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Chapter 1

Introduction to the Semiconductor Industry

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology


by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

2001by Prentice Hall

Objectives
After studying the material in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Describe the current economic state and the technical roots of the semiconductor industry. 2. Explain what is an integrated circuit (IC) and list the five circuit integration eras. 3. Describe a wafer, including how it is layered and describe the essential aspects of the five stages of wafer fabrication. 4. State and discuss the three major trends associated with improvement in wafer fabrication. 5. Explain what is a critical dimension (CD) and how Moores law predicts future wafer fabrication improvement. 6. Describe the different eras of electronics since the invention of the transistor up to modern wafer fabrication. 7. Discuss different career paths in the semiconductor industry.
Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

2001by Prentice Hall

Microprocessor Chips

Photo courtesy of Advanced Micro Devices

Photo courtesy of Intel Corporation


Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Photo 1.1

2001by Prentice Hall

Development of an Industry Industry Roots


Vacuum Tubes Radio Communications Mechanical Tabulators Inventors Disadvantages

The Solid State


Solid State Physics The First Transistor Benefits
Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

2001by Prentice Hall

Vacuum Tubes

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology


by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Photo 1.2

2001by Prentice Hall

The Semiconductor Industry


INFRASTRUCTURE Industry Standards (SIA, SEMI, NIST, etc.) Production Tools Utilities Materials & Chemicals Metrology Tools Analytical Laboratories Technical Workforce Colleges & Universities PRODUCT APPLICATIONS Consumers: Computers Automotive Aerospace Medical other industries Customer Service Original Equipment Manufacturers Printed Circuit Board Industry

Chip Manufacturer

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology


by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Figure 1.1

2001by Prentice Hall

The First Transistor from Bell Labs

Photo courtesy of Lucent Technologies Bell Labs Innovations Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Photo 1.3

2001by Prentice Hall

The First Planar Transistor

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology


by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Figure 1.2

2001by Prentice Hall

Circuit Integration Integrated Circuits (IC)


Microchips, chips Inventors Benefits of ICs

Integration Eras
From SSI to ULSI 1960 - 2000

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology


by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

2001by Prentice Hall

Jack Kilbys First Integrated Circuit

Photo courtesy of Texas Instruments, Inc.


Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Photo 1.4

2001by Prentice Hall

Top View of Wafer with Chips


A single integrated circuit, also known as a die, chip, and microchip

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology


by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Figure 1.3

2001by Prentice Hall

Circuit Integration of Semiconductors


Semiconductor Industry Time Period Prior to 1960 Early 1960s 1960s to Early 1970s Early 1970s to Late 1970s Late 1970s to Late 1980s 1990s to present Number of Components per Chip 1 2 to 50 50 to 5,000 5,000 to 100,000 100,000 to 1,000,000 > 1,000,000

Circuit Integration No integration (discrete components) Small scale integration (SSI) Medium scale integration (MSI) Large scale integration (LSI) Very large scale integration (VLSI) Ultra large scale integration (ULSI)

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology


by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Table 1.1

2001by Prentice Hall

ULSI Chip

Photo courtesy of Intel Corporation, Pentium III


Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Photo 1.5

2001by Prentice Hall

IC Fabrication Silicon
Wafer Wafer Sizes Devices and Layers

Wafer Fab Stages of IC Fabrication



Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Wafer preparation Wafer fabrication Wafer test/sort Assembly and packaging Final test
2001by Prentice Hall

Evolution of Wafer Size

2000

1992 1987
1981
1975

1965

50 mm 100 mm 125 mm

150 mm

200 mm

300 mm

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology


by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Figure 1.4

2001by Prentice Hall

Devices and Layers from a Silicon Chip


Top protective layer Metal layer Insulation layers Conductive layer

drain

Recessed conductive layer

Silicon substrate

Silicon substrate
Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Figure 1.5

2001by Prentice Hall

Stages of IC Fabrication

1.

Wafer Preparation includes crystal growing, rounding, slicing and polishing. Wafer Fabrication includes cleaning, layering, patterning, etching and doping.

Single crystal silicon

4.

Assembly and Packaging: The wafer is cut along scribe lines to separate each die. Metal connections are made and the chip is encapsulated.
Scribe line A single die Assembly Packaging

Wafers sliced from ingot

2.

3.

Test/Sort includes probing, testing and sorting of each die on the wafer.

Defective die

5.

Final Test ensures IC passes electrical and environmental testing.

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology


by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Figure 1.6

2001by Prentice Hall

Preparation of Silicon Wafers


Polysilicon Seed crystal Crucible

6. Edge Rounding

1. Crystal Growth

Heater

7. Lapping 2. Single Crystal Ingot

8. Wafer Etching 3. Crystal Trimming and Diameter Grind


Slurry Polishing head

9. Polishong 4. Flat Grinding


Polishing table

5. Wafer Slicing

10. Wafer Inspection

(Note: Terms in Figure 1.7 are explained in Chapter 4.)


Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Figure 1.7

2001by Prentice Hall

Wafer Fab

Photo courtesy of Advanced Micro Devices-Dresden, S. Doering


Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Photo 1.6

2001by Prentice Hall

Sample of Microchip Packaging

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology


by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Figure 1.8

2001by Prentice Hall

Semiconductor Trends

Increase in Chip Performance


Critical Dimension (CD) Components per Chip Moores Law Power Consumption

Increase in Chip Reliability Reduction in Chip Price

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology


by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

2001by Prentice Hall

Critical Dimension
Common IC Features
Line Width Contact Hole Space

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology


by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Figure 1.9

2001by Prentice Hall

Past and Future Technology Nodes for Device Critical Dimension (CD)

1988 CD ( m) 1.0

1992 0.5

1995 0.35

1997 0.25

1999 0.18

2001 0.15

2002 0.13

2005 0.10

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology


by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Table 1.2

2001by Prentice Hall

Increase in Total Transistors/Chip


1600 Microprocessor Total Transistors in Millions 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200

1997 1999

2001 2003 2006 2009 Year

2012

Redrawn from Semiconductor Industry Association, The National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 1997. Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Figure 1.10

2001by Prentice Hall

Moores Law for Microprocessors


The number of transistors on a chip double every 18 months.
100M 500
Pentium Pentium Pro

10M
Transistors
80486

1M
80386 80286 8086

25

100K

1.0

10K
8080 4004

.1

1975

1980

1985 Year

1990

1995

.01 2000

Used with permission from Proceedings of the IEEE, January, 1998, 1998 IEEE Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Figure 1.11

2001by Prentice Hall

Size Comparison of Early and Modern Semiconductors

1990s Microchip (5~25 million transistors) 1960s Transistor

U.S. coin, 10 cents

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology


by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Figure 1.12

2001by Prentice Hall

Reduction in Chip Power Consumption per IC


10 Average Power in micro Watts (10-6 W) 8

0 1997 1999 2001 2003 Year Redrawn from Semiconductor Industry Association, National Technology Roadmap, 1997
Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

2006

2009

2012

Figure 1.13

2001by Prentice Hall

Reliability Improvement of Chips


700 600

Long-Term Failure Rate Goals in parts per million (PPM)

500 400 300

200 100 0 1972

1976

1980

1984

1988

1992

1996

2000

Year
Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Figure 1.14

2001by Prentice Hall

Price Decrease of Semiconductor Chips


104 102 1 Relative value 10-2 10-4 10-6
ULSI Electron tubes Standard tube Miniature tube Bipolar transistor Integrated circuits MSI LSI VLSI Semiconductor devices Device size = Price =

10-8

1930 10-10

1940

1950

1960 Year

1970

1980

1990

2000

Redrawn from C. Chang & S. Sze, McGraw-Hill, ULSI Technology, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996), xxiii. Figure 1.15 Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology 2001by Prentice Hall
by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

The Electronic Era

1950s: Transistor Technology 1960s: Process Technology 1970s: Competition 1980s: Automation 1990s: Volume Production

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology


by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

2001by Prentice Hall

Start-Up Cost of Wafer Fabs


$100,000,000,000 Actual Costs Projected Costs $10,000,000,000

Cost

$1,000,000,000

$100,000,000

$10,000,000

1970

1980

1990

2000 Year

2010

2020

Used with permission from Proceedings of IEEE, January, 1998 1998 IEEE Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Figure 1.16

2001by Prentice Hall

Career Paths in the Semiconductor Industry


Fab Manager Maintenance Manager Maintenance Supervisor Equipment Engineer Production Manager Engineering Manager Process Engineer Associate Engineer MS

Production Supervisor

BS BSET*

Equipment Technician Maintenance Technician Manufacturing Technician

Yield & Failure Analysis Technician Process Technician Lab Technician

AS+ AS HS +

Wafer Fab Technician Production Operator


* Bachelor of Science in Electronics Technology

HS Education

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology


by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Figure 1.17

2001by Prentice Hall

Productivity Measurements in a Wafer Fab


Misprocessing
Photo Production Bay
12

Ion Implant Production Bay Scrap

Diffusion Production Bay Production Equipment

Rework
9 6 3

Production Equipment

Inspection

Cycle Time per Operation


Time In Time Out

Production Equipment

Inspection

Inspection

Wafer Starts
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 26 27 28 29 30 31

Wafer Moves

Wafer Outs
1 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 30 31

Production Equipment

Inspection

Production Equipment

Inspection

Production Equipment

Inspection

Etch Production Bay

Thin Films Production Bay

Metallization Production Bay

Production Cycle Time = (Date and Time of Wafer Start) - (Date and Time of Wafer Out) Wafer Outs = Wafer Starts - Wafers Scrapped Operator Efficiency = Theoretical Cycle Time / Actual Cycle Time

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology


by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Figure 1.18

2001by Prentice Hall

Equipment Technician in a Wafer Fab

Photograph courtesy of Advanced Micro Devices


Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Photo 1.7

2001by Prentice Hall

Technician in Wafer Fab

Photo courtesy of Advanced Micro Devices


Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

Photo 1.8

2001by Prentice Hall

Review Chapter 1

Summary Key Terms Review Questions Selected Industry Web Sites References

19 19 20 20 20

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology


by Michael Quirk and Julian Serda

2001by Prentice Hall