Does the law of distribution of kimberlites (Southern Africa) exist?

Geomorphologic ring structures of the Earth

After: Dr. Gavrilov, Vladivostok, Russia, 1977

The Spiderweb: ring complexes of Southern Africa

Radiuses of rings of each ring complex create a mathematical progression. All major diamond mines are located inside the intersections of the rings.

Mbuji-Mayi kimberlite polygon

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 Mbuji-Mayi

Kimberley group of mines

Victoria Mine Good-Bad Hope Pole Mine May (Phoenix) Mine Gannavlakte Loxton's Dal Diamond Mine (7 cpht) Aaron's Prospect

Kamfersdam Mine (28 cpht) Secretaris Otto's Kopje Mine (5 cpht) De Beers Mine (80 cpht) Dutoitspan Mine (36 cpht) Speculatie Oliphant's Mine

Paardeberg Central Paardeberg East MK1(10 cpht)

Wimbledon Mine


Ekati and Diavik diamond mines

Wombat Boa Porpoise Dolphin Husky Sable (98 cpht) Hardy Lake Caribou Hardy Lake Kaska Don Finlay Falcon (28 cpht) Elk Hawk - Willy Black Spruce Zebra Grizzly Aaron Mustang Anne George Leslie (40 cpht) Fox (26 cpht) Jaeger Jay (201 cpht) Point Lake (56 cpht) Lynx (83 cpht) A-61 T-146

Rat Rufus Providence DI-02

A-44 A-25 A-27

A154-South (310 cpht) DD-42 EG-01 (Very Low) A10 DD-17 A-4 T-7N T-14 T-29 C13 C-49 C-27 DO-40 (Barren) DO-18 AD02


T-16 T-17




Shattered Glass structure:

Triple intersection (blue circle) is a mechanically weakest point for penetration of kimberlite magma and generation of diamonds


Simplified sketch of a combination of three ring/conical complexes (left). Red rhombs indicate the best areas for exploration for kimberlite diamonds (<10%).
Barren areas

Vertical cross-section of a single conical complex

Blind zone Diamondiferous areas

Out of scale

Center of tectonic magmatic activity

Selection of the best diamond exploration areas

(practical application of the Spiderweb)

Four exploration polygons within NWT, Canada, indicate location of the deep fault (black broken line)

Ring complexes of the African continent

Sahara Plate

Taudeni Plate Richat Ring Structure

West-African Shield Niger-Ahaggar Shield Central African Shield

Tanzania: Az. =

West Congolese Mobile Belt

Angola: Az=

Malagarasi Plate Somali-Mozambique Shield

Congo Plate Kasai-Angola Shield

Okawango Plate Mitoumba - Damara Fold Belt

Namibia: Az.= N.E. 50

Rhodesi-Transvaal Shield
RSA: Az= E.S.E.97

Bushmen Shield Cape Fold Belt

Karoo-Kalahari Plate

Green Zone - for kimberlites with Diamond Grade between 10 - 30 cpht

Center of each ring complex is located on the border between major tectonic elements of the continent. Tectonic map after Trofimov V.S.

Eye of Africa Richat structure, Mauritania possible center of the conical complex

The structure has a diameter of almost 50 kilometres (30 miles). Satellite image. NASA

Ring structure, Jebel Uwaynat, Sudan / Egypt / Libya the next possible center

Satellite image. NASA

Geometry of Kimberlites
Part 3

Kimberlite Clusters

Distribution of diamond grade on the Earth

Northern Ontario, Canada.

Diamond Potential
High > 30 cpht Moderate 10-30 cpht Low < 10 cpht

Kimberlites with different diamond grade

NWT, Canada

LS-2 Point Lake



A154-North A-2 A162 A418 A12 A11 A10

A21 C42


Depth slice at 111 km of the 3-D resistivity model of the Slave craton.


Kimberlite diamond grade

Gibeon province, Namibia
Hatzium Dome Anis Kubub

Gibeon Reserve 1 Gibeon Townlands 3 Kaitzub & Kaudus 1 Diamantkop 1 Docheib Koherab Grundorner Floche Amalia 1 Deutsche Erde 1 Achterfontein 1 Dickdorn

Goab 1

After J.M. Batumike et al, 2008

Geometry of Kimberlites
Part 4

Geochemistry of kimberlites

Garnet Geochemical Chart

Depth: Pressure and Temperature Majorites Ign. ECL Megacrysts Metas. ECL

Purple garnets

Orange garnets

Red Mantle crust border garnets X


A two-D projection of the nine-dimensional space

Geochemical chart for pyropes

Field 1. G > 30

Field 2. G = 10-30

Field 3. G < 10
Kimberlite pipes from the pink field on the map are located within the pink field (1) of the geochemical chart. Green field on the map corresponds with green field (2) of this chart. Blue field (3) with blue

Geometry of Kimberlites
Part 5

Mathematical calculations of kimberlite diamond grade

Significance of the Correct Diamond Grade Data

(Some historical quotations) 1) The Tli Kwi Cho (DO-27) fiasco: The Northern Miner. 10/26/1998 2) Tli Kwi Cho diamond pipe was discovered in 1993 and bulk sampled in 1994. Based on limited disclosures the market developed high expectations that were shattered when the bulk sample results were released. Overnight nearly a billion dollars in market capitalization evaporated as investors abandoned diamond companies. Angry investors claiming that the analyst and his clients had an unfair advantage. John Kaiser, July 10, 2001. 3) Well known grade disasters like Tli Kwi Cho, Torrie, Torngat and Wawa: Kaiser Express 2002-04, The Northern Miner March 22, 2002 4) Kennecotts NWT, Tli Kwi Cho failure causes large sell-off of diamond stocks.: James Dartnell, Anatomy of a stock market winner, 2003. 5) The bulk sampling of the DO-27 pipe in 1994 did not produce the anticipated high grades, led to a catastrophic Canadian junior stock market crash and abandonment of the project: Coopersmith, H., Pell, J., and Scott Smith, B., 2006.

Evolution of Geological Models

Why these numbers are so different? Why these numbers are so close?


Marsfontein South Africa

Udachnaya Russia

Estimated Diamond Grade (feasibility study) (cpht) 335 308 242 Randgold Explor. 7th IKC S.Collingridge Press Release Small Mines Wordsmith 1998 1998 1999 120 100 Miller, P. Diamonds First Strike Yorkton Sec., 1995 Diamonds Inc.
100 Moon, C.J. 2006 15 Grizzly Diamonds 2007

Recovered Grade 148.58 Southernera Ann. Report 2000 60 Eberle, J.M. 2003
63.88 Generic Template Diamonds of Africa 36.33 DBCM Report 2009

Calculated Grade 149.44 200 PYR 5 ECL-1 7 ECL-3 65.99 216 PYR

Kimberley Big Hole South Africa

64.23 241 PYR

Finsch South Africa

80 49.30 before 1995 1995 Porter Geoconsultancy

43.99 Petra Diamonds

38.61 73 PYR

Victor Canada

DO-27 Canada

10 23 38 30.22 Winzar, DJ, P.Gregory Worldwide De Beers Report 2001 Report Diam.Update 2008 2004 2004 1.3 1 3689.88 L.Rombouts Boxer, G.L.1994 Peregrine Diamonds 1994 Microdiamonds 2005

No Data

41.53 136 PYR

No Data

71.42 58 PYR

Notes for the previous slide

There is a principal question for the feasibility study results:

Why this feasibility study produced different data for the same kimberlite? Who is guilty for this, who is wrong?

1. Feasibility study was conducted by perfectly trained professionals with B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D, P.Geo, P.Eng, P.Geol diplomas. Each of them is a QA/QC and Qualified Person
2. They did their job in complete accordance with all rules and regulations which described by the National Instrument NI43-101. 3. Nobody is guilty, nobody is wrong. The System is wrong.

Predicted Grade ~ Mining Data

# 1 2 3 Kimberlite [reference] Marsfontein,M-1 Klipspringer Kimberley Big Hole [43] Country, region S. Africa S. Africa S. Africa Predicted grade (cpht) 149.44 44.20 64.23 Final mining data, (cpht) = 148.58 = = 42.00 63.80 [4] [5] [6]

4 5
6 7 8 9 10 11

Finsch Roberts Victor

Catoca Camafuca K-14 Mir Aikhal Udachnaya

[34] [47]
[40] [7] [14] [40] [37] [15]

S. Africa S. Africa
Angola Angola Canada Russia Russia Russia

38.61 132.99
57.14 6.72 12.46 96.93 91.01 65.99


[33] [8]
[64, 65] [68] [26] [40] [66] [16]

> 100.00
= = ~ 58.00 5.84 12.00

~ 100.00

100.00 60.00

13 14

Sytykanskaya Lomonosova

[15] [38]

Russia Russia

66.79 75.85

~ =

60.00 70.00

[17] [27]


Garnet Lake






~ 100

Triple-check of results:
Diamond grade (in cpht) must coincide with geographical location of kimberlite and also with its location on the geochemical chart

Geochemical chart for pyropes

Field 1. G > 30

Diamond Potential
High > 30 cpht Moderate 10-30 cpht Low < 10 cpht

Field 2. G = 10-30 Field 3. G < 10

Kimberlite pipes from the red field on the map are located within the red field (1) of the geochemical chart. Green field on the map corresponds with green field (2) of this chart. Blue fields (3) the same

Victor kimberlite (G > 30 cpht) is located within pink rectangle on topographic map (left) and also within pink area on geochemical chart (right)

About the Author

Igor Kryvoshlyk joined SouthernEra Resources Limited in May 1995 as a mineralogist During more than 10 year period with SouthernEra, Igor spent most of his time doing microscope examinationHis sorting of various kimberlitic minerals was always meticulously done, despite this being a painstaking task

Igor is the only person I have known in all my years of kimberlite exploration, who is able to distinguish, with a high degree of certainty, optically and before probe analysis, between kimberlitic and non kimberlitic chromites and ilmenites. Similarly, he has an uncanny ability to distinguish eclogitic garnets from other, similar coloured garnets
During his stay with us, Igor spent a lot of time collecting data for a huge database of kimberlitic mineral electron probe analyses. He spent a lot of time building research models from this data for the prediction of the location of kimberlites and predicting economic viability and even prediction of the grade of kimberlites from his mineral database Igor has a lively and enquiring mind and I had many interesting discussions with him, where he was often prepared to buck conventional wisdom and propose new and sometimes radical ideas. An attribute I greatly admire Dr. Christopher Mark Hubert Jennings. Chairman and former President and CEO SouthernEra Diamonds Inc. January 4, 2006.

About the Author

Igor Kryvoshlyk obtained his M.Sci diploma in 1972 (Mineralogy, Petrology)

from Lviv State University, Lviv, Ukraine, for petrological investigations of volcanic rocks of Central Kamchatka, Russia, and Ph.D. diploma from

Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia in 1983 (Petrology, Volcanology)

for petrological investigations of kimberlite rocks of Yakutia, Russia.

Contact: phone 647-710-8514 E-mail ikryvoa481@rogers.com

1. Dear Igor Kryvoshlyk, My name is Bram Janse As many other diamond exploration geologists I have been struggling to understand the worldwide distribution of diamondiferous kimberlites and constructed maps with many photo lineaments, circles, zones, etc. but never achieved a satisfactory result I was impressed by your spiderweb especially the construction of polygons to define favourable areas within a field I like your garnet diagram. It does achieve a clear separation of eclogitic garnets which has always been a sore point With sincere regards, Bram Janse. (Bram is a distinguished geologist and chartered engineer internationally recognized for his expertise and long-term association with the diamond exploration industry. His experience spans more than 45 years of mineral exploration, specializing in diamond exploration on all continents .) Paramount Mining Corporation Ltd (618) 93285600 Ph (618) 93284430 FAX Sun, March 15, 2009 3:41:43 AM

2. Dear Igor, Many thanks for your prompt response. Your attached paper made fascinating reading interesting research indeed. Regards, John Dr. John Ward, Group Mineral Resource Manager Namakwa Diamonds Management Services (Pty) Ltd Member of the Diamond Dealers Club South Africa 209 SA Diamond Centre, 225 Main Street Johannesburg, 2001 (P. O. Box 2680 , Excom, 2023) Tel: +27 11 334-8886 Fax: +27 11 334-8885 Mobile: +27 79 491 7578 Sent: Thu, June 3, 2010 4:53:22 PM Subject: RE: Kimberlite Diamond Exploration

3. Hi Igor, Just to say thank you very much more making the time to meet with me In New York yesterday. Your ideas and model are very interesting Regards Graham Wheelock Gem Diamonds Wed., September 2, 2009, 5:48:52 AM

Thank you