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Chapter 8

PSYCHOSOCIAL
DEVELOPMENT
The
Developing
Self
Self Concept
Itis our total image of
ourselves. It is what we
believe about who we are-
our total picture of our
abilities and traits.
Cognitive
Construction
A system of descriptive and evaluative
representations about self.
Social Aspect of the
Self

Children
incorporate into
their self-image
their growing
understanding of
how others see
Self
Definition
 Thecluster of characteristics by
which children describe
themselves.
3 steps in the age 5 to 7
shift

 Singlepresentations- First stage in


development of self- in which
children describe themselves in
terms of individual, unconnected
characteristics in All-or-nothing
terms
 Real Self- The self one actually is.
 Ideal Self- The self one would like to
be.
 Representational Mappings- A child
makes logical connections between
aspects of the self but still sees thes
characteristics in All-or-nothing terms.
 Representational Systems- Children begin
to integrate specific features of the self
into a general, multidimensional concept.
Cultural Differences
 Parents subtly transmit, through
everyday conversations cultural ideas
and beliefs of how to define the self.
 Filipino: Dependent, Family Oriented,
Humble, Down to earth.
 Americans: Independent, Career
Oriented, High self-esteem and Self-
expression.
Self -esteem

Thejudgment a person
makes about his or her
self- worth.
Intruments used in
Measuring 5 years old’s
self- presentations
 Harter self- Perception profile for
children(ISPPC).
 The puppet interview
 Contingent self- esteem- If self- esteem is
contingent on success, children may view
failure or crirtismas an indictment of
their worth and may feel helpless to do
better.
 Emotions- May be positive or
negative. Positive emotions include
happiness, pride and other feelings
that excite ones emotion,
 Negative Emotions include fear,
anger, and sadness.
 Emotions toward the self
 Simultaneous Emotions
Erickson: Initiative
versus guilt
 conflictarises from the growing sense of
purpose, which spurs a child to plan and
carry out activities, and the growing
pangs of conscience the child may have
about such plans. It marks a split
between two parts of the personality.
The part trhat remains a child and the
part that becomes an adult.
 Virtue of Paradise: The courage to
envision and pursue goals without being
unduly inhibited by guilt or fear of
punishment
Gender

Significanceof being a
male or female.
Gender identity

 Is a person’s own sense of identification


as male or female.
Gender Difference

 Isa distinction of biological


and/or psychological
characteristics typically
associated with either males or
females of a species in general.
Gender Role

 Refers
to the attitudes and
behaviors that a class a
person’s stereotypical identity.
Gender Typing

 Processwhereby children at an early age


learn appropriate gender roles.
Gender Stereotypes
 Are
preconceived generalizations
about male or female role behavior.
Identification
 Theprocess by which a young child
adopts characteristics, beliefs, attitudes,
values, and behavior of the parent of the
same sex.
Gender Constancy
 Awareness that one will always be male
or female.
 Gender Identity- Awareness
developed in early childhood that
one is male or female.
 Gender Stability- comes when a girl
realizes that she will grow up to be a
woman, and a boy that will grow up
to be a man.
 Gender Consistency- The realization
that a girl remains girl remains girl
even if she wear pants and has a
short hair and boys remains boy
even if he has a long hair cut and
earrings.
Biological Approaches
 Key processes: Genetic, neurological, and
hormonal activity
 Basic Beliefs: Most of behavioral
differences between the sexes can be
traced to biological differences.
Psychoanalytic Approach
Psychosexual Theory

 Major Theorists: Sigmund Freud


 Key Processes: Resolution of unconscious
emotional conflict
 Basic Beliefs: Gender Identity occurs
when child identities with the same sex
parent.
Cognitive Approach
Cognitive-developmental
theory

 Major Theorists: Lawrence Kolhberg


 Key Processes: Self – Categorization
 Basic Beliefs: Once a child learns she is
agirl or he is a boy, child sorts
information about behavior by gender
and acts accordingly.
Gender Schema Theory
 Major Theorists: Sandra Bem, Carol Lynn
Martin & Charles F. Halverson
 Key Processes: Self –Categorization
based on processing of cultural
information
 Basic Beliefs: Child organizes information
about what is considered appropriate for
a boy or a girl on basis of what a
particular culture dictates and behaves
accordingly. Child aorts by gender
because the culture dictates that gender
is an important schema.
Play
 Isthe work of the young and it
contributes to all domains of
development.
 Through play, children stimulate the
senses, learn how to use their muscles,
coordinate sight with movement, gain
mastery over their bodies and require a
new skills.
Cognitive Levels of Play
Functional Play
 Play
involving repetitive
muscular movements
Constructive Play
 Play
involving with the use of objects or
materials to make something.
Pretend Play

 Playinvolving imaginary people or


situations; also called fantasy play,
dramatic play or imaginative play
Parten’s Categories
of Social and
nonsocial play
Unoccupied Behavior

 Thechild does not seem to


be playing but watches
anything of momentary
interest.
Onlooker behavior
 The child spends most of the time
watching other children play.
 The onlooker talks to them, asking
questions or making suggestions,
but does not enter into play.
 Definitely observing particular
groups of children rather than
anything happens to be exciting.
Solitary Independent
Play
 Thechild plays alone with the toys that
are different from those used by
nearby children and makes no effort to
get close to them.
Parallel Play
 The child plays independently but
among the other children, playing with
toys like those used by the other
children but not necessarily playing
with them in he same way.
 Playing beside rather than with the
others, the parallel player does not try
to influence the other children’s play.
Associative Play
 The child play with the other children.
They talk about their play, borrow and
lend toys, follow one another, and try to
control who may play in the group.
 All children play similarly if not
identically; there is no division of labor
and no organization around any goal.
 Each child acts as she or he wishes and is
interested ,ore in being with the other
children than in the activity itself.
Cooperative or Organized
Supplementary Play

 The child plays in a group


organized for some goal- to make
something, play a formal game, or
dramatize a situation.
 One or two children control who
belongs to the group and direct
activities. By a division of labor,
children take on different roles
and supplement each other’s
efforts.
How Gender Influences
Play
 Gender differences in children’s
play provide practice for adult
behaviors important for
reproduction and survival.
 Boys rough-and-tumble plays
mirror adult males competition for
dominance and status. While girls
“playing house” prepares them to
care for the young.
 Most of the time boys and girls play
differently. Most boys like active,
forceful play in large groups while
girls are inclined to a quieter, more
harmonious play with only one
playmate.
 But when boys and girls play
together, they usually play with
“masculine toys” or the male’s toys
such cars, trucks and blocks because
boy’s play references are more
stereotyped than girls.
Parenting

 theprocess of raising and


educating a from birth, or
before, until adulthood.
Forms Of
Discipline
*Reinforcement and
Punishment*

 Parents sometimes punish children to


stop undesirable behavior, but children
usually learn more from being reinforced
for good behavior.
Corporal
punishment

 “theuse of physical force


with the intention of causing
a child to experience pain,
but not injury, for the
purpose of correction or
control of the child’s
behavior”.
Power Assertion,
Induction, and
Withdrawal of Love
 Lookingat the reinforcement and
punishment alone mat be an
oversimplification of how parents
influence behavior.
Power Assertion

 Disciplinary
strategy designed
to discourage undesirable
behavior through physical or
verbal enforcement of parental
control.
Inductive
Techniques

 Aredesigned to encourage
desirable behavior (or
discourage undesirable
behavior) by reasoning with a
child.
Withdrawal of Love

 May include ignoring, isolating,


or showing dislike for a child.
Psychological
Aggression
 Verbal
attacks that may result in
psychological harm.
Authoritarian Parents

 In
Baumrind’s terminology,
parenting style emphasizing
control and obedience.
Permissive
Parents

 In
Baumrind’s terminology,
parenting style emphasizing self-
expression and self-regulation.
Authorative Parents
 InBaumrind’s terminology.
Parenting style blending respects
for a child’s individuality with an
effort to instill social values.
Cultural Differences in
Parenting Style

 Baumrind’s categories reflect the


dominant North American view of
child development and may be
misleading when applied to some
cultures or socioeconomic groups.
Promoting Altruism and
Dealing with Aggression
and Fearfulness
Prosocial Behavior
 Anyvoluntary behavior intended
to help others.
Altruism
 Behavior intended to help others
out of inner concern and without
expectation of external reward;
may involve self-denial or self-
sacrifice.
Instrumental
Aggression
 Aggressive
behavior used as
means of achieving a goal.
Hostile Aggression
 Aggressivebehavior intended to
hurt another person.
Overt Aggression
 Aggression that is openly
directed at its target.
Relational Aggression
 Aggression aimed at
damaging of interfering with
another person’s relationship,
reputation, or psychological
well-being; also called covert
or indirect aggression.
Relationship with
other children
Self-efficiency
 Children’sgrowing sense of
Capability to master challenges
and achieve their goals.
Sibling Rivalry
 Is not the main pattern between
brothers and sisters early in life. It
exist as well and affection,
interests, companionship and
influence.
The Only Child
 These children do better because
their parent spend more time and
focus more attention on them.
Playmates and Friends
 Atabout age 3, children begin
to have friends; they learn that
being a friend is the way to
have a friend.
Features of
Friendship
 Doing things together
 Liking and caring for each other
 Sharing and helping one another
 Leaving nearby or going to the same
school.
The end