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Copyright 2008, Dr. Stephen Bayne.


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GOLD CASTING ALLOYS

Stephen C. Bayne
University of Michigan School of Dentistry Ann Arbor, Michigan sbayne@umich.edu

INDIRECT RESTORATIONS
Overview of Errors
* **

Impressions Models/Casts Waxing Investing Casting Finishing/Polishing Cementing

ERRORS: 0.1 to 0.2% * ----------+1.5 to 1.7% ** -1.5 to 1.7% -----** ------

**

**

**

Calculation of ideal permissible error: 2 x 25 m / 10,000 m = 0.5%


*Image source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008 **Image source: Undetermined

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
0. Fabrication requirements vs final properties:

1. Physical Properties: a. Reasonably low MP (flow)


b. Moderately high density (castability)
Platinum Gold Palladium Silver Copper = 12.45 gms/cm3 = 18.88 = 12.02 = 10.50 = 8.96 Cobalt Nickel Iron Chromium = 8.90 = 8.90 = 7.87 = 7.17

c.

Low coefficient of thermal expansion ()


Tooth PFM alloys Gold alloys = 9-11 ppm/C = 14 = 18 Amalgam = 25 Composite = 35-45

2. Chemical Properties: a. Chemical corrosion (tarnish) resistance b. Electrochemical corrosion resistance c. Solubility (solderability)

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
(continued)
3. Mechanical Properties: a. High E (stiffness) b. Moderately high YS and H (resistance to plastic deformation) c. Hardenable by heat treatment (retention of polish) x x
STRESS
Yield Strength (or Hardness)

Modulus (Stiffness, Slope of Line)

STRAIN 4. Biological Properties: a. Biocompatible: no toxic soluble phases b. Non-reactive in the oral environment
Graph source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008

REVIEW OF CORROSION
1.
2.

Types: Chemical Corrosion, Electrochemical Corrosion


Requirements for Electrochemical Corrosion: Anode, Cathode, Circuit, Electrolyte

Images source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008

3.

Electrochemical Corrosion Categories: a. Galvanic Corrosion (macro-galvanic) b. Local Galvanic Corrosion (structure-selective corrosion) c. Concentration Cell Corrosion (crevice corrosion) d. Stress Corrosion

CLASSIFICATION OF ALLOYS
1. Full Gold Crown and Bridge Alloys (based on precious metals)
a. ADA Classification System (see phase diagrams) (1) Type I 83% Au+ (Non-heat hardenable) -- inlay (2) Type II 78% Au+ (Non-heat hardenable) -- inlay, onlay, (3) Type III 78% Au+ (Heat hardenable) -- onlay, crown (4) Type IV 75% Au+ (Heat hardenable) -- crown, bridge Effects of Alloys Components: (1) Gold (Au) Corrosion resistance (2) Copper (Cu) Hardness (3) Silver (Ag) Counteract orange color of copper (4) Palladium (Pd) Increase MP and hardness (5) Platinum (Pt) Increase MP (6) Zinc (Zn) Prevent oxidation during melting (O2 getter)

b.

TERMINOLOGY
1. Precious Metal = containing metals of high economic value such as gold, platinum, palladium, silver, (rhodium), (iridium), (rhuthenium), and (osmium). Noble Metal = a precious metal that is resistant to tarnish. This excludes silver by definition. Low Gold Alloys = Alloys containing <75% gold (less than 50 a/o gold) which means that gold atoms represent less than every other atom. Gold-substitute Alloys = precious metal alloys not containing gold. Base-Metal Alloys = alloys not containing precious metals to impart their corrosion resistance.

2.

3.

4. 5.

Low Gold Alloys

High Gold Alloys

WEIGHT PERCENT GOLD 1100


10 20 30 40 50 60 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

1000
900 800 TEMPERATURE ( C ) 700 600 500 400 300

LIQUIDUS SOLIDUS

DENTAL ALLOYS Random Solid Solution

200
100 0 CU 10 20

Ordered Solid Solution

Graph source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100 AU

ATOMIC PERCENT GOLD

AU-AG-CU Tenary Phase Diagram


20 25 30

AU
5 10 15 Type I Type II Type III

Type IVI

T
40 45 50

35

+
Graph source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008

AG

CU

COMMERCIAL EXAMPLES

Graph source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008

PROCESSING CYCLES
CAST GOLD ALLOYS Tm 890C

Trt TIME
Alloy LCTE = 16-18 ppm/C

Graph source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008

alloy

CASTING PROBLEMS
for Gold Alloys
A. Distortion:
1. Margins: Probability highest in thinner portions of pattern. a. Wax Deformation: improper removal or handling of pattern. b. Premature Quenching: wait until button loses red color. c. Investment Expansion/Contraction:

b
c

Image source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008

CASTING PROBLEMS
for Gold Alloys
B. Surface Irregularities: 1. Fine Surface Roughness: Inherent particle size of investment a. High W/P ratio increases surface roughness. b. Low W/P ratio decreases investment adaptation or flow. c. Prolonged burnout encourages investment decomposition. d. Overheating alloy encourages investment decomposition. e. Overheating alloy encourages reaction with investment. Surface Defects: a. Nodules: air bubbles trapped on the pattern during investing. (Use surfactant; paint pattern; vacuum invest; vibrate) b. Ridges or Veins: poor wetting causing water films on pattern. (Use surfactant; vacuum invest; vibrate investment carefully). Gross Surface Defects: a. Fins: cracked investment (from overheating)
ALLOY Surface roughness INVESTMENT Nodules Ridges or veins Fins
Image source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008

2.

3.

CASTING PROBLEMS
for Gold Alloys
C. Incomplete Castings: 1. Internal Porosity: due to improper solidification. a. Improper Spruing: Diameter too small or too long. b. Low Temperature: Investment or metal too cold. c. Included Gases: Contaminated gold or oxidized old gold. d. Occluded Gases: Improper burnout of pattern. Incomplete External Shape: a. Insufficient casting pressure. b. Excessive back pressure from investment. c. Suck back into sprue.
Internal porosity

2.

Gas bubble Incomplete margin

Image source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008