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or conveying of information is called Communication. Data communications system depends on four fundamental characteristics; 1. Delivery 2. Accuracy 3. Timeliness 4. Jitter


system must deliver data to the correct destination. Accuracy:-The system must deliver the data accurately. Timeliness:-The system must deliver data in a timely manner. Jitter:- Jitter refers to the variation in the packet arrival time.

Components of Data Communication

Message Sender Receiver Transmission medium Protocol

Data Representation

today comes in different forms such as text, numbers, images, audio, and video.

Data Flow

Communication between two devices can be simplex, half-duplex, or fullduplex.

Simplex:- The communication is unidirectional, as on a one-way street. Only one of the two devices on a link can transmit. Half-Duplex:- Each station can transmit and receive, but not at the same time. When one device is sending, the other can only receive, and vice versa. Full-Duplex:- Both stations can transmit and receive data simultaneously. The fullduplex mode is like a two way street with traffic flowing in both directions at the


A network is a set of devices (often referred to as nodes) connected by communication links.

Physical Topology
Mesh: In a mesh topology, every device has a dedicated point-to-point link to every other device.

Star Topology:

In a star topology, each device has a dedicated point-to-point link only to a central controller, usually called a hub.

Bus Topology:

bus topology, on the other hand, is multipoint. One long cable acts as a backbone to link all the devices in a network.

Ring Topology:

In a ring topology, each device has a dedicated point-to-point connection with only the two devices on either side of it.

Hybrid Topology :

Network Models
Computer networks are created by different entities. The two best-known standards are the OSI model and the Internet model.

Categories of Networks
Local Area Network A local area network (LAN) is usually privately owned and links the devices in a single office, building, or campus

Wide Area Network

A wide area network (WAN) provides longdistance transmission of data, image, audio, and video information over large geographic areas that may comprise a country, a continent, or even the whole world.

Metropolitan Area Networks

A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network with a size between a LAN and a WAN. It normally covers the area inside a town or a city.

Global Area Networks

A network that composed of different interconnected computer network which covers the geographical area is called GAN. GAN operates from 1.5Mbps to 100Gbps over thousands of miles.


was first introduced in the late 1970s. Open system is a set of protocols that allows any two different systems to communicate regardless of their underlying architecture. The OSI model is not a protocol; it is a model for understanding and designing a network architecture that is flexible, robust, and interoperable. It consists of seven separate layers with each having its own function.


Peer-to-Peer Processes


The physical layer coordinates the functions required to carry a bit stream over a physical medium

Physical characteristics of interfaces and medium. Representation of bits. Data rate. Synchronization of bits. Line configuration. Physical topology. Transmission mode.

Data Link Layer


makes the physical layer appear error-free to the upper layer (network layer).

Responsibilities of the data link layer Framing. Physical addressing. Flow control. Error control. Access control.

Network Layer

The network layer is responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of a packet, possibly across multiple networks. Whereas the data link layer oversees the delivery of the packet between two systems on the same network.

Responsibilities of the network layer

Logical addressing. -The physical addressing implemented by the data link layer handles the addressing problem locally. Routing. -When independent networks or links are connected to create inter networks (network of networks) or a large network, the connecting devices (called routers or switches) route or switch the packets to their final destination.

Transport Layer

The transport layer is responsible for process-to-process delivery of the entire message.

Responsibilities of the transport layer

Service-point addressing. Segmentation and reassembly. Connection control. Flow control. Error control.

Session Layer

It establishes, maintains, and synchronizes the interaction among communicating systems.

Responsibilities of the Session layer

Dialog control. Synchronization.

Presentation Layer

The presentation layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information exchanged between two systems.

Responsibilities of the Presentation layer

Translation. Encryption. Compression.

Application Layer
The application layer enables the user, whether human or software, to access the network. It provides user interfaces and support for services such as electronic mail, remote file access and transfer, shared database management, and other types of distributed information services.

Responsibilities of the Application layer

Network virtual terminal. File transfer, access, and management. Mail services. Directory services.

Comparison of Protocol TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE

The TCPIIP protocol suite was developed prior to the OSI model.

Physical and Data Link Layers

At the physical and data link layers, TCPIIP does not define any specific protocol. It supports all the standard and proprietary protocols. A network in a TCPIIP internetwork can be a local-area network or a wide-area network.

Network Layer
At the network layer (or, more accurately, the internetwork layer), TCP/IP supports the Internetworking Protocol. IP, in turn, uses four supporting protocols: ARP, RARP, ICMP, and IGMP.

Transport Layer
Traditionally the transport layer was represented in TCP/IP by two protocols: TCP and UDP. The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a process-to-process protocol that adds only port addresses, checksum error control, and length information to the data from the upper layer. The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) provides full transport-layer services to applications.

Application Layer

The application layer in TCPIIP is equivalent to the combined session, presentation, and application layers in the OSI model.


Four levels of addresses are used in an internet employing the TCP/IP protocols: physical (link) addresses, logical (IP) addresses, port addresses, and specific addresses

Relationship of layers and addresses in TCPIIP

Physical Addresses
The physical address, also known as the link address, is the address of a node as defined by its LAN or WAN. It is included in the frame used by the data link layer. It is the lowest-level address.

Logical Addresses
Logical addresses are necessary for universal communications that are independent of underlying physical networks. Physical addresses are not adequate in an internetwork environment where different networks can have different address formats.

Port Addresses
The IP address and the physical address are necessary for a quantity of data to travel from a source to the destination host. However, arrival at the destination host is not the final objective of data communications on the Internet. A port address in TCPIIP is 16 bits in length.

Specific Addresses
Some applications have user-friendly addresses that are designed for that specific address. Examples include the e-mail address and Universal Resource Locator

Transmission media are actually located below the physical layer and are directly controlled by the physical layer. You could say that transmission media belong to layer zero. In telecommunications, transmission media can be divided into two broad categories: guided and unguided. Guided media include twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable. Unguided medium is free space.

Twisted-Pair Cable
A twisted pair consists of two conductors (normally copper), each with its own plastic insulation, twisted together. One of the wires is used to carry signals to the receiver, and the other is used only as a ground reference. The receiver uses the difference between the two.

Unshielded Versus Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable

The most common twisted-pair cable used in communications is referred to as unshielded twisted-pair

Coaxial Cable

Coaxial cable (or coax) carries signals of higher frequency ranges than those in twisted pair cable, in part because the two media are constructed quite differently. Instead of having two wires, coax has a central core conductor of solid or stranded wire (usually copper) enclosed in an insulating sheath.

Fiber-Optic Cable
A fiber-optic cable is made of glass or plastic and transmits signals in the form of light. Total internal Reflection.


Unguided media transport electromagnetic waves without using a physical conductor. This type of communication is often referred to as wireless communication.

Electromagnetic spectrum for wireless communication

Types of Wireless system

RADIO waves -Ground wave -Sky wave Microwaves -Cellular Communication -Ultra High Frequency Communication -Satellite Communication Infrared

Radio Wave


A network is a set of connected devices. Whenever we have multiple devices, we have the problem of how to connect them to make one-to-one communication possible. A better solution is switching. A switched network consists of a series of interlinked nodes, called switches.

Figure shows a switched network

Taxonomy of switched networks


A circuit-switched network is made of a set of switches connected by physical links, in which each link is divided into n channels.

In data communications, we need to send messages from one end system to another. If the message is going to pass through a packet-switched network, it needs to be divided into packets of fixed or variable size. The allocation is done on a first come, firstserved basis. When a switch receives a packet, no matter what is the source or destination, the packet must wait if there are other packets being processed.

In this example, all four packets (or datagrams) belong to the same message, but may travel different paths to reach their destination.


A virtual-circuit network is a cross between a circuit-switched network and a datagram network. It has some characteristics of both.

Data Transmission
Telephone networks were originally created to provide voice communication. The need to communicate digital data resulted in the invention of the dial-up modem. With the advent of the Internet came the need for high-speed downloading and uploading. The telephone companies added a new technology, the digital subscriber line (DSL).

Traditional telephone lines can carry frequencies between 300 and 3300 Hz, giving them a bandwidth of 3000 Hz. In general, we can say that the signal bandwidth must be smaller than the cable bandwidth. The effective bandwidth of a telephone line being used for data transmission is 2400 Hz, covering the range from 600 to 3000 Hz.

Modem stands for modulator/ demodulator A modulator creates a bandpass analog signal from binary data. A demodulator recovers the binary data from the modulated signal.


DSL is developed to provide higher-speed access to the Internet. DSL technology is a set of technologies, each differing in the first letter (ADSL, VDSL, HDSL, and SDSL). The set is often referred to as xDSL, where x can be replaced by A, V, H, or S.